CHAPTER 2

CELL AS THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE (sel sebagai unit asas hidupan)

CELLS
What is a cell? ‡ A cell is the basic unit of all living things (sel ialah unit asas bagi benda hidup) ‡ The cell structures can be observed by using a microscope. ‡ Plant cells and animal cells differ in their shapes and functions. ‡ Its function is to carry out life processes. ‡ Its size is too small to be seen with the naked eye.

microscope
‡ Show microscope

How to use a microscope correctly
1)Turn the low power objective lens until it is directly above the hole in the stage 2)Look through the eyepiece.Adjust the mirror so that enough light enters the microscope. 3)Place the slide on the stage and hold it in place with the clip.

4) Look at the side of the microscope.Turn the coarse focus knob clockwise to move the body tube down until it almost touches the slide. 5)Look into microscope. Turn the coarse focus knob anticlockwise to move the body tube up until the specimen can be seen clearly. 6)Turn the fine focus knob clockwise until the specimen can be clearly seen.

Plant cells (sel tumbuhan)

Animal cell (sel haiwan)

The function of cell structures
Cell structure (struktur sel) Nucleus (nukleus) Cytoplasm (sitoplasma) Function ( fungsi) Controls all the cell activities Mengawal semua aktiviti sel -Place where chemical processes occur (tempat dimana proses kimia berlaku)

Cell membrane (membran sel)

Cell wall ( dinding sel) Vacuoles (vakuol)

Control the movement of substance in and out of the cell. (mengawal pergerakan keluar dan masuk bahan-bahan dari sel) Maintains the shape of the cell (mengekalkan bentuk sel) Contains cell sap with dissolved mineral. (mengandungi sap sel dgn garam mineral terlarut) Stores water and dissolved minerals Contains green pigments called chlorophyll that absorbs light for photosynthesis. (mengandungi pigmen hijau yg dipanggil klorofil yg menyerap cahaya utk fotosintesis)

Chloroplast (kloroplas)

TEST YOURSELF.
1. Below are some structure of cells
Cell wall Vacuole cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm chloroplast

(a) Which structures are present in animal cells? (b) Which structures are present in plant cells? (c) Which structures are present in both animal cells and plant cells.

2. Which component of a cell controls its overall activities? 3. Describe the functions of each of the following. (a) cell membrane (b) cell wall (c) chloroplast

Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms
1) Unicellular organism consists of only one cell. (organisma unisel adalah benda hidup yg terdiri drpd satu sel shj) 2) Example : Amoeba , paramecium, Euglena 3) Amoeba can change its shape 4) Euglena and chlamydomonas can make its own food because it has chloroplast.

5) Live in watery places or wet areas (hidup di kawasan berair atau lembap)

Multicellular organism
1. Multicellular organism consists of many cells. (organisma multisel adalah benda hidup yg terdiri drpd byk sel) 2. Example : hydra, spirogyra

m/s 47 spirogyra consists of many cells joined together. These cells form
long filaments or threads. The cells in the filaments are of the same size

Hydra

Spirogyra

Mucor

CELL ORGANISATION IN THE HUMAN BODY
The organisation of the human cell are as follows : Organisasi sel manusia adalah seperti berikut: CELL TISSUE ORGAN SYSTEM ORGANISM

TYPE OF CELL (JENIS SEL)
1. Red blood cell (sel darah merah) ‡ Function : transports oxygen throughout the body (angkut oksigen dlm badan)

2. Muscle cell (sel otot) ‡ Function : to allow movements of the body (pergerakan badan)

3. White blood cell (sel darah putih) ‡ Function : destroys bacteria (musnahkan bakteria) (melindungi badan drp serangan mikroorganisma)

4. Epithelial cells (sel epitelium) ‡ Function : cover and protect the body surfaces (menutup & melindungi permukaan badan)

5. Nerve cell (sel saraf) ‡ Function : carries information in our body

6. Bone cells (sel tulang)
Function : protect and support the body (melindungi & menyokong badan)

7. Reproductive cells (sperm / ovum) (sel pembiakan) ‡ Function : produce offspring (menghasilkan anak)

TISSUE
‡ Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function. (tisu ialah sekumpulan sel yang sama yang menjalankan fungsi yang sama)

ORGAN
1. A few different types of tissues group together to form an organ (e.g organ - the small intestine : muscle tissue and epithelial tissue) (beberapa jenis tisu bergabung utk membtk organ , cth usus kecil) 2. Example organs in human body: heart,eyes,ears,lungs,liver,skin,kidneys, reproductive organs

THERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF HUMAN ORGANS AS SHOWN BELOW

BRAIN EYE EAR NOSE SKIN

LUNG

HEART

LIVER

STOMACH INTESTINE

APPENDIX

SYSTEM
‡ A group of organs working together to perform a specific function (e.g digestive system) (sekumpulan organ yg berfungsi bersama utk mjalankan fungsi yg khusus cthnya sistem pencernaan)

system Respiratory system Sistem pernafasan

Organ forming a Function system Nose, trache , lungs , diaphragm (hidung , trakea, peparu, diafragma) Heart , blood vessels (jantung , salur darah) ‡ supplies oxygen to the body (membekalkan oksigen kpd badan) ‡Removes carbon dioxide from the body (membuang karbon diokida drp badan) ‡ carries oxygen and digested food throughout the body (membawa oksigen & makanan tercerna ke seluruh badan) ‡Removes wastes from the cells (membuang bahan buangan drp sel-sel)

Blood circulatory system (sistem peredaran darah)

Digestive system Sistem pencernaa n

Skeletal system Sistem rangka

Mouth,oesopha gus, stomach, pancreas, intertines Mulut, esofagus, perut, pankreas, usus Bones, skull Tulang, tengkorak

Digest and absorbs food (mencernakan & menyerap makanan) Eliminates solid wastes (menyingkirkan sisa buangan pepejal) Supports the body (menyokong badan) Protect the internal organs (melindungi organ-organ dalaman)

SYSTEM AND ITS FUNCTIONS

Digests food and absorb nutrient

Muscular system
Enables body movement (membolehkan pergerakan badan)

Skeletal system
‡
‡

1)supports the body

‡ 2) protect the internal organs

1)Supplies oxygen to the body 2)removes carbon dioxide from the body

1)Transport oxygen and digested food to the body 2)removes wastes from the cells

1)Detects and sends information in the body

Excretory system
Removes wastes from the body

Reproductive system
‡ Produces offsprings

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
1)Body defense 2) Remove bacteria from the tissue

Coordination of body activities , such as digestion and metabolism

organism
Made up of several systems that work together (e.g the human being) (Terdiri drp beberapa sistem yg berfungsi bersama cthnya manusia)

The organisation ..
‡ Cell Tissue organ system organism

Humans are complex organisms?
1. The human body is made up of billions of cells badan manusia terdiri drpd berjuta-juta sel. 2. A human being is a complex organism. manusia adalah organisma yg kompleks

3. Human being is a complex organism because it has different types of cells, tissues, organs and systems that coordinate well. manusia ialah organisma kompleks kerana mempunyai pelbagai jenis sel, tisu, organ dan sistem yang tersusun dgn baik

Questions (1)

(2) What is structure P?

(3) A plant cell has a definite shape because
A) B) C) D) It has a cell wall It can make food It has a large vacuole Its cell membrane is hard

4) Which of the following structures makes a plant cell different from an animal cell?
A) B) C) D) Nucleus Cell wall Cytoplasm protoplasm

5) Which of the following is NOT a unicellular organism?
A) B) C) D) Chlamydomonas Amoeba Euglena Hydra

6) Diagram shows a living organism

The organism is A)A paramecium B)An amoeba C)A hydra D)A yeast

7) Diagram shows a plant cell.

Among structures A, B , C or D, which is responsible for producing food?

8) Diagram shows one type of tissues in the human body.

The tissue is A)Epithelial tissue B)Nerve tissue C)Connective tissue D)Muscle tissue

9) Name the cells

10) Name the organisms.

11) Name the labelled L?

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