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6/16/2011

Engineering Drawing & Graphics

Computer Aided Design (Lecture # 08)


By Nazeer Ahmad Anjum
NazeerAnjum@uettaxila.edu.pk 300-5397864

(Mechanical/Electrical Engineering)

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Engineering Drawing & Graphics

TOPIC: SECTIONAL VIEWS Outline


OBJECTIVE PURPOSE OF SECTIONS INTRODUCTION CUTTING PLANE SECTION LINES TYPES OF SECTIONING
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OBJECTIVE
To demonstrate the proper use of section views which show internal features of objects that are not easily understood in standard multi-view drawings

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PURPOSE OF SECTIONS
Depict assembly of parts Show internal detail Replace complex orthographic views Describe materials in an assembly

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INTRODUCTION
Definition: A multiview technical drawing that
reveals details about internal features by displaying the part as if cut by an imaginary cutting plane

Objective:
To make the drawing more understandable, especially the internal details of the part. Since the sectioned drawing shows internal features there is generally no need to show hidden lines. Especially helpful for assembly drawings.
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ANSI MATERIAL PATTERNS


ANSI31 -- Cast Iron, General ANSI32 -- Steel ANSI33 -- Brass, Bronze, Copper ANSI38 -- Magnesium, Aluminum

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THE CUTTING PLANE


An

imaginary plane that defines where the object is cut in drawing adjacent to the sectioned drawing with the PHANTOM line type

Shown Drawn

at the end of the cutting plane line indicate the direction of view for the sectioned drawing. arrows point toward the part of the object that is visible in the sectioned drawing. drawing follows the general rules of any view in a multiview drawing
A sectioned The

Arrows

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THE CUTTING PLANE

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THE CUTTING PLANE


When using multiple cutting planes each sectioned drawing is drawn as if the other cutting plane lines do not exist. The cutting plane line takes precedence over center lines. Occasionally cutting plane lines are not shown when their location is obvious. The general section line type which may be used for any material is the line type for iron.
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THE CUTTING PLANE

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RULES FOR SECTION LINES


Section lines should not be parallel or perpendicular to object lines. Section lines are generally drawn at 45 degrees unless this conflicts with other rules. Section lines should be oriented at different angles for separate parts. Occasionally section lines are only drawn on the perimeter of large areas. Section lines are not used for thin parts rather they are filled in solid (Do not use closely spaced section lines).
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SECTION DRAWING TYPES


Half Section Full Section Broken-Out Section Revolved Section Removed Section Offset Section Assembly Section

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SECTIONS SHOW INTERIOR DETAIL

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HALF SECTIONS
A quarter of assembly removed Half of view is cross-hatched All hidden lines are omitted Center line divides halves Center line remains only if associated feature is sectioned

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HALF SECTIONS

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HALF SECTIONS

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HALF SECTIONS

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FULL SECTION
The cutting plane passes completely through the part as a single flat plane Hidden lines are omitted Visible lines behind the cutting plane must be shown

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FULL SECTION

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FULL SECTION

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FULL SECTION

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BROKEN-OUT SECTIONS
Only a portion of the view is sectioned A jagged break line is used to divide the sectioned and un-sectioned portion of the drawing Used to section a small portion of a drawing Does not modify the rest of the view

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BROKEN-OUT SECTIONS

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BROKEN-OUT SECTIONS

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REVOLVED AND REMOVED SECTIONS


   
Both show cross- section by rotating section 90o Revolved sections stay on the object Removed sections are offset. A jagged break line may be used to divide the revolved section from the rest of the drawing

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REVOLVED AND REMOVED SECTIONS

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REVOLVED SECTION

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REVOLVED AND REMOVED SECTIONS

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Revolved section views are used to show diverse shapes that may appear in a part.

Here we see that the section lies on the area it describes and may be placed on top of object lines, or be shown as part of a broken out section to assist whoever is reading the plate.

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REMOVED SECTIONS

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REMOVED SECTIONS

Removed sections allow the sectional view to be placed in another area of the plate so as not to crowd other views. All removed views are labeled on their cutting plane and the view.
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OFFSET SECTIONS
The internal features of many part can not be shown using a single straight cut to create the sectioned drawing An offset section is used for such parts The multiview drawing is often difficult to interpret when there are several hidden features on the object A sectioned view makes the object much easier to understand An offset section allows the cutting plane to pass through all of the internal features
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OFFSET SECTIONS

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OFFSET SECTIONS
There may be several bends in the cutting plane

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OFFSET SECTIONS
The actual part would show a new visible line at the bend in the cutting plane Since the cutting plane bend is arbitrary, do not show the line representing this bend in the sectioned drawing or The sectioned view does not show the bend in the cutting plane Hidden lines are not shown Be sure to include object lines that are behind the cutting plane
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OFFSET SECTIONS

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ASSEMBLY SECTION
Shows how parts fit together Different parts have different section line orientation Different materials use different section line types Standard parts (shafts, pins, dowels, rivets, screws, washers, gears, etc.) are not sectioned
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ASSEMBLY SECTION
Cut each part of the assembly and section each part with the appropriate section line type Put the parts together in their assembled position

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ASSEMBLY SECTION
The shaft is not sectioned because it is a standard part and section lines would provide no additional information The other two part are made from the same material The orientation of section lines clearly shows the location of the different parts
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ASSEMBLY SECTION
The top and bottom mating part are made from different materials in the part shown below A center line is added to the shaft to show that it is a circular feature

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ASSEMBLY SECTION
When sectioning an assembly of several parts, draw section lines at varying angles to distinguish parts from each other.

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ASSEMBLY SECTION
Sectioned assemblies are used
to show relationships between parts.

NOTE: The hatching lines


alternate direction on parts that are adjacent to one another.

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