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Average of the factored force effect at the connection and the force effect

in the member at the same point

At least 75% of the force effect in the member

End connections for diaphragms, cross-frames, lateral bracing for

straight flexural members - designed for factored member loads

Connections should be symmetrical about member axis

At least two bolts or equivalent weld per connection

Members connected so that their gravity axes intersect at a point

Eccentric connections should be avoided

End connections for floorbeams and girders

Two angles with thickness > 0.375 in.

Made with high strength bolts

f welded account for bending moment in design

OLTED CONNECTONS

Slip-critical and bearing type bolted connections.

Connections should be designed to be slip-critical where:

stress reversal, heavy impact loads, severe vibration

joint slippage would be detrimental to the serviceability of the structure

Joints that must be designed to be slip-critical include

Joints subject to fatigue loading or significant load reversal.

Joints with oversized holes or slotted holes

Joints where welds and bolts sharing in transmitting load

Joints in axial tension or combined axial tension and shear

earing-type bolted connections can be designed for joints

subjected to compression or joints for bracing members

SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON

Slip-critical bolted connections can fail in two ways: (a) slip at the

connection; (b) bearing failure of the connection

Slip-critical connection must be designed to: (a) resist slip at load

Service II; and (b) resist bearing / shear at strength limit states

SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON

Slip-critical bolted connections can be installed with such a degree

of tightness large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected

plates together

Applied Shear force resisted by friction

Tightened

P

P

Tightened Tightened

P

P

P

P

T

b

N T

b

N T

b

N T

b

P

F3N

T

b

N T

b

F3N

N T

b

N T

b

P

T

b

N T

b

T

b

N T

b

N T

b

N T

b

P

F3N

N T

b

N T

b

P

F3N

T

b

N T

b

T

b

N T

b

F3N

N T

b

N T

b

P

F3N

N T

b

N T

b

N T

b

N T

b

P

SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON

Slip-critical connections can resist the shear force using friction.

f the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops between

the two surfaces, then no slip will occur between them

Nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slip-critical connection

R

n

= K

h

K

s

N

s

P

t

Where, P

t

= minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 1

K

h

= hole factor specified in Table 1

K

s

= surface condition factor specified in Table 3

SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON

Faying surfaces

Unpainted clean mill scale, and blast-cleaned surfaces with lass A coating

Unpainted blast-cleaned surfaces with lass B coating

Hot-dip galvanized surfaces roughened by wire brushing lass

4t diameter

(in.)

Required Tensi4n

(kips)

A325 A490

5/8 19 24

3/4 28 35

7/8 39 49

1 51 64

1-1/8 56 80

1-1/4 71 102

1-3/8 85 121

1-1/2 103 148

F4r standard h4es 1.0

F4r 4;ersize and sh4rt-s4tted h4es 0.85

F4r 4ng s4tted h4es with the s4t

Perpendicuar t4 the I4rce directi4n

0.70

F4r 4ng-s4tted h4es with the s4t

Parae t4 the I4rce directi4n

0.60

VaIues of K

h

VaIues of P

t

F4r Cass A surIace c4nditi4ns 0.33

F4r Cass surIace c4nditi4ns 0.50

F4r Cass C surIace c4nditi4ns 0.33

VaIues of K

s

SLP-CRTCAL CONNECTON

Connection subjected to tensile force (T

u

), which reduces clamping

Nominal slip resistance should be reduced by (1- T

u

/P

t

)

Slip is not a catastrophic failure limit-state because slip-critical

bolted connections behave as bearing type connections after slip.

Slip-critical bolted connections are further designed as bearing-type

bolted connection for the applicable factored strength limit state.

EARNG CONNECTON

n a bearing-type connection, -olts are su-ected to shear and the

connecting / connected plates are subjected to bearing stresses :

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

EARNG CONNECTON

earing type connection can fail in several failure modes

a) Shear failure of the bolts

b) Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt holes in the connected parts

c) Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate

d) Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes

e) Failure of member being connected due to fracture or block shear or ...

EARNG CONNECTON

Nominal shear resistance of a bolt

Threads excluded: R

n

= 0.48 A

b

F

ub

N

s

Threads included: R

n

= 0.38 A

b

F

ub

N

s

Where, A

b

= area of the bolt corresponding to the nominal diameter

F

ub

= 120 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 0.5 through 1.0 in.

F

ub

= 105 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 1.125 through 1.5 in.

F

ub

= 150 ksi for A490 bolts.

N

s

= number of shear planes

Resistance factor for bolts in shear =

s

= 0.80

Equations above - valid for joints with length < less than 50.0 in.

f the length is greater than 50 in., then the values from the equations

have to be multiplied by 0.8

EARNG CONNECTON

Effective bearing area of a bolt = the bolt diameter multiplied by the

thickness of the connected material on which it bears

earing resistance for standard, oversize, or short-slotted holes in any

direction, and long-slotted holes parallel to the bearing force:

For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes greater than or equal to 3.0 d

and for bolts with a clear end distance greater than or equal to 2.0 d

#

3

2.4 d t F

u

For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes less than 3.0 d

and for bolts with clear end distances less than 2.0 d

#

3

1.2 L

c

t F

u

Where, d = nominal bolt diameter

L

c

= clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member in

the direction of applied bearing force

F

u

= tensile strength of the connected material

The resistance factor

--

for material in bearing due to bolts = 0.80

EARNG CONNECTON

SPACNG REQUREMENTS

Minimum spacing between centers of bolts in standard holes shall not

be less than three times the diameter of the bolt

For sealing against penetration of moisture in joints, the spacing on a

single line adjacent to the free edge shall satisfy s > (4.0 + 4.0 t) > 7.0

Minimum edge distances

4t diameter

(in.)

Sheared

edge

R4ed 4r

Gas Cut edge

5/8 1-1/8 7/8

3/4 1-1/4 1

7/8 1-1/2 1-1/8

1 1-3/4 1-1/4

1-1/8 2 1-1/2

1-1/4 2-1/4 1-5/8

1-3/8 2-3/8 1-3/4

OLTED CONNECTON

ampIe 1 Design a slip-critical splice for a tension member. For

the Service load combination, the member is subjected to a

tension load of 200 kips. For the strength limit state, the member is

subjected to a maximum tension load of 300 kips.

The tension member is a x 2 section made from M270-Gr. 50

steel. Use A325 bolts to design the slip-critical splice.

$tep I. Service and factored loads

Service Load = 200 kips.

Factored design load = 300 kips

Tension member is x 2 section made from M270 Gr.50. The

tension splice must be slip critical (i.e., it must not slip) at service loads.

OLTED CONNECTON

Step II. Slip-critical splice connection

Slip resistance of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = R

n

= K

h

K

s

N

s

P

t

= 1.0 for slip-critical resistance evaluation

Assume bolt diameter = d = in. Therefore P

t

= 28 kips from Table 1

Assume standard holes. Therefore K

h

= 1.0

Assume Class A surface condition. Therefore K

s

= 0.33

Therefore, R

n

= 1.0 x 0.33 x 1 x 28 = 9.24 kips

Therefore, number of in. diameter bolts required for splice to be slip-

critical at service loads = 200 / 9.24 = 21.64.

Therefore, number of bolts required < 22

OLTED CONNECTON

$tep III: Layout of flange-plate splice connection

To be symmetric about centerline, need the number of bolts = multiple of 8.

Therefore, choose 24 fully tensioned 3/4 in. A325 bolts with layout above.

Slip-critical strength of the connection = 24 x 9.24 kips = 221.7 kips

Minimum edge distance (L

e

) = 1 in. from Table 4.

Design edge distance L

e

= 1.25 in.

Minimum spacing = s = 3 x bolt diameter = 3 x = 2.25 in.

Design spacing = 2.5 in.

OLTED CONNECTON

$tep IV: Connection strength at factored loads

The connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing

connection beyond this point for the factored load of 300 kips

Shear strength of high strength bolt = R

n

= 0.80 x 0.38 x A

b

x F

ub

N

s

Equation given earlier for threads included in shear plane.

A

b

= 3.14 x 0.75

2

/ 4 = 0.442 in

2

F

ub

= 120 ksi for A325 bolts with d < 1-1/8 in.

N

s

= 1

Therefore, R

n

= 16.1 kips

The shear strength of 24 bolts = 16.1 kips/bolt x 24 = 386.9 kips

OLTED CONNECTON

earing strength of 3/4 in. bolts at edge holes (L

e

= 1.25 in.)

bb

R

n

= 0.80 x 1.2 L

c

t F

u

ecause the clear edge distance = 1.25 (3/4 + 1/16)/2 = 0.84375 in. < 2 d

bb

R

n

= 0.80 x 1.2 x 0.84375 x 65 kips x t = 52.65 kips / in. thickness

earing strength of of 3/4 in. bolts at non-edge holes (s = 2.5)

bb

R

n

= 0.80 x 2.4 d t F

u

ecause the clear distance between holes = 2.5 (3/4 + 1/16) = 1.6875 in. > 2d

bb

R

n

= 0.80 x 2.4 x 0.75 x 65 kips x t = 93.6 kips / in. thickness

earing strength of bolt holes in flanges of wide flange section x 2

(t = 0.465 in.)

8 x 52.65 x 0.465 +16 x 93.6 x 0.465 = 892 kips

CONNECTON STRENGTH

Connection strength (R

n

) > applied factored loads (Q).

Therefore ok

Connection Strength

Sip-critica strength 221.7 kips

Shear strength 4I b4ts 386.9 kips

earing strength (pate) 892 kips

WELDED CONNECTONS

ntroduction

The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process for field welding.

Submerged metal arc welding (SAW) used for shop welding

automatic or semi-automatic process

Quality control of welded connections is particularly difficult because of

defects below the surface, or even minor flaws at the surface, will

escape visual detection.

Welders must be properly certified, and for critical work, special

inspection techniques such as radiography or ultrasonic testing must

be used.

WELDED CONNECTONS

Two most common types of welds are the fillet and the groove weld.

lap joint fillet welds placed in the corner formed by two plates

Tee joint fillet welds placed at the intersection of two plates.

Groove welds deposited in a gap or groove between two parts to be

connected e.g., butt, tee, and corner joints with beveled (prepared) edges

Partial penetration groove welds can be made from one or both sides with or

without edge preparation.

illet weld

illet weld

illet weld illet weld

illet weld illet weld

WELDED CONNECTONS

Design of fillet welded connections

Fillet welds are most common and used widely

Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments

Fillet welds are usually fail in shear, where the shear failure occurs

along a plane through the throat of the weld

Shear stress in fillet weld of length L subjected to load P

f

v

=

a

a

Thr4at a x c4s45

4

0.707 a

a

a

Thr4at a x c4s45

4

0.707 a

Faiure Pane

L

O

w

L a 707 . 0

P

FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS

The shear strength of the fillet weld =

e2

0.60 F

exx

Where,

e2

= 0.80

F

exx

is the tensile strength of the weld electrode used in the welding

process. t can be 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120 ksi. The corresponding

electrodes are specified using the nomenclature E60XX, E70XX, E80XX,

and so on.

Therefore, the shear strength of the fillet weld connection

R

n

=

e2

x 0.60 F

exx

x 0.707 a L

w

Electrode strength should match the base metal strength

f yield stress (9

y

) of the base metal is A 60 - 65 ksi, use electrode

f yield stress (9

y

) of the base metal is K 60 - 65 ksi, use electrode

E70XX is the most popular electrode used for SMAW fillet welds

For E70XX, R

n

= 0.80 x 0.60 x 70 x 0.707 a L

w

= 0.2375 a L

w

kips

FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS

The shear strength of the base metal must be considered:

R

n

=

v

x 0.58 A

g

F

y

where,

v

= 1.0

F

y

is the yield strength of the base metal and A

g

is the gross area in shear

Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal

= 0.80 x 0.60 x F

exx

x 0.707 x a x L

w

= 1.0 x 0.58 x F

y

x t x L

w

Smaller governs the strength of the weld

T

Ee;ati4n

Pan

T

Ee;ati4n

Pan

FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS

Limitatio3s o3 weId dime3sio3s

Minimum size (a

min

)

Weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.

a

min

depends on the thickness of the thicker part joined

f the thickness of the thicker part joined (T) is less than or equal to in.

a

min

= in.

f T is greater than in. a

min

= 5/16 in.

Maximum size (a

max

)

Maximum size of fillet weld along edges of connected parts

for material with thickness < 0.25 in., a

max-

= thickness of the material

for plates with thickness K 0.25 in., a

max

= thickness of material - 1/16 in.

Minimum length (L

w

)

Minimum effective length of fillet weld = 4 x size of fillet weld

Effective length of fillet weld > 1.5 in.

FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS

Weld terminations and end returns

End returns must not be provided around transverse stiffeners

Fillet welds that resist tensile forces not parallel to the weld axis or

proportioned to withstand repeated stress shall not terminate at corners

of parts or members

Where end returns can be made in the same plane, they shall be

returned continuously, full size around the corner, for a length equal to

twice the weld size (2a)

FLLET WELD DESGN

ampIe 1 Design the fillet welded connection system for a double

angle tension member 2 5 x 3 x 1/2 made from A36 steel to carry

a factored ultimate load of 250 kips.

$tep I. Design the welded connection

Considering only the thickness of the angles; a

min

= 1/4 in.

Considering only the thickness of the angles; a

max

= 1/2 - 1/16 in. = 7/16 in.

esign, a = 3/8 in. = 0.375 in.

V Shear strength of weld metal = R

n

= 0.80 x 0.60 x F

EXX

x 0.707 x a x L

w

= 8.9 x L

w

kips

Strength of the base metal in shear = R

n

= 1.0 x 0.58 x F

y

x t x L

w

= 10.44 L

w

kips

V Shear strength of weld metal governs, R

n

= 8.9 L

w

kips

FLLET WELD DESGN

Design strength R

n

> 250 kips

Therefore, 8.9 L

w

> 250 kips

Therefore, L

w

> 28.1 in.

Design length of 3/8 in. E70XX fillet weld = 30.0 in.

Shear strength of fillet weld = 26 kips

Connection layout

Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.

Therefore, the center or gravity of the welded connection must coincide

with the center of gravity of the member.

/

T

u

I L

2

I L

1

L

1

L

2

3.4 in.

/

T

u

I L

2

I L

1

L

1

L

2

3.4 in.

FLLET WELD DESGN

Connection layout

Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.

The c.g. of the welded connection must coincide with c.g. of the member

Total length of weld required = 30 in.

Two angles assume each angle will have weld length of 15 in.

/

T

u

I L

2

I L

1

L

1

L

2

3.4 in.

/

T

u

I L

2

I L

1

L

1

L

2

3.4 in.

FLLET WELD DESGN

The tension force T

u

acts along the c.g. of the member, which is

1.65 in. from the top and 3.35 in. from the bottom (ASC manual).

Let, f be the strength of the fillet weld per unit length.

Therefore, fL

1

+ fL

2

T

u

And fL

2

3.35 - fL

1

1.65 0 - taking moments about the member c.g.

Therefore, L

1

= 2.0 L

2

ut, L

1

+ L

2

= 15.0 in.

Therefore, L

1

= 10 in. and L

2

= 5 in.

Design: L

1

= 10.0 in. and L

2

= 5.0 in.

FLLET WELD DESGN

Consider another layout

e

T

u

I L

2

L

1

L

2

I L

1

5I

3.4 in.

e

T

u

I L

2

L

1

L

2

I L

1

5I

3.4 in.

fL

1

+ fL

2

+ 5f = T

u

fL

2

x 3.5 + 5f x 0.85 - fL

1

x 1.65 = 0 - Moment about member c.g.

Additionally, L

1

+ L

2

+ 5 = 15.0 in.

Therefore, L

1

= 7.6 in. and L

2

= 2.4 in.

Design: L

1

= 8.0 in. and L

2

= 3.0 in.

Groove Welded Connections

Connects structural members that are aligned in the same plane

asic Types:

Complete joint penetration groove weld: transmits full load of the member they join

and have the same strength as the base metal.

Partial penetration groove weld: Welds do not extend completely through the

thickness of the pieces being joined.

Groove Welds

Complete penetration groove welded connections

Tension and compression loaded

Factored resistance = factored resistance of base metal

Shear loaded on effective area lesser of

Factored resistance of weld = 0.6 x

e1

x F

exx

= 0.6 x 0.85 x F

exx

60% of factored resistance of base metal in tension

Partial penetration groove-welded connections

Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis and compression normal

to effective area factored resistance of the base metal

Tension normal to the effective area lesser of

Factored resistance of the weld = 0.6

e2

F

exx

= 0.60 x 0.80 x F

exx

Factored resistance of the base metal

Shear loaded lesser of

Factored resistance of the weld = 0.6

e2

F

exx

= 0.60 x 0.80 x F

exx

Factored resistance of base metal = 0.58 F

y

Groove Welds

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