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The Forth Replacement Crossing (FRC) is to be completed in 2016 The 1966 Forth Road Bridge cost £20 million Inflated to the year 2016 the bridge should cost under £400 million So why was it price at over £4,200 million? d Not the longest Not the widest deck Not the longest span Not the highest Not the most towers Not the longest viaducts Not environmentally difficult Issue 5a 12/10/2009 omnie@tiscali.co.uk Around 25th from the top Others have 6 and 8 lanes Around 7th from the top Millau bridge is 4 times higher , the Millau has 7 Only 3 Many are MILES long No earthquakes/ tornados 1 First – a wee bit history 4th April 2000 – Holyrood Building Debate – A presentation was arranged prior to the debate ONLY SIXTEEN MSPs TURNED UP 15th January 2009 - Forth Replacement Crossing Debate – Scotland’s biggest ever project. ONLY SEVENTEEN MSPs TURNED UP 2 SECTION 1  World Bridge Graphs FO R T H R E P LA C E M E N T C R O S S I G N T h e M U LT I O D A L o p ti n co st M o £ 4 . 2 2 B ilo n li 3 Stays Towers Cable Stayed Bridge MULTIMODAL - Road & Tram 4 • • NOTE : COSTS INFLATED TO 2016 5 COST of VARIOUS TYPES TYPES OF WORLD BRIDGES - £M he FRC was the world’s most expensive bridge. 6 COST of ONLY CABLE STAYED BRIDGES -£M Again – the FRC is by far the most costly 7 COMPARATIVE LENGTH of WORLD BRIDGES The FRC is tiny: a mere 25th in world ranking.. 8 COST OF BRIDGES PER METRE LENGTH -£100K The average cost is under £200K per metre The FRC was £1 ½ million pounds per metre 9 3.5.3 What They Typically Cost The typical cost of a cable stayed bridge ranges from $4,500 to $5,000 per Square metre The FRC cost was $64 , 500 per square metre 10 The world has only had THREE £4 Billion crossings 1 Japan’s Pearl Bridge 2 Sweden/Denmark’s -Oresund Crossing 3 Scotland’s Multimodal FRC 11 The Pearl Bridge Japan Opened in 1998 for $4,300 Why is it so expensive The world’s longest suspension bridge -3,910 m Earthquakes (8.5 Richter scale) –TMD pendulums Tornadoes (180mph) – hinged-girder system Fierce sea currents 12 SECTION 2   THE ORESUND CROSSING g e st/ l n g e st M u l m o d a lcro ssi g e ve o ti n 13 The Oresund Project This Megastructure links Sweden & Denmark The Oresund Crossing Forth Bridge 14 Artificial Island Road & Rail Bridge 7,850 metres Road & Rail Tunnel 4050 metres 15 The Oresund Crossing Superimposed in Fife From South Queensferry to Kelty 16.4 Km 16 An artificial island constructed to join the tunnel and the bridge The Island is some 4 Km long The FRC is 2.7Km long 17 An4 km tunnel forhad to be A artificial island shipping constructed access the water to across join the tunnel and the bridge The Tunnel has road and rail The Island is some 4 Km long It is submerged into the dredged The FRC is bed. long sea 2.7Km 18 The Bridge Road & Rail (multimodal) The world’s longest - 5 MILES 3 times longer than the FRC 19 The Oresund Crossing cost £4.1 Billion * The Forth Crossing cost was priced at £4.2 Billion The Oresund Project took 5 ½ years; and the FRC??? 5 ½ years 20 Do you know this man? Professor John Kay. Chosen Financial Adviser to the SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT. Public lecture – Sept 2007 on the FRC “Expressed astonishment” “..more than 4 times the final cost of the Ores 21 SECTION 3 The multimodal option was dropped in Dec 2008 We can compare now compare it with a similar UK crossing TH E SEV ER N B R I G E D 22 FROM £4.22 billion to £2.34 billion 23 C O M PA R I G T H E FR C W I H T H E S E V E R N N T BRI G E D 24 Second Severn Crossing The 1964 bridge cost £10 Million The 1996 bridge cost £480 Million The 2016 cost is £810 Million * *Transport Scotland have it at £890 million 25 Second Severn Crossing Did the Welsh get value for money at £810 million The average cost per metre is £200k, this is £150k £4.5k 26 The average cost per sq metre is £4.5k, this is The Original Forth Bridge was built in 1966 costing £20M At current costs - £300M The FORTH REPLACEMENT CROSSING FRC is 8% longer – equates to £ 324M So where do they arrive at £2,3400M??? The 1966 bridge cost £20 Million A pro-rate 2016 bridge should cost under £500 Million The 2016 cost is £2 , 340 Million 27 FORTH REPLACEMENT CROSSING Are the Scots getting value for money at £2320 million? The average cost per metre is £200k, this is The average cost per sq metre is £4.5k, this is £850k £32k 28 hit has land Scot … port back IS IS rans ….T ALYS L and R AN ICIA ” THEI PERF DING U Second “S Severn Crossing FORTH REPLACEMENT CROSSING SLEA “MI TWICE THE SIZE – A THIRD OF THE PRICE Length Forth 2700 m Severn 5200 Lanes 4 6 Roads 4 Km 18.5 Build 5.5 Time 4 Cost 2,340 £m 810 29 SECTION 4 WORLD BRIDGES Finally a look at other world bridges Is the FRC really so expensive? 30 Q E II Bridge DARTFO Opened in 1991 at a cost of £86Millio Q E II Forth Length Lanes Towers m 2877 4 2 2700 4 3 Build Time 3 5.5 Cost 2016 £139m £2,340m The Forth Bridge 10% longer Engineering management contract alone cost £100M? 031 and only 6 % of the cost of the FRC MILLAU VIADUCT France Opened in 2004 at a cost of €350m Length Lanes Towers m Millau 2460 4 7 Forth 2700 4 3 Build Time 3 5.5 Cost 2016 £400m £2,340m Highest Bridge in the world – over 270 metres high – 7 remarkable tower Broke many world records in technology 32 VASCO de GAMA Opened in 1998 at a cost of $1000m Vasco de Gama Length Lanes Towers Build m Time 17200 6 2 1.5 2700 4 3 5.5 Cost 2016 £941m £2,340m Forth 18 months in construction. 6 lanes & 10 miles long . ALL FOR 40% OF THE COST 33 STONECUTTERS BRIDGE HONG KONG THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT USED THIS BRIDGE FOR COST DATA STONECUTTERS FRC cotland... Dual 3-lanecosts are ALL INCLUSIVE Carries Stonecutters highway Dual 3-lane highway Profit with other similar mpared favourably Designer ARUP ARUP Contingencies Financing Design Cable-stayed bridge Cable-Stayed Bridge Risk Taxes Total length 1,600 m 2,700 m stru Forth Height replacement crossing . Estimated million £2,340 50 m 75 m 1,300 m Longest span 1,018 m Stonecutter’s crossing £245 million 34 SECTION 5 THE TUNNEL OPTION Why was it rejected ? 35 FORTH ESTUARY TRANSPORT AUTHORITY Second Forth Road Crossing Jan 2005 Consolidated report FABER MAUNSELL is detailed 80 page report was commission to examine FRC optio 36 CONCLUSION “....more expensive than a bridge...” £598M from ving forward Jan 2005 to Dec 2007 this cost rose TENFOLD……… Don’t believe it ? Read on… 37 Finance and Sustainable Growth Secretary John Swinney Scottish Parliament Wednesday, December 19, 2007 I have set out the cost estimates for the options….. •· Cable-stayed bridge •· Suspension bridge •· Bored Tunnel Do you know what the Eurotunnel cost?? FRC - 1 mile river crossing £4.2 billion £4.7 billion £6.6 billion Eurotunnel - 26 mile sea crossing 38 THE RIVER FORTH 8 Km £6.6 ! ! ! ! ! Billion IS H IO T CHANNEL TUNNEL N OT NE O AR P IA L EN M AR T AN I Q ES U £10.2 Billion ED N T 50 Km 39 SECTION 6 COSTING HISTORY 40 No Date Source 1 2 3 4 5 Jun 04 FETA Jan 05 Faber and Maunsell Cost £500 m £500 m Feb 07 Scottish Government £1,000+ m Dec 07 Scottish Government £2,790 to £3,630 m Jan 08 Scottish Government £3,250 to £4.220 m WHY?? 41 What should it cost? Based on inflation only with the existing Forth Road Bridge Based on the average cost of Cable Stayed Bridges Based on the average cost per metre Based on original Government estimates £360 million £396 million £440 million £500 million 42 “Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.” Aldous Huxley 43