Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) CHARACTERISTICS ‡ Single stranded RNA ‡ reverse transcriptase ‡ Envelope of phospholipid (has glycoprotein spikes termed gp120 ‡ Belongs to Type D Retrovirus

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
TRANSMISSION Route of HIV Transmission include: ‡ Intimate sexual contact- most dangerous is the anal receptive intercourse ‡ Breast milk ‡ Transplacental infection of a fetus ‡ Blood-contained needles ‡ Organ transplants ‡ Artificial insemination ‡ Blood transfusion

contains 1000 to 100.000 infective viruses per milliliter ‡ Semen.contains 10 to 50 viruses per milliliter INCUBATION PERIOD ‡ Average of 8 years .Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) TRANSMISSION ‡ Requires transfer/ direct contact with infected body fluids ‡ Blood.

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DISEASE ‡ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) ± condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail. ± HIV causes AIDS by damaging the immune system cells until the immune system can no longer fight off other infections that it would usually be able to prevent. . leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections.

asymptomatic.infections by the yeast Candida Albicans.Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) STAGES OF HIV INFECTION: 1. may cause swollen lymph nodes 2. whitish patches on the oral mucosa 3. Category A. which can appear in the mouth. throat. or vagina.This stage is clinical AIDS . Category C. Category B.

or HAART. ‡ Treatment of opportunistic infections depends on the organisms . Zalcitabine (ddc) to inhibit viral replication ‡ Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Didanosine (ddl).Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) TREATMENT ‡ Azidothymidine.

‡ If an infected woman becomes pregnant. ‡ HIV-infected women should avoid pregnancy. ‡ HIV-infected mothers should bottle-feed their babies .Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PREVENTION ‡ AWARENESS! ‡ All adolescents should have access to HIV screening ‡ Abstaining from sex or using safe-sex practices. anti-HIV drugs are fairly effective at minimizing transmission. ‡ Also. caesarean delivery reduces the baby's risk of acquiring HIV infection.

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) .


Hepatitis B Virus .

I Type ‡ one of the smallest enveloped animal viruses. .Hepatitis B Virus CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VIRUS ‡ Incomplete circular double stranded DNA with lipid envelope and DNA polymerase. with a virion diameter of 42 nm ‡ consists of a core particle which is made up of DNA and the core antigen (HBcAg). ‡ The envelope contains the surface antigen (HBsAg).

and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth. INCUBATION PERIOD ‡ The incubation period before the appearance of symptoms averages about 12 weeks ‡ The range is about 4-26 weeks .Hepatitis B Virus TRANSMISSION ‡ Exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. re-use of contaminated needles & syringes. ‡ Possible forms include sexual contact. blood transfusions.

Hepatitis B Virus DISEASE ‡ Viral Hepatitis B or Serum Hepatitis ± Infection of liver and blood characterized by weakness. abdominal discomfort fever and jaundice that is likely to progress to severe liver damage . nausea. joint pain.

Hepatitis B Virus PATHOGENESIS ‡ The hepatitis B virus primarily interferes with the functions of the liver by replicating in liver cell ‡ During HBV infection. . the host immune response causes both hepatocellular damage and viral clearance. ‡ antigen nonspecific inflammatory cells can worsen the cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-induced immunopathology ‡ platelet activated at the site of infection facilitate the accumulation of CTLs into the liver.

.Hepatitis B Virus RELEVANCE TO DENTISTRY ‡ Instances of transmission to patients by dentists and surgeons ‡ Failure to sterilize needles (intravenous drugs) ‡ Dentists who are in daily contact with blood have a considerably higher incidence of HBV than members of general population.

and prevent liver damage such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.Hepatitis B Virus TREATMENT ‡ It does not usually require treatment because most adults clear the infection spontaneously. adefovir and entecavir. ‡ Drugs can stop the virus from replicating. ‡ Treatments include antiviral drugs such as lamivudine. and immune system modulators such as interferon alpha. .

‡ transmission during child birth ‡ Infants may be vaccinated at birth .Hepatitis B Virus PREVENTION Avoid: ‡ unprotected sexual contact ‡ blood transfusions ‡ re-use of contaminated needles and syringes.

Hepatitis B Virus PREVENTION ‡ Hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine confers active immunity ‡ Hepatitis B immunoglobulin confers passive immunity .

Hepatitis B Virus .

Hepatitis B Virus .

Leptospira Interrogans .

‡ Slow growing in culture ‡ Survives in a moist environment for weeksmonths . ‡ 2 flagella of Leptospira extend from the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasmic space. necessary for the motility of Leptospira.Leptospira Interrogans CHARACTERISTICS ‡ Obligate aerobe spirochete ‡ Gram-negative-like cell envelope consisting of a cytoplasmic and outer membrane.

esp.Leptospira Interrogans HABITAT & TRANSMISSION ‡ Wild and domestic animals ‡ Direct contact of the skin. moist soil or vegetation contaminated with rat urine . open wounds with water.

Leptospira Interrogans DISEASE ‡ Leptospirosis. including liver and kidney. due to immunopathologic reaction against pathogen characterized by: ± Flu-like symptoms ± Jaundice ± Organ damage .infection of organs.

.Leptospira Interrogans PATHOGENESIS ‡ No toxins or virulence known ‡ Occurs as an initial bacterimic phase ‡ subsequent immunopathologic consequences in kidney and liver INCUBATION PERIOD ‡ 7-19 days. with average of 10 days.

Leptospira Interrogans TREATMENT ‡ treatment of leptospirosis involves high doses of antibiotics: Penicillin G or Tetracycline PREVENTION ‡ Rat control ‡ Vaccination of domestic pets ‡ Doxycycline for short-term exposure .



petechial rash conjunctival suffusion .

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