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TOPIC 2 CONTENT IN KBSR MATHEMATICS AND TEACHING & LEARNING STRATEGIES

2.5.1 Whole Number and Operation

(e)Multiplicatio n

Learning Objectives for Multiplication of Whole Number

Activity • List down the learning objectives for Multiplication of Whole Number .

Experience with a variety of concrete situations 3.Facility with counting 2.Familiarity with many problem-solving contexts 4.Experience using language to communicate mathematical ideas Helping children develop Number Sense and Computational Fluency .Four prerequisites for formal work on operations on numbers 1.

children need to use more efficient operation and procedures .Facility with counting (Figure 9-2) • Problems with whole numbers can be solved by counting • For more difficult computation.

Experience with a variety of concrete situations • Working with actual physical object develops better undertsanding about mathematical operation .

comprehension. representation and calculation • Mathematics has to be thought as a means by which they can resolve problems through applying what they know.Familiarity with many problemsolving contexts • Word problems require reading. constructing possible routes to reach solution and verify that the solution make sense .

• Children need to talk about mathematics • Their experience need to be put into words • From talking about the experiences. operation begins Experience in using language to communicate mathematical ideas .

Abstract : representing with symbols .Semiconcrete : representing with pictures 3.Concrete : modeling with materials 2.Developing Meanings for the Operation General sequence to help children to develop the meaning for the four basic operation: 1.

Multiplication • What is your idea about ‘multiplication’? Repeated addition • What is your idea about ‘division’? Repeated subtraction Equal sharing Partition .

Multiplication and Divison • Sequence of experience for the understanding of multiplication and division: concrete pictorial symbolic • Differs from addition and subtraction as the numbers in the problems represent different sorts of things eg. Mei Ling buys 2 packets of cookies. How many pieces of cookies she has? . Each packet has 30 pieces of cookies.

Models for multiplication • Sets of objects • Arrays • Number line Research indicates that children do best when they can use various representations for multiplication and can explain the relationship among those representation (Kouba and Fraklin.1995) .

Areas/arrays (Greer. Combination 4. Equal groups 2. 1992) . Comparison 3.Multiplication Four multiplicative structure: 1.

Multiplication Equal groups • Most common Both the number and size of the groups are known but the total is unknown Example: Mei Ling buys 2 packets of cookies. How many pieces of cookies she has? . Each packet has 30 pieces of cookies.

one set is the multiple copies of the other Example: Pui Wan spent RM 15 for a pair of shoes. but it is not matched one to one. It involves two different sets.Multiplication Comparison: As comparison in subtraction. How much does Chew Peng spend for a pair of shoes? . Chew Peng spent 3 times as much.

a taxi or car from town A to Town B. How many ways for him to go from town A to town C? . He can take a bus. He has to take a ferry or a speed boat from town B to town C.Multiplication Combination The two factors represent the sizes of two different sets and the product indicates how many different pairs of things can be formed Example: On the way to go to town C from town A. Azizan will pass by town B.

Multiplication Areas/arrays especially effective to help children to visualize multiplication Example The width of a rectangle is 12 units and the length is 3 units. . Find the area of the rectangle.

Activity • Create a word problem for each multiplication structure given below 1.Comparison 3.Combination 4.Areas/arrays .Equal groups 2.

Basic facts • Basic facts for addition and multiplication involve all combination of single-digit addends and factors. • Example 7+9=16 is an addition fact the two addends. 7 and 9 are each single-digit numbers • There are 100 combinations for both addition and multiplication .

Examples 0f basic facts 3+9=12 yes 4+11=15 No 14-8=6 yes 19-9=10 No Are these basic facts? 5x10=50 20÷10=2 7x4=28 46÷9=5 r 1 6x0=0 0÷5=0 48÷6=8 15÷0 is undefined .

Answers 5x10=50 No 7x4=28 yes 6x0=0 yes 48÷6=8 yes undefined No 20÷10=2 No 46÷9=5 r 1 No 0÷5=0 yes 15÷0 is .

Addition facts + 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 by adding one and adding zero strategies 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

The 100 basics facts for multiplication x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 2 0 2 4 6 3 0 3 6 9 4 0 4 8 12 5 0 5 10 15 6 0 6 12 18 7 0 7 14 21 8 0 8 16 24 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 .

Draw a 3x4 rectangle.Objective : Draw rectangles on grid paper to develop visual representation for multiplication facts Instruction: 1. How many ways are there to draw it? Activity develop visual representation for multiplication facts .Draw a rectangle with 12 squares. How many squares are there? 2.

Activity • Prepare the basic facts for multiplication .

Thinking Strategies for multiplication • Repeated addition • Skip counting • Splitting the product into two parts One-more –set strategy Twice as-much strategy • Facts of five • Patterns .

Repeated addition Example Three group of five is “five plus five plus five” A child would “repeatedly add” 5 three times .

saying: “5.Skip Counting • Skip counting involves counting by the second factor the number of times indicted by the first factor Example 3x5 could be found by skip counting by 5 three times.15” Counting by five three times corresponds with counting three group of five .10.

Splitting the product into two parts One-more –set strategy Example (Fig 8-9) Showing 6 group of 3 apples separated into 5 group of 3 and 1 group of 3 A child would verbalize along these lines “ I know that 5 threes is 15 and 1 more group of 3 is 18. so 6 groups of 3 is 18 and 6x3=18 Useful resource: a series of folded cards .

the product My be split into two equal parts Example Since 2 sixes is 12.Splitting the product into two parts • Twice as-much strategy • When at least one of the factors is even. so 4 sixes is twice as much which is 24 .

Facts of five • It is useful for the “larger” facts • One of the factors must be larger than 5 because this strategy involves breaking one of the factor into a group of 5 and another group. so 7 sixes must be 30+12 or 42 . • Assumption: the children know the facts of 5 Example :For 7x6 A child :I know that 5 sixes is 30 and 2 sixes is 12.

children will observe that • all the multiples of 5 end in either 0 or 5 and • appear in only one row or one column in the multiplication table .Patterns • Most useful for the facts of 9 Example By lightly shade all the multiples of 5.

Explore patterns on the multiplication table for the factor 9. Make all the observations .Shade the multiples of 9. Make all the observations 2.Pattern • Activity : 1.Shade the multiples of 3. Explore patterns on the multiplication table for the factor 3.

Observation • The sum of the digits for each product. that is 6) . the unit digit decreases by one from 9 to 1 • The ten digit is always one less than the non-nine factor (eg 7x9. always 9 • The ten digit increases sequentially from 1 to 8 • Except for the zero fact. the ten digit will be one less than 7. other than zero.

To show 2x9.Hold both hands in front of you with the palms facing away from you 2. Bend the second finger. The finger to the left represents the tens and the fingers to the right of the bent finger represent the ones . begin counting at the left.Finger Multiplication • Interesting strategy for working with facts of 9 1.

Mathematical properties • • • • Commutative Associative Distributive Identity .

Draw rectangle on grid paper 3x4 rectangle and 4x3 rectangle. Count the number of squares in it . Ask the children to rotate the array Write the mathematics sentences for both arrays 900 2.Helping children to learn the commutative property • The numbers may be multiplied in any order without changing the result eg 3x6=6x3 • Activity 1.Building or drawing an array of objects on a card.

Use interlocking block to build models 2x4 then build 2 more arrays to show 3 times (2x4) 3.Helping children to learn the associative property (3x2)x4=3x(2x4) • Activity: (3x2)x4=3x(2x4)? 1. then build 3 more arrays to show 4 times (3x2) 2.Compare the number of blocks in each models .Use interlocking block to build models 3x2.

Helping children to learn the distributive property • 4x13=4x(10+3) • Activity 1.Write a mathematics sentence from an arra 2.Compare the results .Rearrange the array into two arrays and write two mathematics sentences for the arrays 3.

• Any numbers multiplied by one gives you the same number • Model with word problems Example One bag of marbles with 6 marbles in the bag Helping children to learn the multiplication property of one .

Helping children to learn the multiplication property of zero .

it doesn’t matter where to start a(b+c)=ab+ac 6(5+2)=6x5+6x2 Some of the more difficult facts can be split into smaller and easier part 6(5+2)=6x5+6x2 Since 6x5=30 a+0=a and 0 added to any 19 addition facts Distributive identity .Property Mathematical Child’s languageHow it helps language If 3+9=12 then 9+3 must be 12. eg (axb)xc=ax(bxc three or more 3x4x5=3x(4x5) ) numbers. The umber of addition or multiplication facts to be reduced from 100 to 55 Commutative a +b=b+a Pxq = qxp Associative (a+b)+c=a+ When I am adding Combination s make (b+c) or multiplying the task easier.

End of slides Thank you .

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