Human Parasitology

Shandong University Department of Parasitology He Shenyi (何深一 ) MD, Ph.D. Professor

Introduction to Human Parasitology
 Concept of Human Parasitology  The Scope of Human Parasitology  Terms of Parasitology  Parasites’ Harms to Man  Human Immunity against Parasites  Characteristics of parasitic diseases

Human parasitology
 Human parasitology is the study of those

organisms which parasitise humans. According to the very broad definition of parasitology, parasites should include the viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa (multi-celled organisms) which infect their host species. However, for historical reasons the first three have been incorporated into the discipline of Microbiology.

2. The Scope of Human Parasitology
Parasitology claims those protozoa (single celled animals), helminths (worms) and arthropods whose existence depends on the availability of host animals It is also possible to argue about whether certain insects and mites are "temporary parasites" or "micro-predators", insects as a group belong to the discipline of Entomology, while ticks and mites are the concern of Acarology. The insects that are of most interest in human parasitology are those that are vectors of several parasitic infections. infections

• Class Lobosea Medical Protozoology • Class Zoomastigophorea • Class Sporozoa • Class Ciliophora • Class Nematoda • Class Trematoda Human Parasitology Medical Helminthology • Class Cestoda • Class Metacanthocephala Medical Arthropodology • • • • Class Class Class Class Insecta Arachnida Crustacea Chilopoda .

Class Lobosea Entamoeba histolytica Non-pathogenic amoeba .

Class Zoomastigophorea Leishmania sp Giardia Trichomonas vaginalis .

Class Sporozoa Plasmodium spp Toxopasma gondii Cryptosporidium Pneumocycstis carinii .

Class Ciliophora – Balantidium coli .


Class Nematoda  Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichiura Hookworm Enterobius vermicularis Filaria Trichinella spiralis .

Nematoda .

Class Trematoda  Clonorchis sinensis Fasciolopsis buski Paragonimus westermani Schistosoma japonicum .

Trematoda .

Class Cestoda  Taenia solium Taenia saginata Echinococcus granulosus .

Cestoda .

Class Metacanthocephala Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus .

Class Insecta Anopheles sinensis Lucilia sericata Lice Sandflies . Fleas .


Class Arachnida Ticks. Mites Sarcopes scabiei follicle mite .

Class Crustacea  Cambaroides  Potamon .

Class Chilopoda centipede .

4. Terms of Parasitology .

Symbiosis (1)Symbiosis (共同生活) Two different organisms live together and interact. . including 3 types:Mutualism. in this association one partner lives in or on another one’s body. Parasitism. Commensalism.

. The mutuals are metabolically dependent on one another. one cannot survive in the absence of the other.Symbiosis *(2)Mutualism( 互利共生) is a permanent association between two different organisms that life apart is impossible. such as termites and flagellates. two partners benefit each other.


Symbiosis (3) Commensalism (片利共生或共栖) is the association of two different organisms. (4) Parasitism (寄生关系) is the association of two different organisms. such as E. such as Ascaris lumbricoides and man. . in which one partner is benefited while the other is injured. coli and man. in which one partner is benefited while the other neither benefited nor injured.

Parasite (5) Parasite (寄生虫) In parasitism. it is the benefited partner. It is an animal organism which lives in or on the host in order to obtain nourishment and shelter from the host as well as does harms to the host. .

Parasite endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite .

Endoparasite .

Ectoparasite .

. it supplies parasite with nourishment and shelter. it is injured partner.Host (6) Host (宿主) In parasitism. the the (7) Carrier (带虫者) A person who harbours parasite has no clinical symptoms. is an important source of infection in epidemiology.

according to priority they are classified into first intermediate host.(8) Definitive (final) host (终宿 主) harbours adult or sexually reproductive stage of a parasite. . (9) Intermediate host (中间宿 主) harbours larval or asexually reprodctive stage of a parasite. second intermediate host. third intermediate host.

They are an important source of infection in epidemiology. .(10) Reservoir hosts (保虫宿主) are the vertebrate hosts which harbour the same species of parasite at same stage as a human host.

) . (These animals infected with parasites are called reservoir hosts.Zoonosis (11) Zoonosis (人兽共患病) refers to animal’s diseases which can be transmitted to man.

. they can continue to develop into adults there. If the larvae have a chance to enter their appropriate hosts.(12) Paratenic host or transport host (转续宿主) is an abnormal host in which some parasitic larvae can survive but can’t develop into adults.

.(13) Larva migrans (幼虫移行 症) means that the larvae living in their abnormal hosts in which they can not grow into adults but can wander everywhere and cause the local and systemic pathological lesions of the hosts.

development and reproduction. (15)Infective Stage (感染期) is a stage when a parasite can invade human body and live in it . . which proceeds in one or more different hosts depending on the species of parasites.Life cycle (14) Life cycle (生活史) is the process of a parasite’s growth.

such as the cercariae of the blood fluke actively penetrate the skin of a swimming man and the infective ascaris eggs are swallowed by man. .Life cycle (16) Infective Route (感染途径) is the specific entrance through which the parasite invades the human body. (17) Infective Mode (感染方式) means how the parasite invades human body.

this phenomenon is called alternation of generation.Life cycle (18) Alternation of Generation: In life cycles of some parasites. . such as the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax. there are the regular alternations of sexual and asexual reproductions .

ascarid eggs and amoebic cysts. which is not indispensable for the disease transmission. . such as flies carry typhoid bacilli.(19) Mechanical Transmission: Arthropods play a role of the transportation of pathogens.

(20) Biological Transmission: Pathogens have to spend a part of their life cycle in the vector arthropods in which they multiply or develop into the infective stage and then invade the human body under the help of the arthropod. such as Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria. .

Evolution of Parasitism endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite Free living Commensalism (片利共生) Symbiosis Mutualism (互利共生) Parasitism carrier parasite Host Patient Final host Intermediate host Reservoir host Zoonosis Paratenic host Larva migrans .

g. schistosoma liver cirrhosis. Parasites’ Harms to Man  Mechanical effects of parasites on host tissues and organs: e. spiders and ticks introduce venom when they insert their mouth parts into the skin. hookworms suck blood. g.  Toxic effect: e. biliary ascariasis and larva migrans.  Depriving nourishment from hosts: e.  Immuno-pathological lesion e.. . mosquitoes.4.g. . when hydatid fluid is released from the rupture of a hydatid cyst anaphylaxis often results. g.

It refers to Non-sterilizing immunity (Premunition 带虫 免疫; Concomitant immunity 伴随免疫 ). This situation is known as premunition( 带虫免疫 ). hookworms and other parasites. This may be of great importance in endemic areas in limiting the severity of infection with Plasmodium. Schistosome . The host may be protected from superinfection 重复感染 as long as the parasites remain in the body.5. Human Immunity against Parasites  Its intensity and specificity are usually at a lower level than those produced by bacteria and viruses. .

(WHO) . Schistosomiasis  2.Priority Diseases  1. Malaria  3. Filariasis  4. Leishmaniasis  6. Leprosy (replaced by HIV/AIDS) . Trypanosomiasis  5.

000 deaths/year  Malaria .Why were they selected? Schistosomiasis .000 deaths/year  Leishmaniasis .1.  .000.500.000.000 infected  Trypanosomiasis .250.000 infected  Approximately 25% of world's population infected by one of these.000- infected 65.200.000 deaths/year  Filariasis .25.000.300.000 infected  Leprosy .000 infected 2.000 infected 500.000.200.500.

Vector-borne . No practical chemotherapy  4. No effective vaccine  3. Affect young  5.General Characteristics:  1. Chronic diseases  2. Affect underprivileged  6.

Presence of a suitable host  2. Habits of the host  3. Escape from the host  4.Geographic Distribution Factors (Endemicity):  1. Favorable conditions outside of host  5. Economic and social conditions .

Presence of Diseases in a Population (Prevalence):  Factors required:  1. Source  infected persons  carriers  animals .

Mode of transmission  direct  indirect  vectors  3. Susceptible host  immunity .Presence of Diseases in a Population (Prevalence):  2.

water. Route of transmission 3. intermediate host.Three key links of disease transmission 1. water. Susceptible people excrement secretion blood focus of infection food. insects sucking blood. grass mouth skin or wound mucosa placenta . finger direct or indirect contact blood transfusion. congenital .Source of infection 2. touch soil. injection.

Clinical diagnosis  2. Laboratory diagnosis .Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections:  1.

Treatment of Parasitic Infections:  1. Medical and surgical  2. Adequate nutrition . Chemotherapy  3.

Reduction in sources  2. Education  3.Prevention and Control:  1. Destruction and/or control of reservoir hosts and vector .