Endodontic instruments

Materials 

Carbon steel Stainless steel Nickel titanium Titanium   

Advance by 5 units to size 60. . 2.ISO standardization (Ingle and Levine) 1. terminating at D2. (D1) and shall extend exactly 16 mm up the shaft. The diameter of D2 shall be 32/100 or 0. Representative of the diameter of the instrument in 100ths of a millimeter at the tip. Numbered from 10 to 100.32 mm greater than that of D1. Flutes shall begin at the tip. then by 10 units to size 100. 3.

MODIFICATIONS: D3 D16 .

Classification .

Grossman  Exploring instruments Instruments for debridement Shaping instruments Obturating instruments    .

ISO Grouping  Group I: hand use only Group II: engine-driven latch type Group III: engine-driven latch type Group IV: root canal points    .

Cohen      Hand instruments: those specific to endodontics Instruments for pulp space preparation Devices for root canal length measurements Instruments for root canal obturation Devices for removal of root canal obstructions .

ADA          Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type I : Reamers II : Files III : Hedstroem files IV : Rasps V : Broaches VI : Probes VII : Applicators VIII : Condensers IX : Spreaders .

Harty  For access cavity preparation    Basic instruments Burs Rubber dam  For root canal preparation   Hand instruments Power assisted root canal instruments .

 Electronic canal measuring system Measuring instruments. Instruments for retrieval of broken instruments and pastes.    Instruments for root canal filling . gauge and stands.

Hand instruments specific to endodontics DG 16 EXPLORER ENDODONTIC SPOON LOCKING PLIERS .

Burs for access cavity .

File Design .

Rake Angle  Negative rake angle  Positive rake angle .

Negative angle Positive angle .Cont..

« in rotary instruments .

.Core The core is the cylindrical center part of the file having its circumference outlined and bordered by the depth of the flutes.

Core taper .

.Flute depth also influences core diameter in the same series of files.

Tip design    Active Partially active Passive .

Taper  ISO 02  ISO 06 .

 Instrument mass Surface area of contact Radius of curvature   .Torque  Torque ± force producing rotation.

Instrument Failure  Torsional failure  Flexural fatigue When torque limit of the instrument is exceeded Arises from minute surface defects and occurs after cyclic fatigue .

.

ISO Group I 1904 .

Broaches    Barbed broaches Rasps Smooth broaches ± Pathfinder CS .

K reamer vs. file .

K file modifications K-Flex Flex-R .

Cont.. Golden Mediums Flexofile Flexicut .

58 .H-files: ADA Specification No.

H-file Modifications       Burns Unifile Dynatrak S-file Safety Hedstroem NT Sensor file (MAC file) A-file .

Unifile .

A-File Noncutting tip .

H-File A-File .

Safety Hedstroem Safe sided .

Apical Preparation Hand Instruments      Apical Reamers (Otani) Canal Master (Wildey and Senia) Canal Master ± U Flexogates Heliapical .

75 mm non-cutting head Blank shaft .Canal Master and Canal Master U  Wildey and Senia    1-2mm cutting head 0.

Flexogates  Hand modification of GG drills .

Heliapical   Apical 4-5mm length Blank shaft .

U-files ± Heath (1988)     Canal Master U Ultra-Flex NITIMAC Lightspeed. GT files . ProFiles.

Instruments for obturation  Spreaders  Pluggers .

Hand pluggers .

Lentulospirals .

Sotokawa¶s Classification of Instrument Damage .

ISO Group II and III 1912 .

Handpieces  Classification ± Ingle     Full rotary± latch/friction grip Reciprocating/Quarter turn Special ± vertical and reciprocating Sonic and Ultrasonic .

 Stock  Rotary Reciprocal Vertical Random    .

ledging and perforations Hand instrumentation necessary Apical packing of debris    Reduction in fatigue   Reduction in treatment time . Advantages   Disadvantages  Easy to use Saves time Transportation.

Rotary Contra-angle Handpieces   Straight line drilling Uses  To develop coronal access Prepare post space channels Widen the coronal two thirds of canal With ss instruments used in straight canals only    .

Reciprocating Handpieces  Giromatic ± quarter turn (90º)   Latch-type only 3000 turns/min .

Cont«  M4 Safety Handpiece (30º)   Latch and regular hand files 1500 rpm  Endo-Gripper (45º)   Regular hand files 10:1 reduction .

3-1 mm stroke Used with A-file Additional quarter turn reciprocal motion .Vertical Stroke Handpiece  Canal Finder ± Levy    0.

4-0.8mm 30º    Racer Intra-Endo 3LDSY Endolift .Cont«  Canal Leader   0.

5-2mm lateral motion 20.Random Movement  Excalibur    Random lateral motion only 1.000-30.000 rpm .

Engine driven instruments  Gates Glidden drills ± safe tip    Orifice opening Deeper penetration into straight canals Removal of lingual shoulder .

 Peeso reamers   Post space preparation Use safe-tipped to prevent lateral perforation .

1 to 6 .Availability ± Nos.

 Martin¶s Orifice Opener  More flexible 25-70  .

 McSpadden Engine files  NiTi instruments:  Sensor files ± redesigned H  NiTiXL Finishing file ± U ± style  NT Power file .

Gear Reduction Handpieces Green Band Spin burs at speeds lower than the motor speed  Ratios ranging from 8:1(1/8th motor speed) to 27:1 (1/27th motor speed) .

    Quantec ETM MicroMega 324 Aseptico New:     TriAuto ZX TCM ENDO Endo-Pro Electric Protorq .

Sonic Handpieces ± 2-3 kHz SONIC AIR OSCILLATIONS .

Sonic instruments RispiSonic ShaperSonic TrioSonic    .

Ultrasonic Handpieces ± 20-30 kHz PIEZOELECTRIC MAGNETOSTRICTIVE N = NODES A = ANTINODES .

Acoustic Microstreaming Cavitation .

Ultrasonic tips .

NiTi Rotary Systems .

Nickel-Titanium    1962 ± Buehler Naval Ordnance Laboratory 55 NiTiNOL     55 wt % Ni 45 wt % Ti 2% Ni substituted with Co Equiatomic alloy  1988 ± Walia et al .endodontics .

but greater strength Tougher and more resilient VHN is 300-350 (SS-530) Lower cutting efficiency .Properties        Show shape memory and superelasticity Softer than stainless steel Not heat treatable Have a low modulus of elasticity.

Deformation Stress AUSTENITE MARTENSITE .

Superelasticity and Shape Memory .

Manufacturing NORMAL FINISH ELECTROPOLISHING .

ProFile Family    Profile 04 and 06 Orifice Shapers GT files    strength and flexibility radial-landed Ushaped flutes that lift debris coronally noncutting tips .

ProFile Series 29 .1992 Machtou and Schilder Constant percentage change   .

20-0.Percentage = Change (B) D0 ± (A) D0 (A) D0 100 = 50% 100 = 33% 100 = 10% 100 10-15 = (0.50)/ 0.50 .55-0.15 50-55 = (0.15-0.10 15-20 = (0.15)/ 0.10)/ 0.

Standardized instruments 15 % Increase in diameter at D0 10 Instrument sizes .

129-1.000 mm .percentage change = 29% 0.

ProFile 04 and 06 .1994 Sizes 15-40 .

Orifice Shapers    10mm cutting blades D0 20-60 Taper 05-08 .

Greater Taper files      1996.0 mm Variable pitch and lengths Tapers:06. Stephen Buchanan D0=0. 10.20mm MFD=1. 12 . 08.

30.5 mm D0= 0. 0.70 Coronal shaping .50.GT Accessory files      3 instruments Taper=12 MFD=1. 0.

Protaper ± Progressive Taper  Pierre Machtou. Clifford Ruddle and John West ± 2001 .

19mm Taper=3.20mm Taper=4-11..Shaping files.5%  S1    S2   .5-19% D0=0.  SX   D0=0.17mm Taper=2-11% D0=0.

20mm D0-D3=7% D0=0.25mm D0-D3=8% D0=0.Finishing files«  F1   D0=0.30 D0-D3=9%  F2    F3   .

57.51 mm diameter  Thin shafts.Lightspeed   Wildey and Senia ± 1992 Sizes   20-140 5 half-sizes: 22.0 taper   Speed 1500 rpm .5. 32.16-0.5. 65 0.27.5.5.

Cont.. 

Cutting heads variable 
 

Length= 0.25mm ± 2.25mm Tip angles= 21, 33, 75 Non-cutting

Quantec 
 

McSpadden Reduced radial lands 2 fluted

Types« 

Safe Cutting SC 

(60º) 

Non-Cutting LX

04. 10. 08.25mm Taper= 02.12% Variable helical angle 340 rpm .cont«     D0=0. 03. 05. 06.

04 and 02%    Trihelical Hedstroem design Large central core 20 to 45 .HERO 642   High Elasticity in Rotation Tapers: 06.

06 taper ± 15-60 Safe-ended .K3  McSpadden 2002    02 taper ± 1545 04.

. Positive rake angle Vs.

 Variable core diameter  Variable helical flute angle .

 Stronger cutting blade  Relief = less friction .

 Third radial land ± no relief Axxess handle = 4mm shorter  .

Newer Systems .

Liberator    Straight-flute design cannot self-thread Lack of radial lands reduces friction High RPM ± 15002000 .

 Roane safety tip  Manufacturing eliminates transverse microcracks .

04.70 . 06 tapers 15-70 sizes Coronal shapers    Modified GG Taper= 08 D0=118.94.   02.

RaCE  Reamer with alternating Cutting Edges   prevent the threading an extremely low operating torque .

 Sharp cutting edges Safety MemoDisc® for controlling NiTi fatigue.  .

 Electro-chemical treatment: better resistance to torsion and metal fatigue .

S-Apex      Apical preparation after using Race Inverted taper Non-threading Predetermined breaking point 15-30 sizes Weakest part at 16mm .

Endosequence  Brave and Koch  Triangular cross-section No radial lands  .

   Alternating Contact Points (ACP) Electropolished surface Precision tip .

Files«    Taper ± 04 and 06 4 files each Small   Expeditor file    O4 taper 27 size 21mm 15-30   Medium  25-40 35-50  Large  Coronal channeling and gauging .

M Two    Taper ± 04-07 10-40 sizes 4 instruments .

  Almost straight flutes 2 flutes .

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