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CESARIA A. YALONG, RN, MAN
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: y Formulate their own definition of research and nursing research y Describe the characteristics of research and the researcher y Explain the importance/purpose of nursing research/ roles of nurses in research y Trace the history of nursing research
.A - WHAT is Research? 1. Research 2. Nursing research
B. Importance of research in nursing C. Roles of nurses in research D. Purposes of nursing research E. Evolution/ History of nursing research F. Future directions for nursing research
WHAT IS RESEARCH? .
Systematic inquiry or study To validate & refine existing Knowledge and Develop new knowledge .RESEARCH French word . CERCHIER == To search Prefix re === again Search again & again Examine Carefully Diligent.
NURSING RESEARCH? .
y Concerned with knowledge that directly and indirectly influences clinical nursing practice (Burns and Grove. .Various definition: y A systematic search for and validation of knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession (Polit and Hungler. 1997). 1999).
NURSING RESEARCH A systematic process that validates & refines knowledge and generates new existing knowledge that directly and indirectly influence nursing practice .
.NURSING RESEARCH development of knowledge about. 1981) . care of persons with health problems & disabilities. health & promotion of health over the full life span. & nursing actions to enhance the ability of individuals to respond effectively to actual or potential problems (ANA..
3 MAJOR AREAS OF CONCERN IN NURSING RESEARCH: 1. practice of nursing 3. nursing education 2. nursing service .
B .The importance of research in nursing the primary task of nursing research is the development and refinement of nursing theories which serve as guides to nursing practice and which can be organized into a body of scientific nursing knowledge (Rozella Schlotfeldt. 1960) .
11 Characteristics of Research 1. principles and theories that may be helpful in predicting future occurrences. Emphasizes the develop- ment of generalizations. . Directed towards the solution of a problem. 2.
4. y careful examination of detailed components of the object of study. It involves the gathering of new and existing data from new sources or first-hand information y Research is original work.3. . .Collect data-> Rigorous analysis/interpretation y critical analysis of all the data used so that there is no error in their interpretation. Analytical. y uses published research to bolster that insight.
and valid data. 6. . y The researcher uses valid and carefully designed procedures. valid data gathering instruments. Requires expertise y Research is done by an expert. All procedures employed and the data gathered are perceived in the same manner by all observers.5. It is empirical.
Honest and characterized by patient & unhurried activities. Strives to be logical.researcher has confidence in the results. y Research is patient and unhurried activity. . y Research is objective. 8. and logical. y All findings and conclusions are logically based on empirical data and no effort is made to alter the results of the research. y This to ensure accuracy. unbiased.apply every possible test to validate the procedures being employed <.7.
etc 11. . . Can be replicated.9. . ideas. Carefully recorded and reported .uses or shows new methods.to other persons interested in the problem.Reproducibility: Is your experiment/thesis designed flawlessly with clear procedures so that others can test your findings? 10 Requires innovative approaches.
y Values Derived in Research y y Critical thinking y Creativity and innovativeness y Intellectual integrity y Patience and perseverance y Widening of perspective y Advancement of moral/social responsibility y Objectivity/adherence to truth y .
vocabulary. etc.y Difficulties encountered in Research y y Recognizing problems y Duplication y Indifference to Research y Lack of facilities and materials y Financial difficulties y Lack of adequate and expert research consultants y Others (technical.) y . uncooperative subjects/respondents. know-how.
RESEARCH COORDINATOR.trained in a specific method of data collection 3.leader of research team 2. RESEARCH ASSISTANT.helps run the daily operations of the study .C .ROLES OF NURSES IN RESEARCH P R R I D E S A C C U 1. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR.
IDENTIFIER 5. fulfillment of university requirements or obtaining permission for oral presentation .assesses quality of a scientific research document for publication.MEMBER .4. EVALUATOR/CRITIC.collect data from clients for another person s research project 6. DATA COLLECTOR. securing support funds.
. ADVISER/ CONSULTANT. CLIENT / PATIENT ADVOCATE.7. SUBJECT or PARTICIPANT.protects the rights of the healthcare provider s client and speaks on his behalf if he happens to be a subject in a research investigation conducted in a clinical setting.shares his knowledge to the investigator/researcher/research team and offers guidance in the proper conduct of the study 9.a person who has decided to take part in the research by signing a consent form and by providing target information with the aid of appropriate research instruments 8.
11.member of the research team with the responsibility of helping the principal investigator and other member of the team in the proper conduct of the study.10. USER/CONSUMER OF RESEARCH FINDINGS . CO-INVESTIGATOR.Promoter of better quality care of clients by utilizing evidence-based best practice .
Applied research. Cause and Field. Historical ( DDEACH) 3. Correlational. Pure or basic research b. Non-experimental b. Developmental. Quasiexperimental.1. Paradigm for Nursing Research . 2. 6 Purposes of Nursing Research 4.1. 7 Characteristics of Nurse Researcher 2. Experimental True experimental. Pre-experimental ( TPQ) b.Descriptive. Types of research a. Evolution of Nursing Research 3. Ex Post Facto. Sources of Evidence for Nursing Practice 4. Action.
5 pts. b. Trace the Evolution of Nursing Research starting from the time of Florence Nightingale. Creativity----------5 pts . Submit next Monday 4. Content-----------.ASSIGNMENT 1.10 pts. c. Criteria of grading= 20 pts. 2. Place in a short coupon bond ( maximum of 5 pages and of any color) 3. Organization----. a.
Creative Thinking -----ability to go beyond what already exist & develop various ways of doing things y C.Critical Thinking ----.7 CHARACTERISTICS OF NURSE RESEARCHERS(C3H2AP) y C.eager to seek information undertake inquiry and serious thinking about situations and problems affecting nurses and nursing. y C.Ability to relate study to a known theory Clinical expertise and a working knowledge of the scientific problem-solving technique help to a great extent in formalizing the study. .Curiosity -----.
analyzing. analyzing and reporting data y Intellectual honesty Researchers are honest in collecting. and reporting data .Honesty ----Intellectual honesty==collecting.y H.
Ability to relate their study to a known Theory y P. rewriting manuscripts until the study becomes an integrated whole .long hour of digging up. sorting.(C3H2AP) y H.Patience and discipline to see the study through --.Humour ----sense of humour as to accept inadequacies in the study as basis for improvements y A.Characteristics of Nurse Researchers.
EVOLUTION OF NURSING RESEARCH Florence Nightingale in 1859 ---.focus: significance of a healthy environment in the promotion of the patient s physical and well-being .D .
Research was introduced & the steps in baccalaureate level by nursing schools . research emphasis is on the organization and delivery of nursing of nursing services Nursing Research in 1950 and 1960 research emerged as high priority with support from nursing leaders HENDERSON & ABDELLAH.Evolution of nursing research Nursing Research in 1900-1950 1st publication of American Journal of Nursing.
new journals were published (Advances in Nursing Sciences. Many clinical journals published like cancer nursing.Evolution of nursing research Nursing Research in 1970 . etc.researches was on the improvement of nursing practice. CV nursing. Image. Nursing Research in 1980 .focus was on the conduct of clinical nursing research. Western Journal of Nursing research). NCNR (national center for nursing research) created in 1985. Research in Nursing & Health. .
outcomes research has come out as an important methodology.Evolution of nursing research Research in 1990 (Present and Future) NCNR renamed NINR( national institute for nursing research) under Dr. Hinshaw. .
y thurs .
or a prevailing condition.Prediction provides knowledge to estimate effects of a given situation. regular exercises. P.P I E C E D 1. and no smoking on health status and longevity? (2) What are the effects of prolonged bed rest on the hospitalized patient s recovery? E .6 PURPOSES OF NURSING RESEARCH . Examples: (1) What are the effect of health behaviours like balanced diet.
. I. Example: People with diabetes investigation aimed at discovering the basic social problems affecting their adherence to health care directives.Purposes of nursing research 2.Identification Identifying or naming an unknown phenomenon in relation to the practice. defining or conceptualizing under inquiry.
Purposes of nursing research 3. the manner in which it is manifested. Exploration NOT only simply observing and describing it. and the factors to which it is related Provides insights. It asks the question WHAT in order to investigate the causes or full nature of an existing particular question. . exploratory research investigates the full nature of the phenomenon.
Examples: (1) What factors diminish or increase a patient s stress? (2) How is a patient s stress related to the behaviours of the nursing staff? (3) To what extent stress relates to the patient s cultural backgrounds? .
Follows prediction of the outcome of a given situation.Control The manipulation of a given situation to produce the desired outcome . It provides a barrier to hinder or minimize the effects of a predicted outcome. Prediction and control combined in nursing research may specify psychological and physiological reactions possible to nursing intervention.Purposes of nursing research 4. C. .
.We can partially control the outcome by educating women about the risks and offering amniocentesis to women older than 35 years of age. ---We can predict that a woman aged 40 yrs old is at higher risk for bearing a child with Down Syndrome than a women aged 25 years.Example: Research has shown that the incidence of Down Syndrome in infant increases with the age of the mother. --.
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT). and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities. . is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus. which contains fetal tissues. is a procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections . in which a small amount of amniotic fluid.
.Down syndrome (DS). It's this extra genetic material that causes the physical features and developmental delays associated with DS. In most cases of Down syndrome. both mentally and physically. at the time of conception a baby inherits genetic information from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes: 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. It affects about 1 in every 800 babies. a child gets an extra chromosome 21 for a total of 47 chromosomes instead of 46. Normally. is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops. also called Trisomy 21.
Purposes of nursing research
5. E- Explanation - Attempts to provide understanding of the underlying causes or full nature of a phenomenon.
- Offers understanding, clarification, and
WHY a certain phenomenon occurs. Examples: (1) Why do patients in the ICU need to feel safe? or Why is it significant to provide for the psychological needs of patients in the ICU?
(3) Describing the experience of waiting in a critical care room.Purposes of nursing research 6. It provides new information. count. (2) Describing quantitative changes in psychological and psychosocial resources six months after kidney transplantation. delineate. D. pain management. and classify. Examples: (1) Describing varied phenomena such as: patients stress and coping. health beliefs and practices. Nurse researcher observes.Description Describing a phenomenon affecting the nursing profession. rehabilitation success and nursing care. adaptation processes. .
SOURCES OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE yCustoms and Traditions yAuthority yTrial and error as means of discovering knowledge/Staff Development and Experience yDisciplined research .
.SOURCES OF EVIDENCE FOR NURSING PRACTICE 1. Authority experts or authorities in a given field often provide knowledge for other people. Custom and Tradition handling down knowledge from one generation to another and leads to actions that occur because we ve always done it that way 2.
Logical Reasoning . intellectual faculties.alternatives are tried successively until a solution to a problem is found 5. Trial and error . and formal system of thought.Combines experience.3. . Clinical Experience 4.
confirmatory strategies 5. Promotion of evidence-based practice aim: Provide the best possible care based on the best available research 2. Use of multiple.G . Expanded dissemination of research findings 6. Increased multidisciplinary collaboration 3. Increased visibility of nursing research .RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN THE FUTURE 1. Greater focus on outcomes research aim: assessing and document the effectiveness of health care services 4.
naturalistic/ constructivism yC.yII PARADIGMS OF RESEARCH yA. participatory/ advocacy yD. positivisms yScientific yPost positivism yB. pragmatism .
The design of a research study begins with the selection of a topic and a paradigm. .
PARADIGMS FOR NURSING RESEARCH A world view: basic set of beliefs that guide action (Guba. with certain assumption about reality . 1990: 17) A general perspective on the complexities of the real world.
PARADIGM y A diagrammatic representation of a conceptual framework .
. y to be located in a particular paradigm is to view the world in a particular way.y It provides a conceptual framework for seeing and making sense of the social world.
y The significance of paradigms is that they shape how we perceive the world and are reinforced by those around us. it allows them to identify their role in the research process. determine the course of any research project and distinguish other perspectives. y For the researcher it is important to recognise their paradigm. . the community of practitioners.
they are to be judged as useful or useless in specific situations only. .y Therefore. paradigms are never right or wrong but merely different ways of looking at society. In that respect.
A PARADIGM ENCOMPASSES FOUR ELEMENTS/ CATEGORIES Epistemology.Axiology and .Ontology .Methodology - . .
Borg. What is there that can be known about the form and nature of reality? Single or multiple y Ontology raises basic questions about the nature of y Denzin and Lincoln (2001) listed three categories of those beliefs: y Ontology: what kind of being is the human being. y Ontology deals with the question of what is real. 1996) reality.y Epistomology asks How do we know the world? What is the relationship between the inquirer and the known? Source of Data: Subject or Participant (reciprocity) y Epistemology: what is the relationship between the inquirer and the known: "epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge and the process by which knowledge is acquired and validated" (Gall. & Gall. .
y Ontology raises basic questions about the nature of reality. y Ontology deals with the question of what is real. What is there that can be known about the form and nature of reality? Single or multiple y Denzin and Lincoln (2001) listed three categories of those beliefs: y Ontology: what kind of being is the human being. .
or gain knowledge of it? .y Axiology. Subjectivity: Bias y axiology deals with the issues about value. and how best to use research products (Baptiste. 2000). y Specific assumptions about research include the role of value in research.values: objectivity vs. how to avoid value from influencing research. How can the inquirer (would-beknower) go about finding out whatever he or she believes can be known?: Data obtained y Methodology: how do we know the world. y Methodology focuses on how we gain knowledge about the world.
claims about what exists. p. 2000. what units make it up and how these units interact with each other. 8) . ontological assumptions are concerned with what we believe constitutes social reality (Blaikie.ontology y Norman Blaikie offers a fuller definition. y In short. suggesting that ontological claims are claims and assumptions that are made about the nature of social reality. what it looks like.
especially in regard to its methods. validation and the possible ways of gaining knowledge of social reality.y Epistemology. one of the core branches of philosophy. whatever it is understood to be. is concerned with the theory of knowledge. .
Epistemologic How is the inquirer related to those being researched? Inquirer is independent from those being researched. findings are the creation of the interactive process . findings are not influenced by the researcher Inquirer interacts with those being researched.
objectivity is sought. Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable .Axiologic What is the role of values in the inquiry? Values & biases are to be held in check.
findings are the creation of the interactive process Axiologic Values and What is the role biases are to be of values in the held in check.ASSUMPTION POSITIVIST PARADIGM NATURALISTIC PARADIGM Ont l ic ( at is t e at re f eality?) Epistemologic How is the inquirer related to those being researched? Reality exists. inquiry? objectivity is sought. findings are not influenced by the researcher Reality is multiple and subjective. there is a real world driven by real natural causes The inquirer is independent from those being researched. Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable . mentally constructed by individuals The inquirer interacts with those being researched.
Emphasis on entirety of some specific concepts phenomenon. part of the process Flexible.statistical analysis Seeks generalization Focus on the product Narrative information. Quantitative Information.Methodologic Deductive processes How is the evidence best obtained? Inductive processes Emphasis on discrete. Focus on the objective and Focus on the subjective and quantifiable nonquantifiable Verifications of researchers prediction Outsider knowledgeresearcher is external separate Fixed pre-specified design Measured. emergent design . qualitative analysis Seeks indepth understanding Focus on the product and the process Emerging insights grounded in participant s experiences. holistic. Insider knowledge-researcher is internal.
Pragmatism . Positivism/Postpositivism y2. Constructivism/ Naturalism y3.4 different worldviews y1. Advocacy/Participatory y4.
Collaborative measurement historical .Real-world practice oriented .Empowerment .Change .Multiple .Reductionism .Empirical participant and observation meanings issue oriented and .FOUR WORLDVIEWS USED IN RESEARCH Postpositivism Constructivism Advocacy and Participatory .Understanding .Social and .Consequences of actions .Political .Determination .Theory construction oriented verification .Pluralistic .Problem centered .Theory generation Source: Creswell (2003) Pragmatism .
Grounded theory 3. Quasi-experimental 4. Phenomenological 2. Correlational research 3. Historical .Types of Research according to General Classification A. Qualitative Research Types: 1. Expereimental B. Ethnographic 4. Quantitative Research Types: 1. Descriptive Research 2.
Is a formal.Systematic subjective approach to describe life experiences and give meaning . powerlessness and comfort.Used to describe and promote understanding of human experinces such as pain.Quantitative Research . caring. objective. systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world Qualitative Research . .
and understanding y Interpretive y Whole is greater than the parts y Report rich narrative y Researcher part of the process y Uniqueness . and predicti n y Meas rable y arts e al t e le y y y eport statistical analyses esearc er separate eneralization Qualitative y Subjectivity valued y Multiple realities y Discovery. description. c ntr l.Comparison of Research Approaches Quantitati y Objectivity val e y One reality y e cti n.
Quasi-experimental 4. Quantitative Research Types: 1.A. Correlational research 3. Descriptive Research 2. Expereimental .
P D E E C P dentification .. E 5. E 6.Purposes of Nursing Research I 1. C 7..escription .rediction .xploration . I 3. D 4...ontrol .xplanation .
Identification Naming an unknown phenomenon in relation to the nursing practice Example : People with diabetes and hypertension investigation discovering the basic social problems affecting their adherence to health care directives. .Purposes of Nursing Research 1.
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