You are on page 1of 49

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Computer Aided Drawing Code:


Spring 2010

Lecture 1
Nazeer Ahmed Anjum B. Sc (hnr) UET Taxila M. Sc UET Taxila

Cell No. 0300-5397864

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Marks Distribution
TOTAL MARKS Assignment Quizzes Mid Term Lab. Work Final = = = = = = 100 10% 10% 20% 20% 40%

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

INTRODUCTION
 Outline
Drawing Instruments Line Types Used in Engineering drawing Lettering and Drafting Techniques

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Drawing Instruments

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Tee Square (T-Square) Pencils (HB, H, 2H) French Curves or Irregular Curves Adhesive Tape (Paper Tape) Handkerchief, duster, Dusting Brush or Tissue

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS
6. Set-Squares 7. Rubber or Eraser 8. Instruments Box 9. Erasing Shield 10. Protractor 11. Pencil Sharpener 12. Drawing Sheet 13. Sketch Book
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 7

Drawing Board: It is a plane square or


rectangular piece of wood with a smooth surface.  Size of drawing board varies from 9 12 48 72 .  Suitable size for student is 20 24 .
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 8

T-Square
 It is used to draw straight
lines on the drafting sheet.  It consists of  A long strip called blade.  Short piece called head.  The inner and outer edges of blade and head are called working edges.
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 9

Drawing Sheet: It is a white sheet of


paper having enough grains or teeth against which the lead of the pencil may easily work.  The color of the sheet preferred is light cream or buff.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

10

Drafting Tape (Scotch Tape): It is a colorless


sticking tape used to fix the sheet on the drawing board.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

11

Triangles or Set-Square
 Two triangles are used
in drawing.  A triangle with angles 45,45 and 90 is called 45 degree triangle.  The other has 30,60 and 90 angles and is called 30-60 degree triangle.
8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

12

Compasses and Dividers: Compasses are used to


draw circles.

 It consists of
 

Two moving arms. One fixed with a compass needle. The other arm may hold another needle, pencil, pen etc.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

13

Pencils: It is a basic instrument


used for making drawing on the sheet.  It is made of graphite lead .  Pencils are made of various hardness.  Hardness of the pencil is specified by its grade, 9H to 7B.
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 14

Small Knife and Sandpaper: It is used to make the


required shape of the lead and foam is used for its final cleaning.  It is a small wooden strip pasted with a sandpaper on one side and a small foam on the other end.
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 15

Erasing Shield
 It is used to remove
extra lines after the completion of a drawing without disturbing the required lines.  It is a thin metallic plate with designs of various shapes.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

16

Set of Circles (Circle Template)


 It is a thin sheet of
plastic with circular openings of various sizes.  It is used to draw curves tangent to other circles or simply for drawing the circles.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

17

French Curves
 These are used to draw
different curves for the already plotted points and the freehand curves may be changed into smooth curves.  These are made of plastic sheets.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

18

Starting An Engineering Drawing

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

19

Drawing a Panel: Panel is the subscription corner of the


drawing, usually drawn at the right bottom of the drawing sheet.  Border of about 1 is left from all sides of the drawing sheet.
Bahria University Name: Roll No. Scale: Dwg Name:
8/17/2011

Deptt: Electrical Angle of Projection Checked by & Grade


20

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Division of Sheet
B
Top view

Side view

B
Front view

B X A= X-(L+W) 3
H= Height of object L= Length of object W= Width of object
8/17/2011

B= Y-(H+W) 3
A=Horizontal Spacing B=Vertical Spacing
Engineering Drawing & Graphics 21

Lines
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 22

Lines:If we say that Engineering Drawing is the language of Engineers then lines are the literature of this language.  Lines are the continuous association of points.  Lines are classified:  

According to Thickness. According to Shape. According to Darkness.


Engineering Drawing & Graphics 23

8/17/2011

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 24

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

Lines drawn to represent visible edges and surface boundaries. These are also called principal lines.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

25

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

Interior or hidden edges and surfaces are shown by dashed lines. Also called dotted lines. They are of medium thickness. They are short dashed lines of about 3-4mm with 1mm distance between them.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

26

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These lines indicate axes of cylindrical, conical or spherical objects and the centers of circles. These are medium thick lines consisting of long and short dashes, long dashes of 6-8mm and 1mm distance between them.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

27

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These are continuous thin lines terminated at the outer ends by pointed arrow-heads.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

28

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These are thin lines drawn during the drawing to help in drawing complex geometrical structures.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

29

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These are thin lines drawn parallel to each other at about 3mm. These lines show the presence of material while object is cut through.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

30

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These lines show the location of the cutting plane. It is thin & long chain line with two small dashes of about 3-4mm and a long dash of about 6-8mm width.

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

31

Lines used in Engineering Drawings:- Outlines.  Dashed lines.  Centre lines.  Dimension lines.  Construction lines.  Hatching lines.  Cutting plane lines.  Break lines.
8/17/2011

These lines show imaginary boundaries of the object or to skip up very long part of the object of similar width. Long break line

Short break line

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

32

Lettering and Drafting Techniques :


Two methods of lettering are available to the Mechanical/electronics drafter. 1. Freehand lettering. 2. Lettering accomplished with lettering guide. All lettering on a diagram must be of high quality and legible regardless of the final reduction size requirement of the drawing.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

33

Styles of Lettering :
The predominant lettering style for Mechanical drawings is the single-stroke, uppercase, commercial Times New Roman. Single stroke means that the required thickness or weight of each letter is formed using one stroke. Uppercase indicates that all letters are capitalized. Times New Roman style is one in which all strokes of each letter are even. (stroke : a line made by single movement of pen or brush in writing or painting.)
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 34

Styles of Lettering :
Either vertical or inclined letters are acceptable, but preferable are vertical characters. Only one type of lettering, either vertical or inclined, should appear on a drawing. Notes, either general or localized, are placed on a drawing to align to the bottom of the drawing.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

35

Vertical Letters and Numerals

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

36

Inclined Letters and Numerals

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

37

Fractions and Mixed Numbers.


Fractions and mixed numbers are drawn with a horizontal bar as shown.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

38

Spacing and Sizes :


Spacing between words should not be less than the height of one letter. Spacing between lines should not be less than the height of letters.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

39

Lettering Aids.
Ames guide provides guidelines as illustrated on right.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

40

Lettering Aids
This figure shows the use of guide in conjunction with a T-square. Guidelines should be light enough that they will not reproduce when the drawing is copied.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

41

LOCI OF POINTS
 Locus:- A locus (Plural Loci) is a path of a
point which moves in space.

 Locus of a Point:- The locus of a point P


moving in a plane about another point O in such a way that its distance from it is constant is a circle of radius equal to OP.
O P
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics 42

LOCI OF POINTS
 The locus of a point P moving in a plane in
such a way that its distance from a fixed line AB is constant, is a line through P , ||e to the fixed line.
P

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

43

LOCI OF POINTS
 When the fixed line is an arc of a circle, the
locus will be another arc drawn through P with the same center.
P

A O
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics

44

LOCI OF POINTS
 The locus of a point equidistant from two fixed
points A & B in same plane is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two points.
A P D

C
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics

B
45

LOCI OF POINTS
 The locus of a point equidistant from two fixed
non-parallel straight lines AB & CD will be a straight line bisecting the angle b/w them.

C
8/17/2011 Engineering Drawing & Graphics

D
46

Example
 Draw the locus of a point equidistant
from a fixed straight line & a fixed point. A Solution
Let AB be the given straight line & C be the given point. From C draw a perpendicular to AB at D, Bisect CA at P, P is the locus point. Make a number of points 1, 2, 3, etc., on PC & through them draw lines ||e to AB.
8/17/2011

1 2

3 4

B
47

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Example Cond .
 Now taking center C and radius D1, draw
an arc cutting the line through 1 at P1 and P1 . Again with the same center & radius D2, draw an arc cutting the line through 2 at P2 & P2 . Similarly, obtain points & through them a smooth curve which is the required locus of P.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

48

ASSIGNMENT
1. Draw a point equidistant from two
given circles of unequal diameters. 2. Draw the loci of Crank Mechanism.

8/17/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

49