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INTRODUCTION

growth. origin. function.€ Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms. € Biology . and taxonomy. topics. is a vast subject containing many subdivisions. distribution. evolution. including their structure. and disciplines.

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. 3. 4. 5. Living organisms consume and transform energy. 1.€ Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology: Cells are the basic unit of life New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution Genes are the basic unit of heredity An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition. 2.

€ And ecology examines how various organisms interact and associate with their environment. € . the cell. € Molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules. organs and organs system an organism. € Cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life.€ Subdisciplines of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: Biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life. € Physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues.

and future of life in the universe³also known as exobiology. distribution. and bioastronomy . or specifically in humans € Astrobiology ³ the study of evolution. in plants. and other organisms. exopaleontology.€ Aerobiology ³ the study of airborne organic particles € Agriculture ³ the study of producing crops from the land. animals. with an emphasis on practical applications € Anatomy ³ the study of form and function.

with an emphasis on modeling € . collection. usually a focus on the cellular level € Bioengineering ³ the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology € Bioinformatics ³ the use of information technology for the study.Biochemistry ³ the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function. and storage of genomic and other biological data € Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology ³ the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes.

€ € € € € € Biomechanics ³ often considered a branch of medicine. the study of the mechanics of living beings. including genetic modification and synthetic biology Building biology ³ the study of the indoor living environment Botany ³ the study of plants . with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics Biomedical research ³ the study of the human body in health and disease Biophysics ³ the study of biological processes through physics. by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology ³ a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter.

protection. natural ecosystems. vegetation. and wildlife Cryobiology ³ the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings. Developmental biology ³ the study of the processes through which an organism forms. from zygote to full structure Ecology ³ the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment .€ € € € € Cell biology ³ the study of the cell as a complete unit. and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell Conservation Biology ³ the study of the preservation. or restoration of the natural environment.

especially as affected by human activity € Epidemiology ³ a major component of public health research.Embryology ³ the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). See also topobiology. as a whole or in a particular area. € Entomology ³ the study of insects € Environmental Biology ³ the study of the natural world. studying factors affecting the health of populations € Ethology ³ the study of animal behavior € Evolutionary Biology ³ the study of the origin and descent of species over time € Genetics ³ the study of genes and heredity € .

a microscopic branch of anatomy € Ichthyology ³ the study of fish € Integrative biology ³ the study of whole organisms € Limnology ³ the study of inland waters € Mammalogy ³ the study of mammals € Marine Biology ³ the study of ocean ecosystems. and other living beings € Microbiology ³ the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things € . animals. plants.Herpetology ³ the study of reptiles and amphibians € Histology ³ the study of cells and tissues.

some cross over with biochemistry € Mycology ³ the study of fungi € Neurobiology ³ the study of the nervous system. physiology and pathology € Oceanography ³ the study of the ocean.Molecular Biology ³ the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level. geography. and other aspects influencing the ocean € Oncology ³ the study of cancer processes. angiogenesis and tissues remoldings € Ornithology ³ the study of birds € . including anatomy. weather. including ocean life. environment. including virus or mutation oncogenesis.

and development of disease Parasitology ³ the study of parasites and parasitism Pharmacology ³ the study and practical application of preparation. including Population ecology ³ the study of how population dynamics and extinction Population genetics ³ the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms Paleontology ³ the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology ³ the study of diseases.€ € € € € € € € € € Population biology ³ the study of groups of conspecific organisms. use. processes. and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines Physiology ³ the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology ³ the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology) Psychobiology ³ the study of the biological bases of psychology . nature. and the causes.

Herpetology.Sociobiology ³ the study of the biological bases of sociology € Structural biology ³ a branch of molecular biology. development. including classification. Ethology. Mammalogy. and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules € Virology ³ the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents € Zoology ³ the study of animals. physiology. biochemistry. and behavior (See also Entomology. and Ornithology) € . Ichthyology.

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