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(ca.

1355 ± 1452/1454)

ca.was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher and scholar. probably in Constantinople  Went to study in Adrianopolis. Taught various subjects when he settled in Mistra  Died in Mistra.Georgius Gemistos (Greek: . the capital of the Ottoman Turks by 1365  Admired Plato¶s works. was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnesus. near the site of ancient Sparta. one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe. Basic Information: Believed to be born in 1355. Despotate(Province) of Morea around 1452 to 1454 . and even changed his name to Plethon with the same meaning. 1355± 1452/1454) .

These works did not help to clear him of the charge of heresy. He also wrote Summary of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Plato. George Scholarios (who became Gennadius II. a detailed comparison between Plato and Aristotles' conceptions of God. Patriarch of Constantinople) later defended Aristotle and convinced the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus that Plethon's support for Plato amounted to heresy. In Mistra he wrote pamphlets to Manuel II describing how the Empire could be reorganized according to Plato's Republic. which detailed his own pseudo-polytheistic beliefs. Plethon was confined to Mistra by Manuel II due to heresy. but still remained somewhat a celebrity. Plethon was the author of De Differentiis. . Knowledge of Zoroastrianism most likely came from contact with Muslim scholars.

with Zeus as supreme sovereign. . or not in conformity of the standard of the Chruch ‡ Summary of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Plato ‡ This summary.‡ Comparison of Aristotle¶s and Plato¶s conceptions of God ‡Considered to be heterodoxic. affirms the existence of a pantheon of gods. titled Summary of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Plato. containing within himself all being in an undivided state.

actuality without potentiality.. pure being (pure form. and hence of our entire universe.Aristotlean Conception Platonic Conception ‡While pure becoming (pure potential) is impossible. ". on the other hand. the supreme sovereign.. is the creator of every kind of intelligible and separate substance. but only the motive force of the universe. if there is anything at all (and clearly there is). ‡God = ³The unmoved mover´ or the ³uncaused cause. never calls God the creator of anything whatever. ‡Aristotle¶s concept of God is pure form . then there MUST be pure actuality. Aristotle.Plato's view is that God. or pure actuality) can exist.³ ± Gemistos Pletho . Furthermore.´ The formal first cause of everything that exists in the world.

. Venice. Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana.Original manuscript (autograph) of the Byzantine scholar Georgios Gemistos Plethon. early 15th century.

‡George Scholarius and Bessarion Depiction of the Council of Folrence .‡The Council of Florence is aimed to settle differences and attempt to solve the problem of the East-West Schism.

Pompeian Mosaic of a Platonic Academy . which in turn reintroduced the works of Plato in the Western world. ‡Accademia Platonica in Florence via Cosmo de Medici ‡Plethon is considered one of the most important influences on the Italian Renaissance.‡As a secular scholar (he is not concerned with religious subjects)Plethon was often not needed at the council. paid Plethon the ultimate honour. calling him 'the second Plato'. the Florentine humanist and the first director of the Accademia Platonica. Marsilio Ficino. ‡ Instituted a school for Florentines who were interested to know more about the works of Plato.

Many of his other works still exist in manuscript form in various European libraries. considered the most heretical of his works. ‡In 1466 some of his Italian disciples. just before the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans.‡Pletho died in Mistra in 1452. was later burned by Gennadius II and its contents lost to mankind. headed by Sigismondo Malatesta. ‡His Summary. stole his remains from Mistra and interred them in the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. Aerial view of Mistra Bay . "so that the great Teacher may be among free men".

edu/wcp/Papers/Medi/MediDebo.http://www. Bueza IV . 1911 http://www.Darius C.Cygnus .htm .html Britannica Encyclopedia Eleventh Edition.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Medieval/GeorgiosGemistosPlethon. DeBolt Paper on De Differentiis Prepared by: Lorenzo Mari S.bu.