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Imp points

y

precedence of operators:

y Parenthesis y Not y And y Or

y Literal ² primed or unprimed variable y Sop prime corresponds to 0 and unprime corresponds to 1.

**Karnaugh Map- Introduction
**

y 2-Level Logic implementation using SOP or POS is not the

**most economical in terms of #gates & #inputs y A Karnaugh map is a graphical representation of a truth table
**

y The map contains one cell for each possible minterm y Adjacent cells differ in only one literal; i.e. x (or x·) y Function is plotted by placing 1 in cells corresponding to

minterms y Put 0 in rest of the cells

Two- variable map

Three- variable map

1. Any two adjacent squares in the map differ by only one variable which is primed in one square and unprimed in other 2. Any two minterms in the adjacent squares can be Ored together to remove the different variable e.g. take sum of m5 and m7

Example

y Simplify the Boolean function

F=x·yz+x·yz·+xy·z·+xy·z y Mark 1 in each square of corresponding minterm of the function y Next step is to form groups of marked adjacent squares

1 1 1

1

y Take sum of minterms forming a group. y m4+m5 = xy·z·+xy·z = xy·(z+z·) = xy· y m3+m2 = x·yz+x·yz· = x·y(z+z·) = x·y y So the minimized Boolean function is y F= xy·+x·y

Example

y Simplify the Boolean function y F=x·yz + xy·z·+ xyz+ xyz·

Group of adjacent squares is valid if no of adjacent squares represents power of 2

Example

Example

y Simplify the Boolean function y F=A·C+A·B+AB·C+BC y Here some terms have a missing variable. In that case we will find squares which

correspond to that term and in this way mark more than one square.

Simplified function is

Example

Four Variable map

Example

Simplified function is

Example

Five variable map

Example

Six variable map

**Products of sums simplification
**

y The 1·s placed in the squares of the map represent the y y y y

minterms of the function F. We know complement F· of the function F includes those minterms that are not mentioned in the function. This means that F· can be represented marking those squares with 0 which are not marked as 1. If we combine the 0 marked in adjacent square then we can get simplified F·. Taking complement of F· gives us simplified products of sums.

Example

Example

y Last example show simplification of product of sums when sum of minterms is given. y But we can also do the simplification direct if we are given product of maxterms.

**Don·t care conditions
**

y Sometimes not all the values of the function are defined

y Some input combinations never occurred y We don·t care what output is for that input condition

y Such don·t care conditions are marked as X in the map. y We assume X to be either 0 or 1, whichever simplifies the

function. y Example

y y y y

A circuit to produce output 1 if a BCD digit is multiple of 3 BCD ² Four inputs (wxyz) 0 (0000) 9 (1001) Values of wxyz 10 (1010) 15 (1111) don·t care The function F8 = (3,6,9) +d(10,11,12,13,14,15)

Example

**Can you obtain the simplified product of sums using the previous map?
**

y State the simplified POS function.

**Tabulation (Quine-McClusky) Method
**

y The map method of simplification is convenient if # of

variables 4 y Tabulation method is preferred for function with large # of variables y Tabulation method consists of grouping of minterms and systematically checking for single bit differences

**Determination of prime implicants
**

y The starting point is to list all the minterms of the function. y Prime implicants are determined by an exhaustive search

y Place minterms in different Sections according to # of 1·s in

their binary representation y Each member of each Section is compared with each member of Sections below; y All reduction are recorded in next column y Mark terms that combine y All unmarked terms are prime implicants

Example

Example

**NAND and NOR implementations
**

y In digital logic families NAND & NOR implementations are

**cheaper compared to AND & OR implementations
**

y Hence, NAND & NOR are preferred

**y NAND and NOR are universal gates
**

y Can mimic any logic gate y Example, NAND gate can implement: y NOT y AND y OR

short inputs ((xy)·)· (x·y·)· = x +y

y Similarly for NOR gate, one can show its universality

NAND ² 2 level implementation

NAND ² 2 level implementation

NAND ² 2 level implementation Procedure

NOR- implementation

- DLD lecture 4
- DLD lecture 6
- DLD lecture 5
- DLD Lecture 2
- DLD lecture 7
- Chapter 04
- Boelean Expressions
- Devicesadderdecoderencodermultiplexerdemultiplexer
- Digital And Logic Design No. 3 (Logic Circuits) from APCOMS
- DLD Lecture 1
- DIGITALLOGICDESIGNNO1BooleanAlgebraLogicGates
- DigitalAndLogicDesignNo2kmapandqueenmaclarenmethod
- Digital Logic Design No Counters and Registers
- Digital And Logic Devices No.5 (DLD Basic Devices(Basic Flip Flop (Sequential Circuit)) From APCOMS

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