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• • • • • • • • Background to Third Generation 3G Drivers 3G Standards Understanding CDMA UMTS Air Interface UMTS Radio Access Network UMTS Mobiles Interworking and the 3G Core Network
UMTS Air Interface
• • • •
Implementation of W-CDMA Implementation of TD-CDMA Control channels Traffic channels
IMT-2000 Spectrum ITU
1885 1980 2010 2025
M S S
M S S
M M IMTS S 2000 S S
1805 1880 1900 1920
License Excempt 211 0 2170 2200
D E C T
U T D D
M U FDD S Up S
U T D D
U FDD Down
M S S
HLR, etc Gateway GPRS Support Node
Serving GPRS Support Node
Role of the Air Interface
• To provide a number of bearer or physical channels to support data transfer over the radio path. • To provide control channels to manage the cell • To provide a number of traffic channels at an acceptable error performance and at various rates • To provide signalling channels for call set up, etc. • In providing all of this to also – ensure an efficient use of the available spectrum – Minimise interference to other cells and services – Minimise the use of power, particularly from the mobile – provide synchronisation
urban Speech.384 kbit/s symmetric 384 kbit/s symmetric High Capacity for circuitswitched services. CTS Cell types Macro.GPRS National Speech: 64 kbit/s symmetric 110 kbit/s symmetric Moderate Network-wide coverage UTRA/FDD Suburban. indoor Speech. citywide coverage for packet services. Picocell. microcell Source: Alcatel 20/06/11 3G_1 . capacity for packet services. interregional roaming Macro. video384 kbit/s symmetric 2 Mbit/s asymmetric Very high Unpaired frequency band.Overview Access Method Coverage Circuit Services Packet Services Capacity Key usage GSM . video. microcell UTRA/TDD Urban. indoor coverage and capacity for all services. private applications using UMTS CTS Microcell.
W-CDMA Air Interface Multiple Access Scheme Duplexing Method Chip Rate Bandwidth Carrier Spacing Frame Length Slots per Frame Inter-cell Synchronisation Spreading factor User Data Rate Direct Sequence CDMA FDD 3.84 Mcps 5 MHz 200 kHz Raster 10 ms 15 None Variable (4-512) 8->384 kbps NB Other chip rates are listed but not defined 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Channels. Channels. Channels Dedicated Common And then there’s the uplink and downlink Traffic Channels Control Channels Logical/Transport Channels Physical Channels 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Major Transport Channels for UMTS • Common Control Channels – BCH Broadcast Channel – FACH Forward Access Channel – PCH Paging Channel – RACH Random Access Channel Dedicated Channels – DCH Dedicated Channel – DSCH Downlink Shared Channel • 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Carrying the Transport Channels Logical Channels Physical Channels BCH FACH PCH RACH DCH DSCH 20/06/11 Primary Common Control Physical Channel (Primary CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (Secondary CCPCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Synchronisation Channel (SCH) 3G_1 .
The Common Control Channels • The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to broadcast system and cell-specific information. The BCH is always transmitted over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate. 20/06/11 3G_1 . • The Paging Channel (PCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system does not know the location cell of the UE • The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system knows the location cell of the UE.. • The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink control channel from the UE. May also carry short user packets. May also carry short user packets.
one to identify the cell and the other to identify a particular channel within that cell. and. the uplink can use different streams transmitted on the I and Q branch • Consequently.Physical Channels • In UMTS the basic physical resource is a physical channel identified by code and frequency • For the downlink two codes are used. a physical channel corresponds to a specific carrier frequency. relative phase (0 or π /2) • Transport channels may also use time division multiplexing to identify them within a physical channel 20/06/11 3G_1 . code(s). in the up-link a long code is used to identify the channel • In addition to separation by code. on the uplink.
General Transport Channel Structure 0.625 ms. 20× 2k bits Data One Radio Frame Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot i Slot 15 10 ms Frame 1 This and some other slides based on a presentation by Fredrik Ovesjö of Ericsson Radio Systems AB Frame 2 Frame i Frame 72 One Super Frame = 72*10 ms SF=28-k 3G_1 20/06/11 .
Nothing Starts Until Synchronisation 2560 chips Slot #1 Slot #2 Data Pilot Slot #15 Data Pilot Primary CCPCH Primary SCH Secondary SCH Data Pilot Cp Cs Cp Cs Cp Cs 625 s 256 chips Cp: Primary Synchronisation Code Cs: One of 17 possible Secondary Synchronisation Codes • Cp is the same for all cells and is the pattern that is searched for on initial acquisition • Cs will then tell the mobile which group of long codes the particular cell is using 20/06/11 3G_1 .
g. etc • • • 20/06/11 3G_1 . e. GPS Makes for easier deployment.Cell Search and Synchronisation • • In UMTS base stations are not tightly synchronised (µ s-level) to a common reference. e. in indoor environments – All cells transmit different scrambling codes plus common synchronisation code UE searches for synchronisation code with matched filter – Synchronises to new cell and acquires time slot clock UE decodes secondary synch code – Identification of new cell – Radio frame synchronisation Can now use cell’s scrambling code to decode BCH – Contains superframe number.g.
The Broadcast Channel 625 s Syn “2 bits” Data 10 bits Pilot 8 bits Syn Data 10 bits Pilot 8 bits 32 kbps. SF=256 • BCH is transmitted continuously at constant power from each cell • Uses one of the 512 Primary Scrambling Codes • Channelisation code is same for all BCHs 20/06/11 3G_1 .
selective direction possible for FACH TFCI. set by BCH.The Secondary Common Control Physical Channel • Now we have acquired the cell we can do things • The cell communicates with UEs through PCH and FACH – These are carried on the Secondary CCPCH TFCI Data 625 s 20*2k bits Pilot • • • The SF is variable. is optional but must be supported by all UEs 3G_1 20/06/11 . table in notes provides the options Fixed power. Transport Format Combination Indicator.
tries again 3G_1 20/06/11 .Physical Random Access Channel • Used when UE wishes to communicate with cell • Power of transmitted PRACH is based on an estimate of downlink loss • Mobile randomly selects one of 16 preamble signatures from those listed in BCH (1 ms) • It then randomly selects a slot from 8 (slotted ALOHA) 10 ms Frame Boundary • • UE listens for an acknowledge on AICH In no acknowledge then reselects parameters and increases power .
Sending the RACH • • • • • Once an acknowledgement has been received then the RACH message can be received Message is sent on PRACH as 10 ms message made up of 15 slots Data and control are sent simultaneously on I or Q Number of data bits sent per block depends on SF selected Small packets of user data can be attached to RACH I Q Data Pilot (8) 625 s 10*2k data bits TFCI (2) K=0.3 20/06/11 3G_1 ..
5 ms Physical Shared Channel Control Channel (PSCCCH) and Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) are not included in Release 99 20/06/11 3G_1 . PICH. used to inform the UE that it should listen to the PCH • Both have a similar format and may be merged 20 symbols per slot 10 ms • • There is a fixed timing relationship between PRACH and AICH – Uplink and downlink slots are offset by 0. PSCCCH and PDSCH • The use of AICH has been explained • The PICH is the Paging Indication Channel.AICH.
Dedicated Physical Channel • Consists of two parts: – DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel) – Carries the user data DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel) Carries control information (pilot bits. power control and optional rate information) Data and control code multiplexed to avoid DTX based EMC problems Data and control time multiplexed DTX based EMC not a problem UE 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Parallel Services Time Mux Inner coding/interl.Multi-Service Time Multiplexing • Time multiplexing to one (or several) DPDCHs • • Relatively simple to implement EM interference results if DTX is used Time Mux Outer coding/interl. Time Mux DPDCH Service #1 20/06/11 3G_1 Service #2 Service #3 .
Multi-Code Time Multiplexing • Separate physical channels Coding/ interleaving Coding/ interleaving DPDCH #1 Service #1 DPDCH #2 Parallel Services Service #2 Coding/ interleaving DPDCH #N Service #N + – Independent quality control of each service and no EM problems Increased UE complexity • Increased envelope variations • Multiple RAKE receivers 3G_1 20/06/11 .
10× 2k bits k=0…6 DPDCH Data Pilot TFCI FBI TPC DPCCH Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot i Slot 15 10 ms Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame i Frame 72 One super frame = 720 ms 20/06/11 3G_1 .Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel Code Multiplexed 0.625 ms.
Transmit Power Control –2 bits per slot indicating an increase or decrease power FBI .Transport Format Combination Indicator –This is an optional field –Used where different formats (multiplexing or spreading factor) are used on a frame by frame basis (0 or 2 bits per slot) TPC .DCH Control Fields • Pilot –A predetermined bit pattern utilised by the rake receiver to estimate channel conditions (5.7or 8 bits per slot) –also used for coherent demodulation of the remaining data on the DCH TFCI .2 bits per slot) • • • 20/06/11 3G_1 .6.1.Feedback Indicator –Used for diversity working (0.
cDPCCH : cscram : b 20/06/11 Channelisation codes (OVSF codes. 4-256 chips) Complex signal spread by one of 225 complex Gold codes 3G_1 .84 Mcps cos(ω t) BPSK sin(ω t) cDPDCH .Uplink Spreading and Modulation 16*2K kbps cDPDCH DPDCH cDPCCH DPCCH Q I IQ Mux I+jQ Imag Pulse shaping (Root Raised Cosine) Additional DPDCHs may be added to either I or Q from a UE (multi-code transmission) cscram b Real 3.
4 = (1.1) c2.-1.3 = (1.1 = (22.214.171.124.2 = (1.1 = (1.1.-1) c4.2 = (1.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 20/06/11 3G_1 .-1.1) c4.-1) c2.1 = (1) c4.-1.-1) c1.-1.Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes • • • The channelisation codes are OVSF codes that ensure the separation between different physical channels They are arranged as a tree with the least spreading using the shortest codes (low bit rate) Using a low spreading code disables those below it c4.
Multicode Transmission (Uplink) cDPDCH1 I+jQ Real cos(ω t) cscram b BPSK DPDCH1 cDPDCH3 DPDCH3 cDPDCH5 Sum I Q sin(ω t) Imag Pulse shaping (Root Raised Cosine) DPDCH5 cDPDCH2 DPDCH2 cDPDCH3 DPDCH4 cDPDCH4 Sum *j Power Control DPCCH 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Uplink Variable Rate (No DTX) 10 ms 1-rate 1/2-rate 1/4-rate 0-rate Variable rate R=1 R = 1/2 R=0 R=0 R = 1/2 : DPCCH (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH (Data) 20/06/11 3G_1 .
6 TFCI Data1 TPC Data2 Pilot Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot i Slot 15 10 ms Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame i Frame 72 One super frame = 720 ms 20/06/11 3G_1 .625 ms. 20× 2k bits k=0….Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel Time Multiplexed DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH 0.
4-256 chips) cscram : Downlink scrambling code (Gold code. 40960 chips) b • OVSF codes ensure down link orthogonality even with different rates and spreading factors for different users 20/06/11 3G_1 .Downlink Spreading and Modulation 16*2K kbps cscram b DPDCH/DPCCH S-P cch Imag Real cos(ω t) QPSK sin(ω t) Cch : Channelisation codes (OVSF code.
Multicode Transmission (Downlink) cos(ω t) cscram b DPDCH1/DPCCH S-P cch1 Sum Imag Real sin(ω t) DPDCH2 S-P cch2 Sum *j 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Variable Rate Spreading Channel Channel SF Bit Rate Symbol (kbps) Rate (ksps) 16 16 32 32 64 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 8 8 16 16 32 32 64 128 256 512 1024 512 512 256 256 128 128 64 32 16 8 4 Bits/Frame Bits/ Slot DPDCH Bits/Slot NData1 10 10 20 20 40 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2 0 2 0 6 4 4 20 48 112 240 NData2 2 2 8 8 24 24 56 120 240 496 1008 DPCCH Bits/Slot NTFCI NTPC NPilot 0 2 0 2 0 2 8* 8* 8* 8* 8* 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 8 8 8 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 16 DPDCH DPCCH TOT 64 32 160 128 480 448 960 2240 4608 9728 19968 96 128 160 192 160 192 320 320 512 512 512 160 160 320 320 640 640 1280 2560 5120 10240 20480 20/06/11 3G_1 .
625 ms 1-rate 1/2-rate 1/4-rate 0-rate : DPCCH-part (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH-part (Data) 20/06/11 3G_1 .Downlink Variable Rate (DTX based) 0.
Downlink Variable Rate (DTX based) 10 ms 1-rate 1/2-rate 0-rate Variable rate R=1 : DPCCH-part (Pilot+TPC+RI) : DPDCH-part (Data) 20/06/11 3G_1 R=0 R = 1/2 R=1 .
625 ms Pilot 3G_1 .Power Control • Open and closed power control is used • Uplink channel power control at 1600 Hz – Node B measures SIR of pilot • Compares with reference value (from open loop) • Sets TPC bit – UE increases or decreases transmit power • Similarly for downlink channels • Different power levels can apply to different parts of the timeslot DPCH 20/06/11 TFCI TPC Data1 Data2 0.
If there is not enough time for BTS to respond to the TPC. Other ways of measurement are allowed to achieve accurate SIR estimation. 20/06/11 3G_1 From: TS 25.1.211 V2.Power Control Timing Time slot (625µs) DL DPCCH at BTS PILOT TF Data1 T P CI C Data2 PILOT T TF Data1 P CI C Propagation delay DL-UL timing offset (250µs) Response To TPC (*3) Data2 125µs( *2) Response to TPC PILOT T TF Data1 P C CI DL DPCCH at UE PILOT TF Data1 T P CI C DL SIR measurement(*1) SIR=Signal to Interference Ratio PILOT UL DPCCH at UE PILOT Time slot (625µs) Propagation delay TFCI TPC UL SIR measurement (*4) TFCI TPC PILOT UL DPCCH at BTS *1.4 *2 *3 PILOT The SIR measurement periods illustrated here are examples. Except the case of DL symbol rate=8ksps.0 (1999-06) . the action can be delayed until the next slot.
Rake Receiver Searcher SIGNAL Weightings Finger1 Finger2 Finger3 Finger4 Reinforced SIGNAL Finds top energies and time offsets Delay Delay Delay Multipath Diversity • • • 20/06/11 UMTS uses 6-12 fingers Delay between fingers is variable Also removes Doppler shift 3G_1 .
Channel Coding BER=10-3 Basic coding Conv. code Rate 1/3-1/2 Interleaving BER=10-6 RS code Rate ≈ 4/5 Outer Interleaving Conv. code Rate 1/3-1/2 Inner Interleaving Service-specific coding Examples of service-specific coding: • No coding • Turbo coding • Unequal error protection 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Convolutional Coder 1 bit in D D D D 2 bits out Exclusive or • • Rate r = ½ Length k = 5 In this example one bit enters and two bits leave (r = ½) – This coder would be initialised by four zeros Decoder is more complex – determines the most likely series of bits to have produced the received string Turbo coders are made of two convolutional coders with feedback and interleaving 3G_1 • 20/06/11 .
Interleaving Spreads the Bits • Unfortunately if the error rate gets high then convolutional codes can actually make things worse – Rayleigh fading results in errors occurring in bursts – Interleaving is needed to randomise burst errors 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 8 12 16 3 7 11 15 2 6 10 14 1 5 9 13 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Channel Coding Transport Channel Type BCH PCH FACH RACH DCH <= 32 kbps DCH > 32 kbps Coding Scheme Convolutional (K=9) Convolutional (K=9) Convolutional (K=9) Convolutional (K=9) Convolutional (K=9) Turbo R=1/2 R=1/2 R=1/2 R=1/2 R=1/3 R=1/3 Coding Rate 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Rate Matching • Match arbitrary rate after coding/multiplexing to limited set of channel (DPDCH) rates Uplink example: 10 ms frame Data (X bits) Coding Y bits Rate matching 160*2k bits 16*2k kbps DPDCH (SF = 256/2k) 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Rate Matching • Uplink – Unequal repetition or puncturing for all rates – Always continuous transmission – No zero-padding needed Downlink – Unequal repetition or puncturing for highest rate – DTX for lower rates – Possibility for low-complexity blind-rate detection • 20/06/11 3G_1 .
K = 9 3 × 96 = 288 bits Unequal repetition. R = 1/3.Example: Uplink 8 kbps Speech Service 10 ms frame Data (80 bits) CRC (8 bits) + Tail (8 bits) Convolutional coding. R = 9/10 10/9 × 288 = 320 bits 1 × 32 kbps DPDCH (SF = 128) 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Example: 32 kbps Data on DCH Uplink 10 ms 32 kbps data Add CRC 320 bits Data 320 bits 336 bits 1032 bits 1280 bits 1280 bits 80 bits 80 bits 80 bits 80 bits TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 3G_1 16 bits CRC 8 bits Tail Add tail bits Convolutional Coding Rate Matching Interleave Map to DPDCH 80 bits SF=32 TS15 20/06/11 .
Packet Access • Require fast access and efficient utilisation of radio resources – Quick connection set-up – Small overhead for small packets – Closed loop power controlled large packets – Scheduling • Dual-mode scheme used – Short infrequent packets on common channel – Large or frequent packets on dedicated channel – The mode of transmission adaptively selected based on estimated packet-traffic characteristics 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Common Channel Packet Access Arbitrary time Access request User packet Access request User packet Common Channel (RACH/FACH/ PDSCH) • • • No link maintenance when no packet to transmit Open-loop power control Limited to small packets and medium data rates 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Dedicated Channel Single Packet Transmission Access request Arbitrary time Access request Common Channel (RACH/FACH) User packet User packet Dedicated Channel (DPCH) • Each packet preceded by random access request • Scheduled packet transmission • Closed-loop power control during packet transmission 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Dedicated Channel Multi-Packet Transmission Scheduled packets Non-scheduled packet Access request User packet User packet Access request User packet Dedicated Channel (DTCH) Link maintenance (pilot. TPC. TFCI) • Scheduled and non-scheduled packet access • Closed-loop power control during packet transmission • Link released after time-out period has expired 20/06/11 3G_1 .
5 dB improvement • Open and closed loop • Space Time or Time Switched Transmit Diversity • Impacts control channel design (pilot. timing advance in GSM) – Improved alignment improves orthogonality – Adaptive antennas – Opportunity Driven Multiple Access (TDD only) • 20/06/11 3G_1 .UMTS Performance Enhancements It has been found that the downlink is the major limit on system capacity – Cell transmitter diversity provides up to 2.f. etc) • Advanced receiver structures – Multi-user detection – Interference cancellation – Reverse link synchronous transmission (c.
TD-CDMA Air Interface Multiple Access Scheme Duplexing Method Chip Rate Bandwidth Carrier Spacing Frame Length Slots per Frame Codes per slot Inter-cell Synchronisation Spreading factor User Data Rate 20/06/11 3G_1 Time Division CDMA Time Division Duplexing 3. 4.84 Mcps 5 Mhz 200 kHz Raster 10 ms 15 8 Synchronous 2. 8. 16 8->2000 kbps .
rate matching.FDD and TDD Compared • • • • • • • • • TD-CDMA W-CDMA • TX and RX are on the same Requires separate TX/RX bands band • Node B’s are synchronous Node B’s are asynchronous • No fast power control Requires fast power required control • No soft handover Provides soft handover • Full 2 Mbps working Good mobility • Poorer mobility Up to 384 kbps • Asymmetric working (80:1) Primarily symmetric Coding. pulse shaping and interleaving basically the same 3G_1 FDD TDD 20/06/11 .
TD-CDMA 10 ms frame (part of 720 ms superframe) 7 8 codes 0 0 Uplink Downlink 15 timeslots 3G_1 14 User 1 User 2 20/06/11 .
Bursts 625 µ s 2560 chips Burst 1 Data 976 Data 1104 Midamble 512 Midamble 256 Data 976 Data 1104 Guard 96 Guard 96 Burst 2 • Burst type 1 can be used for UL or DL • Burst type 2 can be used for DL but if used for UL then active users < 4 Midamble is used for acquisition 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Control Channels • Cell Acquisition – Synchronisation channel (SCH) similar to FDD – BCCH is mapped onto Common Control Channel (CCPCH) – SCH and CCPCH transmitted in one or two DL slots – Fixed position. pointer to RACH slots • Cell Access – RACH is transmitted on or two UL slots 20/06/11 3G_1 .
Performance Improvement • Suffers from multiple access interference. dynamic channel allocation allows it to avoid heavy intereferer in uncoordinated deployment 20/06/11 3G_1 . and interchip interference – Needs strong power control for single rake RX • Performance can be improved by employing multiuser detection – too complex to implement – uses joint detection of all codes in same slot for UL/DL • Joint detection receiver is near-far resistant – allows 30 dB imbalance between codes • TD-CDMA can suffer from inter-operator interference – also smaller reach than FDD where TX power is capped • However.
Refresher • • • • • • • • • • What bandwidth has been allocated to UMTS FDD working? Which is best FDD or TDD? Why is turbo coding used on high bit rate data channels? Why aren’t base stations synchronised in FDD working? What is the purpose of a pilot in a UMTS system? Why does UMTS need time slots and frames? Why does TDD use joint detection? Why is the channelisation code the same for all BCHs in FDD? What is the role of a searcher in the rake receiver? What channel(s) is used to transport data in UMTS? 20/06/11 3G_1 .
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