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1. Give Directions in Multiple Formats: Visual and verbal formats 2. Over-learn Material: over-learning" new information. 3.Use Visual Images and Other Memory Strategies: Cue / called word substitution. The substitute word system can be used for information that is hard to visualize. E.g. For the word occipital or parietal. These words can be converted into words that sound familiar that can be visualized. The word occipital can be converted to exhibit hall (because it sounds like exhibit hall). The student can then make a visual image of walking into an art museum and seeing a big painting of a brain with big bulging eyes (occipital is the region of the brain that controls vision

4. Prepare Handouts Prior to Class Lectures 5. Be an Active Readers: To enhance short-term memory registration and/or working memory when reading, students should underline, highlight, or jot key words down in the margin while reading. To consolidate this information in long-term memory, they can make outlines or use graphic organizers. Research has shown that the use of graphic organizers increases academic achievement for all students. 6. Write down Steps in Math Problems. 7. Provide Retrieval Practice for Students: Research has shown that long-term memory is enhanced when students engage in retrieval practice. Taking a test is a retrieval practice. Students make up questions for everyone to answer rather than just retelling students the to-be-learned information. 8. Develop Cues When Storing Information: Information is easier retrieved when it is stored using a cue and that cue should be present at the time the information is being retrieved.

9. Review Material before Going to Sleep: Review material right before going to sleep at night. Any other task that is performed after reviewing and prior to sleeping (such as getting a snack, brushing teeth, listening to music) interferes with consolidation of information in memory. 10. Imagery and Visual-Spatial Representations in Memory:Forming mental images can enhance performance on a variety of memory and learning tasks. In fact, we know that good readers make mental images or "running movies" in their heads as they read to facilitate comprehension. Imagination: The more strongly you imagine and visualize a situation, the more effectively it will stick in your mind for later recall.

11. ROMAN ROOM METHOD Imagine yourself sitting in a room that you are very familiar with. It may be your bedroom/living room/den/ dining room. What you want to do is as you come in the door, going either clockwise or counter-clockwise, going from one piece of furniture to the next associating each piece of furniture with items you want to remember.

This Roman Room idea can be expanded to a journey. Let's say you know the route from your house to your office or to school. You know this by heart, you go the same way every day. Well, you can think of things you can place at the different sights along the way. You see what we are doing here, whether it is numbers, whether it is different parts of the body, what you are doing here is identifying specific pegs that you come up with. Pegs that you can give meaning to. Pegs that you can associate with the things that you can remember. These pegs tend to be permanent things. They're not going away. So when you associate these temporary items that you want to associate with them, you have got them locked in your memory for the long pull. 12. Pay attention. You cant remember something if you never learned it, and you cant learn something that is, encode it into your brain if you dont pay enough attention to it. It takes about eight seconds of intent focus to process a piece of information through your hippocampus and into the appropriate memory center

13. Tailor information acquisition to your learning style. Most people are visual learners; they learn best by reading or otherwise seeing what it is they have to know. But some are auditory learners who learn better by listening. They might benefit by recording information they need and listening to it until they remember it. 14. Involve as many senses as possible. Even if youre a visual learner, read out loud what you want to remember. If you can recite it rhythmically, even better. Try to relate information to colors, textures, smells and tastes. The physical act of rewriting information can help imprint it onto your brain. 15. Relate information to what you already know. Connect new data to information you already remember, whether its new material that builds on previous knowledge, or something as simple as an address of someone who lives on a street where you already know someone. 16. Understand and be able to interpret complex material. For more complex material, focus on understanding basic ideas rather than memorizing isolated details. Be able to explain it to someone else in your own words.

17. Rehearse information frequently and over-learn. Review what youve learned the same day you learn it, and at intervals thereafter. What researchers call spaced rehearsal is more effective than cramming. If youre able to over-learn information so that recalling it becomes second nature, so much the better. 18. Be motivated and keep a positive attitude. Tell yourself that you want to learn what you need to remember, and that you can learn and remember it. Telling yourself you have a bad memory actually hampers the ability of your brain to remember, while positive mental feedback sets up an expectation of success. 19. Naps / Relaxation techniques increases memory 20. Be a social butterfly (Active social life) 21. Repeat whatever you need to remember when you first hear it. 22. Yoga, deep breathing, meditation etc activates an enzyme in brain that persuades memory. 23. If you are trying to memorize something, then do it in empty stomach.

24. To remember big numbers, break it- form a story.

25. Picture method (take photos/ pictures- see for 10 seconds- recollect). Study-Neither bent forward nor backward as it block blood flow to brain.

26. Understanding and Remembering If we understand something, we are usually able to remember it better. Understanding enables us to know where to store the information in longterm memory (e.g., what category to place it in), and effective storage usually leads to effective retrieval. E.g. Think about a joke someone recently told you. It is likely that you laughed when you heard the joke because you understood it; but did you remember it? Could you retell it to someone else? For me, the answer would be an emphatic, "No!" I rarely remember jokes because I process them at a very superficial level with no intent to store them in my longterm memory.

Understanding the subject matter is not enough; they must also actively engage in activities that will lead to the storage and ultimate retrieval. You must make sure that you understand new material before trying to remember it. A good technique to ensure understanding is to recite or write the author's ideas in your own words. If you cannot, then you do not understand them.

27. Activation of Prior Knowledge It Provides students with a "hook" to hang the new information on in their mental memory network. This may be accomplished by asking students two questions. 1. What do you know about . . .? 2. What do you want to know about . . .? 28. Elaborative Rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal is more effective both for transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory and for storing information in long-term memory.

29. Proactive and Retroactive Interference When you study at home, plan 50 +10 minutes i.e. after reading for 50 minutes, you must engage in thinking or on activity over the same subject.

32. Mnemonic Methods Mnemonic learning might be especially helpful for storage and retrieval of information in long-term memory when students lack a relevant knowledge base about the topic they are studying.

When mnemonics are used during encoding of information, they may provide visual imagery or verbal elaborations by causing us to associate the information we want to remember. School children can be taught to generate their own mnemonic devices. If students are to engage in thinking about the implications of war for civilization, they must first know something about specific wars, such as why they were fought and what the short- and long-term consequences were.

You can do the following things to make your mnemonics more memorable:

Use positive, pleasant images. Use vivid, colorful, sense-laden images. Jot down every diagram, map or symbol written on the board by the instructor. Even with printed course notes in front of them, visual learners still benefit from written information of their own, symbols, diagrams, etc. Use all your senses to code information or dress up an image. Remember that your mnemonic can contain sounds, smells, tastes, touch, movements and feelings as well as pictures. Use humor! Funny or peculiar things are easier to remember than normal ones. 1- T-Tea Picture in your minds eye a great big cup of steaming brown tea- Link together two vivid mental pictures- it works when you concentrate, forming pictures in mind. Party trick:Master strong mental images (1- 20) Link corresponding number- Pick objects (15-20 seconds for each objects) Final object then pause, ask anybody trying to remember...- Repeat mentally Look................

33. Bed-time Recital Psychologists have also found that if you sleep after thinking about your problems there is a better chance that you arrive at a solution the next day. Steps for Memory Improvement Be in a relaxed mood Write down the things that you are supposed to remember in a piece of paper. Read it aloud (if possible) once or twice and recite it two to three times. Now go to sleep without worrying or thinking about anything. You will surely retain the item longer and find it easier to recall it when in need.


Strange new materials:-


trick for getting grip with strange new materials or subjects is to pretend that i must teach it someone tomorrow. Ask yourself: What does it mean? What are the main points? How can i simplify it? Is there a code word to remember it? Find the answer Gaining knowledge is an uncomfortable experience- Try to disturb your peace of mind.

36. Names to remember: Seizing upon a few outstanding characteristics and then sketching peoples outline in words. Pick unique aspects / appearance- Ignore ordinary features- become a mental cartoonist. E.g. Shape of nose/ eyes/ears/mouth/chin/cheeks/hands etc. Go for natural coloring, imperfections etc. Names- Name sticks on forehead (Visual Image)

37. Attention: Attention as the first step toward Mental Concentration. They instruct the pupil to examine some familiar object, and endeavor to see as many details as possible in the object. Then after hearing the pupils report, the master sends him back to the task, bidding him seek for new details, and so on until at last the pupil has discovered about all concerning the object that can be discovered. The next day a new object is given to him, and the process is repeated. 38. Bed time- Recollect the whole day activity mentally 39. Math- Identify the mistake-Re do the problem-repeat steps 40 Paragraph method- Take key points-summerise-Review and read-Ask yourself-Record-& relate- Repeat and review.


Treating your body well can enhance your ability to process and recall information. Regular exercise- Increases oxygen to your brain. Reduces the risk for disorders that lead to memory loss, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. May enhance the effects of helpful brain chemicals and protect brain cells. Managing stress Cortisol, the stress hormone, can damage the hippocampus if the stress is unrelieved. Stress makes it difficult to concentrate. Good sleep habits Sleep is necessary for memory consolidation. Sleep disorders like insomnia and sleep apnea leave you tired and unable to concentrate during the day. Not smoking Smoking heightens the risk of vascular disorders that can cause stroke and constrict arteries that deliver oxygen to the brain.

Healthy Habits that Improve Memory.


Drink Black grape juice. It increases memory by 20%, it has 40% more anti oxidants.. Have blueberries A diet based on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats will provide lots of health benefits, but such a diet can also improve memory. Research indicates that certain nutrients nurture and stimulate brain function. B vitamins, especially B6, B12, and folic acid, protects neurons by breaking down homocysteine, an amino acid that is toxic to nerve cells. Theyre also involved in making red blood cells, which carry oxygen. (Best sources: spinach and other dark leafy greens, broccoli, asparagus, strawberries, melons, black beans and other legumes, citrus fruits, soybeans.), nerve cells functions , neurotransmitter productions. Vitamin A- Has antioxidants that neutralizes free radicals, resulting memory improvement.

Antioxidants like vitamins C and E, and beta carotene, fight free radicals, which are atoms formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Free radicals are highly reactive and can damage cells, but antioxidants can interact with them safely and neutralize them. Antioxidants also improve the flow of oxygen through the body and brain. (Best sources: blueberries and other berries, sweet potatoes, red tomatoes, spinach, broccoli, green tea, nuts and seeds, citrus fruits, liver.) Omega-3 fatty acids are concentrated in the brain and are associated with cognitive function. They count as healthy fats, as opposed to saturated fats and trans fats, protecting against inflammation and high cholesterol. (Best sources: cold-water fish such as salmon, herring, tuna, halibut, and mackerel; walnuts and walnut oil; pumpkin seeds, fresh coconut, flaxseed and flaxseed oil) An omega-3 supplement (at any age) if you dont like eating fish. But nutrients work best when theyre consumed in foods, so try your best to eat a broad spectrum of colorful plant foods and choose fats that will help clear, not clog, your arteries. Your brain will thank you!

Research in rates suggests that the yellow spice turmeric, a major ingredient in American mustard and Indian curry can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease.


Abandon the silly notion that study has to be an unpleasant chore. Aha experiences: Creative individuals r quick to recognize patterns and connections. Aha, yes i see. Of course got it .When u say that u r recalling a number of known facts and suddenly sheds light on something u didnt previously understand. That fresh concept can then be memorized and recollected when needed. Aim to have more Aha experience. They are good for your confidence. Notice how each paragraph in a book often has only one crucial sentence. Underline that single sentence, do it for the entire chapter, eventually for the entire book. The sentence so highlighted should by themselves form a continuous narrative and make sense. When u come to revise, read only the underlined part. When u read a chapter u must categorize what u must know / should know / could know.

Note Taking Techniques The most comprehensive note taking systems require attention on your part. You must be alert enough in class to take legible, meaningful notes.

Split Page Method Class lectures and your textbook--they're the primary sources of course content and you need to learn both. So combine them with the split page method of taking notes. Just divide your notebook page in half lengthwise. Draw a line down the middle of the page. Take class notes on one side of the page and outline the text on the other side. When you study you'll have both. Class notes and text together, integrated. Some students find it helpful to add a third column for questions they need to ask the professor.

Use Colors Don't write in blue or black ink. Writing in color will help you retain 50% 80% more of the information without reading it a second time (also highlight in purple).


One of the best ways to help in learning geography is to use a map. Color the different areas different colors to help you remember them. You will also remember better if you can see how the areas relate to each other and where they are on the map. It also helps if you know some interesting facts about areas, and something about what kinds of people live there. When memorizing countries, states, etc. you can make out a list of all the names. Either make a rhyming poem, or if you are musical, make up a little song (like the ABC song) to help you remember them better. *Neural pathways in the hippocampus (known to be involved in learning) become increasingly sensitive when stimulated. We retain more than we can retrieve.


Remove all the distractionsStudy (Only classical music) Psychological tips: If distraction comesSay to yourself Im going to study for 5 more minutes. Before you start learning Make list of all that you want to study. Then take short breaks. Exercising regularly: A fit body supports a healthy mind, improves oxygen intake and generates dopamine hormone that gives sense of pleasure Napping- 10to 20 minutes & sleep 7-9 hours Prepare memory jog(To do list) Be a social butterfly.

Association, dancing, learning new language, rhyming etc improves memory Game playing- builds adaptive neural network Rehearsing- Reinforce associated neural networks and learning. Hydration- Speed neural firing- results in decrese in cognitive functions. Showering in dark, closed eye showring