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Change management: moving from good intentions to good results

Wednesday, January 21, 2009 Gary Vansuch

What was advertised




All of us desire to see improvement in our lives and in our society. In our workplaces, the pace of change is accelerating. This can often bring about major enhancements to our lives. Many changes, from email to cell phones, from employee empowerment to Lean Six Sigma, have altered our workplaces dramatically, and forever. Managing change, and managing it well, is becoming one of the most critical competencies for any organization. And yet, while many organizations are increasingly exposing their employees to change, they are not teaching their managers, Project managers and teams how to effectively manage the "people" side of change. We all have good intentions for managing change well, but sometimes our results fall short. This session will discuss why change management needs to be a key competency for you and YOUR organization, and will share some tips regarding how to improve the practice of change management in your work.

What was advertised (shorter version)


I have good intentions I think I am doing things to help people through change BUT -- our changes dont always work well, and our people complain about how the changes impact them I dont understand why? What can I do about it?
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Todays Discussion
   

Lets diagnose this Do some introspection Discuss Some ideas wont necessarily have all of the right answers And, develop action plans for ourselves to move from Good Intentions to Good Results

Takeaways
  

Key points you agree with Key points you dont What are YOU going to do

Customer pledge

Lets start!

A question for you: What is Change management?

Another question for you: Have your change management efforts worked as well as you wanted?

Managing change: people


8. My organization is good at managing the people side of change initiatives.
40% 30%

36% 20% 24% 8% 2%


ongly Di ag ee Di ag ee Neu al g ee ongly g ee Don' Know & N/A

20% 10% 0%

10%

Almost 1/2 disagreed

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People Readiness for change


For corporate process improvement involving systems investments:

28% are abandoned 41% come in behind schedule and/or over budget 80% are NOT used in the way they were intended, or NOT USED AT ALL, 6 months after completion of installation
-- Gartner Group, 2003

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Here is what I believe change management is:

The process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome(s)

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Have our good intentions for change management addressed this?

The process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome

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Do our good intentions for change management address this?


Look carefully at the last part

The process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome

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Or, do our good intentions for change management look more like this?


   

A email memo about the change, from the project team (or maybe, from a senior executive) A bulletin board about the project or the change A website about the project or the change Another email Some quick training

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and, is this approach successful?




   

A email memo about the change, from the project team (or maybe, from a senior executive) A bulletin board about the project or the change A website about the project or the change Another email Some quick training

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Change management is not:

Managing the technical side of change  Just communication plans




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Summary of Key Points


Key point 1: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that effective change management is more than just a few pieces of communication Key point 2: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we (the changers) may be living in the future state, while everyone else (the changees) is living in the present Key point 3: To move beyond good intentions, effective change management MUST be focused on helping individuals change Key point 4: Individual change is a process Key point 5: To move beyond good intentions, we need to select and use the tools available to us Key point 6: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved and engaged in the right ways Key point 7: Begin with end in mind. Measure the right things for this change, at the organizational level and the individual level

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Key point 1: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that effective change management is more than just a few pieces of communication

Change management is the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome
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Benchmarking findings Causes of resistance




Employees:
1.

Managers:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ot aware of the business need for change Lay-offs were announced or feared Unsure if they had the skills needed for success in the future state Comfort with the current state Believed they were being asked to do more with less, or do more for the same pay

2.

3.

4.

5.

Loss of power and control Overloaded with current responsibilities Lacked awareness of the need for change Lacked the required skills Fear, uncertainty and doubt

Can mere communications address these?

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Key point 2: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we (the changers) may be living in the future state, while everyone else (the changees) are living in the present future

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Three Phases of Change: How people experience change

Current State

Transition State

Future State

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Current State


Employees (including management and executives!) generally prefer the current state, because that is where they live

Current State

Transition State

Future State

better the devil you know is better than the devil you dont
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Future State


The future state is unknown to the employee; will it be better, or worse? This is where Project teams live

Current State

Transition State

Future State

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Transition State


The transition state creates stress and anxiety

Current State

Transition State

Future State

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Key point 2, revisited: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we may be living in the future state, while everyone else is living in the present People will resist change, but not because they are being contrary

better the devil you know is better than the devil you dont
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Key point 3: Effective change management MUST be focused on helping individuals change

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Successful change addresses both the technical and the people side
Solution is designed, developed and delivered effectively (Technical side)
Future

Project management

Current

Transition

+
Solution is embraced, adopted and utilized effectively (People side) = CHANGE SUCCESS

Change management

Individual PEOPLE change, NOT organizations

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Individual change management it the Centerpiece of success


The secret to successful change lies beyond the visible and busy activities that surround change. Successful change, at its core, is rooted in something much simpler:

How to facilitate change with one person.


From ADKAR: a model for change by Jeff Hiatt

A D K A R

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Effective change management requires two perspectives


Individual perspective  How does one person makes a change successfully? Organizational perspective  What tools we** have to help individuals make changes successfully?

** we means project leaders and team members, HR, OD, training, communications, managers, supervisors

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The focus of Change management is on helping individuals make their own personal transition

Organizational The change to how we do business

Current

Transition

Future

Individual From: How I do my job today How I will do my job after the change is implemented

Current

Transition

Future

Current

Transition

Future

To:

Current

Transition

Future

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Key point 3, revisited: To move beyond good intentions, effective change management MUST be focused on helping individuals change

From an organizational perspective, we need to determine what we** can do to help individuals change

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Key point 4: Individual change is a process

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The five building blocks of successful individual change


Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement
of the need for change to participate and support the change on how to change to implement required skills and behaviors to sustain the change

ADKAR is the (relatively) easy-to-remember acronym

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ADKAR
    

Awareness of the need for change (why). Desire to support and participate in the change (our choice). Knowledge about how to change (the learning process). Ability to implement the change (turning knowledge into action). Reinforcement to sustain the change (celebrating success).

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The ADKAR Model


Awareness of the need for change.
The nature of the change. Why is the change happening? What is the risk of not changing?
Question: How do you get awareness to your employees?

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Employees have preferred senders of change messages


Top-level executives and senior leaders w en t e message pertains t t e business need f r c ange and alignment f t e c ange wit t e T rganizati n's erall directi n. Employees immediate supervisors f r messages t at pertain t t e individual impact res lting fr m t e c ange (disc ssing 'w at's in it f r me' wit eac empl ee).
E resident E ec ti e manager Seni r manager epartment ead e empl ee's s per is r

r ect team member r ect team leader team member t leader t r 3 ercent f resp ndents ers nal messages siness messages

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Communication checklist
Yes No Question: Have you identified all of the different audiences you need to communicate with throughout the organization? Have you identified who the ideal sender of communication messages will be? Have you identified what are the most effective channels of communication? Have you created mechanisms to enable two-way communication to take place?

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The ADKAR Model


Desire to support the change.
Personal motivation to support the change. Organizational drivers to support the change.
Question: How do you build the desire to support the change where you work?

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Coaching checklist
Yes No Question: Have you created the expectation that managers and supervisors will be coaches of their direct reports during change? Have you prepared coaches to communicate the whats in it for me messages to their direct reports? Have you provided the knowledge, training and tools to help supervisors be effective coaches? Have you taught your change coaches how identify and respond to resistance?

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Resistance checklist
Yes No Question: Have you proactively identified what resistance might look like (be specific)? Have you proactively identified where resistance is likely to come from (be specific)? Have you developed measures to prevent or mitigate resistance before it happens? Have you developed an approach to deal with resistance when it does occur?

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The ADKAR Model


Knowledge on how to change.
Understanding how to change. The details of what to do.

Question: How do you ensure your employees have the right knowledge?

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The ADKAR Model


Ability to implement new skills.
Demonstrated ability to implement the change.

Question: How do you ensure your employees are able to carry out the change?

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Evaluation: Kirkpatrick / Phillips method

Question: Where do you evaluate?

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The ADKAR Model


Reinforcement to sustain the change.
Recognition, rewards, incentives, realized benefits.

Question: How do you sustain the change (and prevent backsliding)?

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Reinforcement checklist
Yes No Question: Do you have systems in place to track the adoption and compliance of the new solution? Do you have a way to gather feedback from those who are being impacted by the change? Do you have mechanisms in place for diagnosing gaps and resistance? Have you prepared methods for celebrating successes (even small ones) during implementation?

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Not Everyone Changes at the Same Pace


Person A Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement Person B Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement

Person C

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person D

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person E

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person F

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person G

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person H

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Person I

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

Address the needs of each INDIVIDUAL

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Recommendation: Create a Change Management Profile for Each Employee


Employee Adam Beverly Charles Denise A 4 4 2 5 D 5 1 2 1 K 2 4 3 4 A 2 3 3 2 R 4 4 4 3 Notes/actions
Needs knowledge

Low desire

Questionable desire

Low desire

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Key point 4, revisited: Individual change is a process

From an organizational perspective, we need to determine what we** can do to help individuals

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Key point 5: To move beyond good intentions, we need to understand, select and use the tools available to us

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Some Key Change Management Tools


Communications Sponsor Roadmap Training
Readiness / Resistance Mgt.

These channels enable Effective change management

Coaching

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Mapping the tools to the personal change elements (ADKAR)

Communications

Awareness

These channels enable project team to facilitate organization through phases of ADKAR.

Sponsor Roadmap Training

Desire Knowledge Ability

Readiness / Resistance Mgt.

Coaching

Reinforcement

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Key point 5, revisited: To move beyond good intentions, we need to select and use the tools available to us

Use the right tools, in right place


Communications Sponsor Roadmap Training
Readiness / Resistance Mgt.

Coaching

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Who is this We

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Key point 6: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved and engaged in the right ways

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Change management requires a system of doers


Executives and senior managers Middle ers er d pervisors and supervisors

Change management resour e/team

Each gear plays a specific role based on how they are related to change
Project support functions

Project team

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Change management roles


Role
Change mgmt resource team

Ideal implementation
I develop the change management strategy and plans. I am an integral part of project success.

Executives and senior I launch (authorize and fund) changes. I sponsor change. managers Middle managers and front-line supervisors Project team Project support functions * Change management group, dept or office
I coach my direct reports through the changes that impact their day-to-day work. I manage the technical side of the change. I integrate change management into my project plans. I support different activities of the change management team and project team. We own the change management methodology and support its implementation in the organization.

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Current common reality that we need to move beyond


Role
Change mgmt resource team

Common implementation
I feel like Im on an island here people expect me to do everything and have all the answers.

Executives and senior I gave you funding and signed the charter now go make it happen! managers Middle managers and front-line supervisors Project team Project support functions * Change management group, dept or office
I feel like Im the direct target for some of these changes, and I wish I knew what was going on. My focus is just the technical side. Once I flip the switch, Im moving on to the next project. I get called in on projects and given one little task, but Im not sure how I fit in to the overall picture. I dont even exist yet.

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Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Executives and senior mgrs What is their role


1.

Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

2.

3.

Participate actively and visibly throughout the project Build a coalition of sponsorship and manage resistance Communicate directly with employees

Not just signing checks and project charters!


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Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Middle mgrs and supervisors Why are they important


They are close to the people who adopt the change  They play a role in all types of change in the organization They need to be trained to be successful


Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

Macro top-down changes


Executives and senior leaders

Middle managers and supervisors


Front-line employees

Micro daily changes


Executives and senior leaders

Middle managers and supervisors


Front-line employees

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Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Middle mgrs and supervisors What are their roles


Role 1 Communicator Role 2 Advocate Role 3 Coach Role 4 Liaison Role 5 Resistance manager

Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

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Drive the technical side of change


Design

solutions Develop solutions Deliver solutions


C rre t

Project

a age e t

ra

t on

t re

ha ge

a age e t

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Project tea

Cha ge ha a age e t re o rce/tea


Project team Why are they important

Project pport f ct on

Exec t ve a d e or a ager

M ddle a ager a d perv or

Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Project team What is their role


1. 2.

Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

Design the actual change Manage the technical side of the change

Charter, business case, schedule, resources, work breakdown structure, budget, etc.

3. 4.

Engage with CMgt team resource Integrate CMgt plans into project plan
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Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Change management resource/team

Project support functions




Project team

Project support functions

Examples
    

HR OD Training Communication SMEs

Bring specific experience, knowledge, tools and expertise to the project Sometimes act as the change mgmt resource Key pieces of the technical and people puzzles

 

 

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Mapping change management roles


1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Authorize and fund 2. Participate actively and visibly 3. Create coalition 4. Communicate directly Apply methodology Formulate strategy Develop plans Support other doers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Communicator Advocate Coach Liaison Resistance manager

Executive and enior anager

Middle anager and upervi or

Change anage ent re ource/tea

1. 2. 3. 4.

Design the change Manage technical side Engage with CM Integrate CM

Project tea

Project upport function

1. 2. 3. 4.

Experience Knowledge Tools Expertise

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Executives and senior managers

Middle managers and supervisors

Change management resource What is their role


Enable others
Help execs and senior leaders
Executives and senior managers Middle managers and supervisors Change management resource/team

Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

Effectively fulfill the role of sponsor of change Effectively coach their employees through transitions Make the bridge between implementing a solution and realizing benefits 66

Project team

Project support functions

Help managers and supervisors Help project teams

Employee-facing vs. enabling


Employee-facing roles
Executives and senior managers Middle anagers ers and supervisors

Enabling roles
Executives and senior managers Middle managers and supervisors

Change management resource/team

Change management resource/team

Project team

Project support functions

Project team

Project support functions

One-to-one interactions One-to-many interaction Observable behaviors

Creation and implementation of plans that are executed by the employee-facing roles
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Homework: Where is your group?


Role: Change mgmt resource team Executives and senior managers Middle managers and front-line supervisors Project team Who: Understanding: Effectiveness:

Who in the organization plays each role?

How well do they understand their role?

How effectively are they fulfilling their role?

Project support functions * Change mgmt group, dept or office

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Key point 6, revisited: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved in the right ways
Executives and senior anagers Middle anagers and supervisors

Change anage ent resource/tea

Project tea

Project support functions

Do you have the right people involved in the right way?


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How will you know if your change has been effective?

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Key point 7:

Begin with the end in mind.


-- Stephen R. Covey from The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.

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Begin with the end in mind.


-- Stephen R. Covey from The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.

and, measure your progress accordingly

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Two points of measurement: Organizational perspective




Outcome:


Organizational

Did the project deliver the intended results?

Current

Transiti n

Future

Process:


#s
Organizational

Was the project delivered on time and on budget? Were milestones met along the way?

Current

Transiti n

Future

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Two points of measurement: Individual perspective




Outcome:


Individual

Are employees doing their work the new way required by the project?

Current

Transition

Future

Process:
 

Individual
Current Transition Future

How well did employees make the transition? How well did we** support that transition?

A D K A R
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Framework for measurement


Organizational Individual

Process

Speed of adoption y Utilization rate y Proficiency


y

Individual change management:


-Awareness -Desire -Knowledge -Ability -Reinforcement

Outcome Business performance against objectives

Individual performance for each job role


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Framework for measurement


Organizational Individual
Individual change management: -Awareness -Desire -Knowledge -Ability -Reinforcement

Process

Speed of adoption y Utilization rate y Proficiency


y

Measured by group, function, and or location

Measure by assessment
Business performance against objectives, such as: Individual performance for each job role

Outcome

Financial Performance  Quality of product, service  Quality of worklife  Speed of implementation  Etc.


Performance towards objectives, as defined in personal objectives with immediate manager 76

Key point 7, revisited: Begin with end in mind. Measure the right things for this change, at the organizational level and the individual level

Change management is the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve the required business outcome
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Summary of Key Points: Revisited


Key point 1: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that effective change management is more than just a few pieces of communication Key point 2: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we (the changers) may be living in the future state, while everyone else (the changees) are living in the present Key point 3: To move beyond good intentions, effective change management MUST be focused on helping individuals change Key point 4: Individual change is a process Key point 5: To move beyond good intentions, we need to select and use the tools available to us Key point 6: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved and engaged in the right ways Key point 7: Begin with end in mind. Measure the right things for this change, at the organizational level and the individual level

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Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.
- Leo Tolstoy

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