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service performances. and the like . Often used for product testing and with focus groups. Human Observations people (rather than machines) watching other people. One-Way Mirror Observations .The practice of watching unseen from behind a one-way mirror. cleanliness. to pose as consumers and shop at competitors' stores to compare prices. displays. Mystery Shoppers -people that are employed by a firm  B. .ƒ I.  A.

 C. usually advertising copy. Shopper Patterns . Content Analysis .refers to drawings that record the footsteps of a shopper through a store. by breaking it into meaningful units.  D. .A technique used to study written material. They show the flow of a representative sample of shoppers through a store. using carefully applied rules.

A method of inquiry in which the researcher is immersed in [becomes a part of] the system or group under study. E. rather than using the scientific method of standing apart from the system being studied. Humanistic Inquiry . .

are examinations and verifications of the sales of . People Watching an Activity subject products.ƒ II. and wholesale audits determine the amount of product movement from warehouses to retailers. Retail distribution audits are similar to store audits however these audits do not measure inventory sales: instead they are observational studies at the retail level Audits . There are two general categories: Retail audits measure sales to final consumers.

the most frequently used types of observational techniques are: ƒ Personal observation  observing products in use to detect usage patterns and     problems observing license plates in store parking lots determining the socio-economic status of shoppers determining the level of package scrutiny determining the time it takes to make a purchase decision .In marketing research.

Mechanical observation  eye-tracking analysis while subjects watch advertisements oculometers .what the subject is looking at pupilometers .records purchase     behaviour on-site cameras in stores Nielson box for tracking television station watching voice pitch meters .measures emotional reactions Psycho-galvanometer .how interested is the viewer  electronic checkout scanners .measures galvanic skin response .

Audits  retail audits to determine the quality of service in stores  inventory audits to determine product acceptance  shelf space audits .

Trace Analysis  credit card records  computer cookie records  garbology .looking for traces of purchase patterns in garbage  detecting store traffic patterns by observing the wear in the floor (long term) or the dirt on the floor (short term)  exposure to advertisements .

Content analysis  observe the content of magazines. programs. or newspapers. television broadcasts. radio broadcasts. either articles. or advertisements .