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Synchronous machines are basically divided into two types viz. Motor and Generator, but synchronous machines operating on general power supply networks may be divided into five types due to their special features. These five categories are: y Hydro-Generator y Turbo-Alternator y Engine Driven Generators y Motors y Compensators

Types of Synchronous Machine y According to the arrangement of the field and armature windings, synchronous machines may be classified as rotatingarmature type or rotating-field type. According to the shape of the field, synchronous machines may be classified as cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole) machines and salient-pole machines
 Synchronous machines are similar to DC machines in that:

they have a field winding and an armature winding; a dc current is passed through the field winding to produce flux; the flux from the field winding induces a voltage in the armature winding. However, unlike DC machines: the field winding is on the rotor and the armature winding is on the stator; the armature winding is an ac winding.

The Synchronous generator operating alone y 1. Decreasing the field resistance increases the field current in the generator. y 2. An increase in the field current increases the flux in the machine. y 3. An increased flux leads to the increase in the internal generated voltage. y 4. An increase in the internal generated voltage increases the terminal voltage of the generator. Therefore, the terminal voltage of the generator can be changed by adjusting the field resistance.

Conditions required for paralleling

y 1. The rms line voltages of the two generators must be

equal. y 2. The two generators must have the same phase sequence. y 3. The phase angles of two a phases must be equal. y 4. The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher than the frequency of the running system.

General procedure for paralleling generators

y 1. Adjust the field current of the oncoming generator to make its terminal voltage y y

y y y

equal to the line voltage of the system (use a voltmeter). 2. Compare the phase sequences of the oncoming generator and the running system. This can be done by different ways: A. Connect a small induction motor to the terminals of the oncoming generator and then to the terminals of the running system. If the motor rotates in the same direction, the phase sequence is the same; B. Connect three light bulbs across the open terminals of the switch. As the phase changes between the two generators, light bulbs get brighter (large phase difference) or dimmer (small phase difference). If all three bulbs get bright and dark together, both generators have the same phase sequences. If phase sequences are different, two of the conductors on the oncoming generator must be reversed. C. The frequency of the oncoming generator is adjusted to be slightly higher than the system s frequency. D. Turn on the switch connecting second generator to the system when phase angles are equal. The simplest way to determine the moment when two generators are in phase is by observing the same three light bulbs. When all three lights go out, the voltage across them is zero and, therefore, machines are in phase.

Synchronizing Procedure in power system

Before a synchronous generator can be synchronized onto live busbars, the following conditions must be satisfied: y The voltage of the generator must be equal to that of the busbars; y The frequency of the generator must be equal to that of the busbars; y The phase sequence of the generator must be the same as that of the busbars; and y At the instant of synchronizing, the voltage phasors of the generator and the busbars must coincide.

Synchronous machines connected to infinite Bus


Advantag s f Sync r nous Mac ine

y Their motors can be made to operate at a leading

power factor and thereby improve the power factor of an industrial plant from lagging to one that is close to unity. y It gives constant speed from no load to full load. y Electro-magnetic power varies linearly with voltage. y These motors operate at higher efficiency, especially in the low speed at unity power factor range.

Disadvantages of Synchronous achines

y It cannot be used for variable speed job as there is no y y y y y

possibility of speed adjustment. It requires d. c. excitation which must be supplied from external source. It cannot be started under loaded condition. Its starting torque is zero. It has a tendency to hunt. It may fall out of synchronism and stop when over loaded. Collector rings and brushes are required.