Instructor: Salman Moeen

‡ Terrorism means violent acts which are intended to create fear are perpetrated(commit) for a religious, political or ideological goal, deliberately target or disregard the safety of noncombatants(civilians) and are committed by non-government agencies.

‡ Terrorism can also be defined as :
± The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce(pressurize) , especially for political purposes. ± The unlawful use or threat of violence especially against the state or the public as a politically motivated means of attack ± Violent and intimidating (frighten) gang activity is known as terrorism

Background of Terrorism
‡ The history of Terrorism is a history of well known and historically significant individuals entities and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly with Terrorism ‡ History shows us different terrorist activities done in the world, they are mainly due to political influence such as:
± ± ± ± ± 1. world war I 2. world war II 3. war of independence 1857 4. incident of world trade centre ( 11th Sept, 2001) 5. Taliban activities in the world especially Afghanistan and Pak.

Incident of World Trade Centre
‡ On 11th Sept, 2001 19 men affiliated with AlQaida hijacked four commercial passenger jet airlines crushing two of them in the world trade centre in New York city and one into the pentagon. ‡ As a result of the attacks the twin towers completely collapsed and 2,973 victims and 19 highjackers died.

Mumbai Attacks
‡ The 2009 Mumbai attacks were more than 10 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India s Largest city by Islamic terrorist form Pakistan.

Causes Of Terrorism
‡ Causes of terrorism is of two types: ‡ 1.Social ‡ 2.Political. People chose terrorism when they are trying to right what they perceive to be a special or political or historically wrong.when they have been stripped of their land or rights.

Factors involved In Terrorist Act
‡ 1.Political Terrorism: ‡ Violent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the community,or substantial segment of it,for political purposes. ‡ The political disputes like Iraq,Afghanistan,the interior motives of war on terrorism are:‡ To get hold of the natural resourses of muslim countries,either by the polikcy of the friendship or confrontation.

Causes Of Terrorism
‡ 1. The Zamindars and Jagirdars own percent of the privately cultivated land,a suppressed community often rises violently against this injustices leading to extremism in the society. ‡ 2.A weak Judicial system and judiciary are also responsible for the unwanted tendencies. ‡ 3.the prevalent system of education is a colonial legecy and has not been completely customised to meet the ideological modern,scientific and progressive needs of the country.

Factors Involved In tererorist Act
‡ 2.Non Political Terrorism: ‡ Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but to create and maintain high degree of fear. ‡ 3.Civil disorder: ‡ A form of collective violence interfearing with the peace, security and normal functioning of the community.

Factors Involved In Terrorist Act
‡ 4.Quasi Terrorist: ‡ The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence they are similar in form and method to geniue terrorism but which neverless,lack its essential ingredient.eg,the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi terrorist, whose method are similar to those of the genine terrorist but whose purposes are quite diffirent.

‡ 5.Official Or State Terrorism: ‡ Mostly carried out by govt in pursuit of political objectives,often as part of their foreign policy.

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