Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1

Anatomy
yStructure yRelationships yFunctions

Types of study
y Systematic Anatomy

²

General y Regional anatomy- use by dentist and medicine y Surface anatomy ² used by red tech

Physiology
y Process

where in a living thing functions y Cellular y Systemic y Human

Organization
y Chemical

²carbon y Organelle ²nucleus DNA y Celly Tissue organ systemEpitehilial,connective,muscle,n nervous y Organism ²any living things

Characteristics of life
y Organization y Metabolism y Responsiveness y Growth y Development y Reproduction

Homeostasis
y Relationship

of fluid and environment in order for an organism to survive

Negative feedback
y Any

deviation form the normal is deviated or is negated by the body in order to obtain homeostasis.

Positive feed back
yValues

deviate abnormally yPregnancy

Fig. 1.2

Fig. 1.3b

Fig. 1.3a

Anterior Body Landmarks
Abdominal anterior body trunk inferior to ribs y Acromial point of shoulder y Antecubital anterior surface of the elbow y Axillary armpit
y

Anterior Body Landmarks
Brachial arm y Buccal cheek area y Carpal wrist y Cervical neck region
y

Anterior Body Landmarks
y y y y y

Coxal hip Crural leg Digital fingers,toes Femoral thigh Fibular lateral part of leg

Anterior Body Landmarks
y

y y y y

Inguinal area where thigh meets body trunk;groin Nasal nose area Oral mouth Orbital eye area Patellar anterior knee

Anterior Body Landmarks
y y y y y y

Pelvic area overlying the pelvis anteriorly Pubic genital region Sternal breastbone area Tarsal ankle region Thoracic chest Umbilical navel

Posterior Body Landmarks
y y y

y y

Calcaneal heel of foot Cephalic head Deltoid curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle Femoral thigh Gluteal buttock

Posterior Body Landmarks
Lumbar area of the back between the hips and ribs y Occipital posterior surface of the head y Olecranal posterior surface of the elbow y Popliteal knee area
y

Posterior Body Landmarks
y y y

y y

Sacral area between hips Scapular shoulder blade region Sural the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf Vertebral area of spine Plantar sole of the foot

Directional Terms

Body Planes and Sections
y

Section
cut

y

Plane
When the section is made through the body wall or through an organ Made through an imaginary line

Body Planes and Sections
Saggital Section cut made along the lengthwise or longitudinal plane of the body, dividing the body into right and left parts y Midsaggital or Median section cut made down the median plane of the body, right and left parts are equal
y

Body Planes and Sections
y

Frontal Section or Coronal Section a cut made along a lengthwise plane that divides a body or an organ into anterior and posterior parts Transverse or Cross Section cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing a body or an organ into superior and inferior parts

y

Body Cavities
DORSAL Body Cavity y Cranial Cavity is the space inside the bony skull
y

Spinal Cavity extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column

Body Cavities
VENTRAL Body Cavity y Thoracic Cavity
separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the dome shaped diaphragm contains the heart and lungs Mediastinum (central region) separates the lungs into right and left cavities

Body Cavities
Abdominopelvic Cavity cavity inferior to the diaphragm Classified into: y superior abdominal cavity contains the stomach, liver, intestines.. y inferior pelvic cavity contains the reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
y

Fig. 1.12

Four Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic cavity
y

Right upper quadrant
liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, pancreas and pancreatic duct, duodenum

y y y

Left upper quadrant
stomach, spleen, transverse colon

Right lower quadrant
ascending colon, cecum, appendix

Left lower quadrant
small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus

Nine Regions of the Abdominopelvic cavity
Umbilical region y Epigastric region y Hypogastric region y Right iliac region y Left iliac region y Right lumbar region y Left lumbar region y Right hypochondriac region y Left hypochondriac region
y

Fig. 1.9

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