High- and Low- Context Cultures ± Edward T Hall

‡ High Context
± Information resides in context ± Emphasis on background, basic values, societal status ± Less emphasis on legal paperwork ± Focus on personal reputation ‡ Saudi Arabia, Japan

‡ Low Context
± Messages are explicit and specific ± Words carry all information ± Reliance on legal paperwork ± Focus on nonpersonal documentation of credibility ‡ Switzerland, United States, Germany

High.Context Cultures Factor/Dimension Lawyers A person¶s word Responsibility for organizational error Space Time Competitive bidding High Context Less important Is his/her bond Taken by highest level People breathe on one another Polychronic Infrequent Low Context Very important Is not reliable²get it in writing Pushed to the lowest level Private space maintained Monochronic Common .and Low.

Japan and Austria . low power distance characterizes Scandinavia. ‡ Individualism/Collectivism ± Degree to which individuals in a society are integrated into groups. In individualist cultures.g. each person is concerned with self-interest. society¶s members are integrated into cohesive in-groups. E. Hong Kong and France are high power distance cultures.Hofstede¶s Cultural Typology ‡ Power Distance ± Extent to which the less powerful members of a society accept power to be distributed unequally. In collectivist cultures.

competitive and concerned with material success.Hofstede¶s Cultural Typology ‡ Masculinity/Femininity ± In a µmasculine¶ society. Femininity ± social roles of men and women overlap. Spain. Women fulfil the role of nurturer and are concerned with issues such as the welfare of children. E. Taiwan. with neither gender exhibiting overly ambitious or competitive behaviour. Netherlands.g. men are expected to be assertive. Scandinavia .

‡ Long-term Orientation (Chinese Value Survey) ± sense of immediacy within a culture. ± Long-term values include persistence (perseverance). whether gratification should be immediate or deferred.Hofstede¶s Cultural Typology ‡ Uncertainty Avoidance ± extent to which the members of a society are uncomfortable with unclear. ± A sense of shame leads to sensitivity in social contacts. ± Thrift manifests itself in high savings rates. ± Ordering relationships by status reflects the presence of societal hierarchies. Southeast Asia and India. Greece and Portugal ± high in this. . relativistic and tolerant. ambiguous or unstructured situations. e. Acceptance of uncertainty is seen in behaviour that is more contemplative.g.

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