INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY

Espiridion R. Reyes, MD, FPOA Consultant, Dept. of Orthopaedics Davao Medical Center

History of Anatomy I. II. III. IV. V.

Ancient Medieval to Early Modern 17th and 18th Century th Century 19 Modern Century

Ancient Anatomy
A.

Egypt- 1600Egypt- 1600-1550 BCE
Edwin Smith Papyrus (1600 BCE) 


Body organs recognized Blood vessels came from the heart Two to the right ear carry the µ breath of life¶ Two to the left ear carry the µ breath of death¶

Ebers Papyrus (1550 BCE) 


Treatise on the heart The heart is the meeting point of vessels which carried all fluids of the body eg. Blood, tears, urine, and sperm

Ancient Anatomy
B.

Greece Hippocrates- (460Hippocrates- (460-377 BCE) 
 

earliest medical scientist basic understanding of musculoskeletal structure relied on speculation rather than empirical observation

AristotleAristotle- 4th century BCE
more empirically founded system Dissection of animals

Late 4th century BCE
first use of human cadavers (Herophilos and Erasistratus of Alexandra)

Ancient Anatomy
C. Galen Major Anatomist in 2nd century
wrote anatomic textbook for 1500 years based on drawings of dog anatomy assumed that anatomic structures in dogs were the same as humans

Medieval to Early Modern Anatomy
Heavy contributions came from the Arabs Taboos against handling corpses Challenges to Galen in 16th century happened because of printing press
Mondino de Luizzi Allessandro Achilin VesaliusVesalius- first to publish a treatise, De humani corporis fabrica ³ drawing for drawing´ need to travel to several places to dissect victims from gallows

De humani corporis fabrica

17th and 18th Century Anatomy
Popularity of anatomist= quality of drawing talents No need to be an expert in Latin
Michelangelo Rembrandt
Michelangelo

Church reprimands dissection of human cadavers Anatomist had to be certified: ³ Royal Anatomist´
Nicholas Tulp

Dissections were sponsored by councilors and charged admission fees
Rembrandt

Students have to travel to dissect fresh cadavers: Italy became center of anatomy
MR Columbus Gabriel Fallopio Giovanni Ingrassias

Tulp

Creation of Man by Michelangelo

Dr. Nicholas Tulp by Rembrandt

19th Century
Human Anatomy is finalized and systematized Role of England Demands for cadavers grew so great that body snatching and murder were rampant
‡ Anatomy act of 1832 was enacted to provide adequate and legitimate supply of corpses ‡ Birth of Gray¶s Anatomy textbook

Histology and Developmental Biology

Modern Anatomy
Development of evolutionary and molecular biology More technological developments
MRI CTCT-SCANS

WHAT IS ANATOMY ?

Basic Clinical

WHAT IS ANATOMY ?

Structure

Function

Basic Anatomy

Clinical Anatomy

DESCRIPTIVE ANATOMIC TERMS

Terms related to position Terms related to movement

TERMS RELATED TO POSITION

The Anatomic position

PLANES

Relationship between structures

TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT

BASIC STRUCTURES
Skin Fascia Blood Lymphatic System Serous Membranes Nervous System Mucous Membranes

BASIC STRUCTURE: THE SKIN

Facts about the skin:
The skin is the body's largest organ, covering the entire body. In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also: ‡regulates body temperature ‡stores water and fat ‡is a sensory organ ‡prevents water loss ‡prevents entry of bacteria

Epidermis
The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin which consists of the following three parts:
‡stratum corneum (horny layer) This layer consists of fully mature keratinocytes which contain fibrous proteins (keratins). The outermost layer is continuously shed. The stratum corneum prevents the entry of most foreign substances as well as the loss of fluid from the body. ‡keratinocytes (squamous cells) This layer, just beneath the stratum corneum, contains living keratinocytes (squamous cells), which mature and form the stratum corneum. ‡basal layer
The basal layer is the deepest layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells. Basal cells continually divide, forming new keratinocytes, replacing the old ones that are shed from the skin's surface.

Dermis
The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:

‡blood vessels ‡lymph vessels ‡hair follicles ‡sweat glands

‡collagen bundles ‡fibroblasts ‡nerves

The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. This layer also contains pain and touch receptors

Subcutis
The subcutis is the deepest layer of skin. The subcutis, consisting of a network of collagen and fat cells, helps conserve the body's heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a "shock absorber."

LINES OF CLEAVAGE

SKIN CREASES

Langer Lines

SKIN APPENDAGES
Nails Hair Follicles
Sebaceous

Glands
Sweat

HAIRS
are distributed over whole surface of the body, EXCEPT:
± Lips ± Palms of the hands ± Sides of the fingers ± Glans penis ± Clitoris, labia minora, & inner surface of labia majora ± Soles & sides of feet & toes

SWEAT GLANDS
found all over body surface, except:
± red margins of lips ± nail beds ± glans penis & clitoris

acne

carbuncle

keloid

His name is Shridhar Chillal and he is the Guinness Book of World Records holder for the longest finger nails ever. How long? The longest nail on his left hand (the only hand he grew the nails on) was over 4 1/2 feet long before he cut it. He spent over 50 years growing them before he finally called it quits recently. At what price? How about a permanently disfigured left hand, constant pain in his wrist and shoulders from the added weight, and permanent widespread nerve damage from not using his left hand that has caused him to go completely deaf in his right ear.

BASIC STRUCTURE: FASCIAE

SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
has no adipose tissues in the ff:
± Eyelids ± Ear auricle ± Penis & scrotum ± clitoris

Acute anterior compartment syndrome

BASIC STRUCTURE: BURSAE

Bursitis of the elbow

Basic Structure
Blood vessels
± Artery ± Vein ± Capillary ± Arteriole ± Venule ± Sinusoid

BASIC STRUCTURE: BLOOD VESSELS

BASIC STRUCTURE: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Lymphatic tissues

Lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic Tissues
Thymus Lymph nodes Spleen Lymphatic Nodes

Lymphatic Vessels
help the CVS remove tissue fluid blood a drainage system not a circulation

Lymphatic Vessels
Where found? In all tissues and organs EXCEPT CNS eyeball internal ear epidermis cartilage bone

Lymphatic Flow
® jugular vein ® lymphatic duct large lymph vessels efferent vessels subclavian vein thoracic duct

lymph node afferent vessels capillaries

BASIC STRUCTURE: MUCOUS MEMBRANES

AREAS OF SINUSITIS

Basic Structure
Serous membrane

BASIC STRUCTURES
Muscles Bones Joints Ligaments Cartilage Bursae Synovial Sheaths

BASIC STRUCTURE: MUSCLES

For adults only

BASIC STRUCTURE: MUSCLES
Skeletal

Types

Smooth Cardiac

SMOOTH MUSCLE
‡ Long , spindleshaped ‡ In body tubes ‡ Role in peristalsis

CARDIAC MUSCLE

‡ Striated ‡ Conducting system

PARTS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
Belly Tendon Aponeurosis

Raphe

ORIGIN VS. INSERTION

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
Epimysium Perimysium Endomysium

Myofibril

FORMS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES

Pennate Parallel Arrangement

SKELETAL MUSCLE TONE AND ACTION

Motor unit Muscle tone

Parts

Motor Unit

How Do Skeletal Muscles Work?
Prime mover Antagonist Fixator Synergist

Prime Mover - Antagonist

Fixator
Synergist

NERVE SUPPLY OF SKELETAL MUSCLES

How Do Skeletal Muscles Get Their Names? Shape Size Number of Bellies and Heads Position Depth Attachment Actions

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

1. Rigid supporting framework

2. Protective

3. Levers for muscles

Femur Fractures
Gluteal muscles Iliopsoas leads to flexion of the proximal fragment

Adductor muscles shorten the femur

These muscle forces must be overcome to reduce and intramedullary nail the femur

4. Bone Marrow-Blood cell production

5. Storehouse of Calcium and Phosphorus

BASIC STRUCTURE: BONE
Exist In 2 Forms Compact Cancellous

BONE
Components Organic Inorganic

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid

Regional Classification of Bones

Surface Markings
Elevations :
Linear : Line Ridge Crest Round: Tubercle Tuberosity Malleolus Sharp: Sharp: Spine Styloid Process Trochanter

Depressions
Pit /Fovea Notch /Incisura Groove /sulcus Foramen Canal/Meatus

Facets Articular, Head, Condyles, Trochlea

SURFACE MARKINGS

Table 1-3

Suture
Nasal Spine
Orbital Foramen Coronoid Process

Iliac Fossa Pubic Tubercle Ischial Tuberosity

Femoral Head Greater Trochanter

Supracondylar Ridge Femoral Condyle Medial Malleolus

HOW DOES BONE DEVELOP?

Membranous Cartilage

osteomyelitis

BASIC STRUCTURE: CARTILAGE
Hyaline Fibrocartilage Elastic Cartilage

Bones and Joints
Scope of Arthrology
Arthroses (Joints)

Synarthroses (Solid Joints)

Diarthroses (Cavitated Joints) Synovial Joints

Fibrous ‡Sutures ‡Syndesmosis

Cartilaginous
Primary ‡ Epiphyseal Plate
‡ Sternocostal

Secondary
‡Intervertebral Disc ‡Symphysis

BASIC STRUCTURE: JOINTS
Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
10

2o

TYPES OF JOINTS

PARTS OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

PICS

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Ellipsoid Saddle Ball & Socket

NERVE SUPPLY OF JOINTS
HILTON·S LAW

BASIC STRUCTURE: LIGAMENTS

WHAT MAKES JOINTS STABLE?

Fig. 1-17

EFFECTS OF SEX, RACES, AGE ON STRUCTURE

Larger Larynx

MALE
Taller Longer legs Bigger Bones Less Fats Bigger body

Longer Vocal Cord Beard & pubic hair

Wider Pelvis

FEMALE
Shorter Smaller bones Less muscle bulk More fats

Matures earlier Larger Breast

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