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The process of removing heat from computer components.

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Excess heat must be dissipated in order to keep the components within their safe operating temperatures.

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Varied cooling methods are also used to achieve greater performance such as overclocking.

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Excessive heat can cause all sorts of problems. Overheated parts generally exhibit a shorter maximum life-span and may give problems resulting in system freezes or crashes.

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Manufacturers have given very close tolerances for operating temperature and humidity.

Using vacuum tubes Using transistors Using integrated circuits Using microprocessors .

€ Vacuum tubes produce heat while operating. € This waste heat is one of the principal factors that affect tube life. UNIVAC .I .

€ € Method of anode cooling. . then removes the heat from the envelope. Radiates the heat by black body radiation from the anode to the glass envelope. convection. € Natural air circulation.

€ . water. vapor. Tubes with external anodes may be cooled using forced air. and multiphase. operating the anode at red hot temperatures.€ € € forced air cooling adding fins to the anode.

. € A transistor. when overheated.1 in the system. also normally used as a switch. could turn on accidently. € There was only narrow tolerances to temperature variations. causing chaos AKAT .€ There was less heat generated per circuit.

and exhausted through the false ceiling . € Most systems were installed on false floors.€ Room air conditioning became very important. with a space of about 1 meter or 3ft below the floor. under the floor. € This allowed the air conditioning to be supplied A typical Air conditioning unit for cooling server racks.

. € tapes and disks to be installed in a separate room. or partitioned off from the mainframe. € Tapes produce a lot of heat due to the powerful motors they use.€ Tape drives(storage device) were particularly large producers of heat. so that air conditioning requirements could be better controlled.

€ Amount of heat generated by an integrated circuit is the prime cause of heat build up in modern computers. € It is a function of the efficiency of its design. the technology used in its construction and the frequency and voltage at which it operates. .

€ For reliable operation. . the equilibrium temperature must be sufficiently low for the structure of the computer's circuits to survive. the temperature levels of a computer's components will rise until the temperature gradient between the computer parts and their surroundings is such that the rate at which heat is lost to the surroundings is equal to the rate at which heat is being produced by the electronic component.€ In operation. and thus the temperature of the component reaches equilibrium.

Air Cooling Liquid Cooling Heat Sinks .

HDD fan & PCI slot fans. € Size varies from 40mm ² 240mm dia. Chipset fan. € It basically allows airflow that will help cooling.€ The term computer fan usually refers to fans attached to a computer. . € Most common are CPU fan. PSU fan. GPU fan.

€ € Sufficient number of fans will create a neutral airflow that will keep the temperature inside the cabin under control. Positions of fans is important. .

creating a natural air flow along the boards.€ Air is drawn in at the front of the rack and exhausted at the rear € blade chassis . This vertical orientation facilitates convection. it tends to flow to the top on its own.In contrast to the horizontal orientation of flat servers. € When the air is heated by the hot components. . blade chassis are often oriented vertically.

€ € . the cooling fluid and the ambient air. Does not require any fans or pumps.€ Submerse the computer's components in a thermally conductive liquid. cooled exclusively by passive heat exchange between the computer's parts.

€ .€ Water has the ability to dissipate more heat from the parts being cooled than the various types of metals used in heatsinks. GPU. and other components at the same time with the same system. Can be set up to cool the CPU.

€ Involves attaching a block of machined or extruded metal to the part that needs cooling. € Its ability to radiate heat is better than that of the component part it is protecting. . € The heat conductivity of metal is much better than that of air. € This block usually has fins and ridges to increase its surface area.

€ The moving air increases the rate at which the heat sink can exchange heat with the ambient air. with the addition of a fan that is directed to blow over or through the heat sink. .€ Same principle as passive. € Primary method of cooling a modern processor or graphics card.

€ As the liquid evaporates. € In computers. where it condenses and then returns to the hot end. € Heat pipes thus have a much higher effective thermal conductivity than solid materials.€ A hollow tube containing a heat transfer liquid. the heat sink on the CPU is attached to a larger radiator heat sink by a large heat pipe. . it carries heat to the cool end.

€ Dust acting as a thermal insulator and impeding airflow. or improper orientation of fans. € Poor airflow including turbulence due to friction against impeding components. . or poor application of thermal compounds. thereby reducing heat sink and fan performance. can reduce the amount of air flowing through a case and even create localised whirlpools of hot air in the case € Poor heat transfer due to a lack of.

Thermoelectric Cooling Liquid Nitrogen Cooling Liquid Helium Cooling Phase-Change Cooling .

€ More advanced and expensive cooling systems are required in these cases.€ Run parts of computer (such as the CPU and GPU) at higher voltages and frequencies than manufacturer specifications call for. € Results in a greater amount of heat generated and thus increasing the risk of damage to components and/or premature failure. € This can dramatically increase the performance of the computer. .

it is valuable as an extreme coolant for short overclocking sessions. € CPU will usually expire within a relatively short period of time due to temperature stress caused by changes in internal temperature. far below the freezing point of water. has also been used for cooling.€ As liquid nitrogen evaporates at -196 °C. colder than liquid nitrogen. . € Liquid helium.

Modern TECs use several stacked units each composed of dozens or hundreds of thermocouples laid out next to each other.€ € Based on Peltier effect ² inverse of Seebeck effect. € . which allows for a substantial amount of heat transfer. Applying a voltage to a thermocouple creates a temperature difference between two sides.

€ Compressor compresses a gas (or mixture of gases) which condenses it into a liquid. absorbing the heat from the processor. € Liquid evaporates (changing phase). € The evaporation can produce temperatures reaching around ï15 to -150 degrees Celsius .€ Uses a compressor of the same type as in a window air conditioner.

.€ Some laptop components. such as hard drives and optical drives. are commonly cooled by having them make contact with the computer's frame. increasing the surface area which can radiate and otherwise exchange heat.

€ Practice of running the CPU or any other component with voltages below the device specifications. € An undervolted component draws less power and thus produces less heat. .