You are on page 1of 33

CONNECTON DESGN

Connections must be designed at the strength limit state


Average of the factored force effect at the connection and the force effect
in the member at the same point
At least 75% of the force effect in the member
End connections for diaphragms, cross-frames, lateral bracing for
straight flexural members - designed for factored member loads
Connections should be symmetrical about member axis
At least two bolts or equivalent weld per connection
Members connected so that their gravity axes intersect at a point
Eccentric connections should be avoided
End connections for floorbeams and girders
Two angles with thickness > 0.375 in.
Made with high strength bolts
f welded account for bending moment in design
OLTED CONNECTONS
Slip-critical and bearing type bolted connections.
Connections should be designed to be slip-critical where:
stress reversal, heavy impact loads, severe vibration
joint slippage would be detrimental to the serviceability of the structure
Joints that must be designed to be slip-critical include
Joints subject to fatigue loading or significant load reversal.
Joints with oversized holes or slotted holes
Joints where welds and bolts sharing in transmitting load
Joints in axial tension or combined axial tension and shear
earing-type bolted connections can be designed for joints
subjected to compression or joints for bracing members
SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON
Slip-critical bolted connections can fail in two ways: (a) slip at the
connection; (b) bearing failure of the connection
Slip-critical connection must be designed to: (a) resist slip at load
Service II; and (b) resist bearing / shear at strength limit states
SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON
Slip-critical bolted connections can be installed with such a degree
of tightness large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected
plates together
Applied Shear force resisted by friction
Tightened
P
P
Tightened Tightened
P
P
P
P
T
b
N T
b
N T
b
N T
b
P
F3N
T
b
N T
b
F3N
N T
b
N T
b
P
T
b
N T
b
T
b
N T
b
N T
b
N T
b
P
F3N
N T
b
N T
b
P
F3N
T
b
N T
b
T
b
N T
b
F3N
N T
b
N T
b
P
F3N
N T
b
N T
b
N T
b
N T
b
P
SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON
Slip-critical connections can resist the shear force using friction.
f the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops between
the two surfaces, then no slip will occur between them
Nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slip-critical connection
R
n
= K
h
K
s
N
s
P
t
Where, P
t
= minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 1
K
h
= hole factor specified in Table 1
K
s
= surface condition factor specified in Table 3
SLP-CRTCAL OLTED CONNECTON
Faying surfaces
Unpainted clean mill scale, and blast-cleaned surfaces with lass A coating
Unpainted blast-cleaned surfaces with lass B coating
Hot-dip galvanized surfaces roughened by wire brushing lass
4t diameter
(in.)
Required Tensi4n
(kips)
A325 A490
5/8 19 24
3/4 28 35
7/8 39 49
1 51 64
1-1/8 56 80
1-1/4 71 102
1-3/8 85 121
1-1/2 103 148

F4r standard h4es 1.0
F4r 4;ersize and sh4rt-s4tted h4es 0.85
F4r 4ng s4tted h4es with the s4t
Perpendicuar t4 the I4rce directi4n
0.70
F4r 4ng-s4tted h4es with the s4t
Parae t4 the I4rce directi4n
0.60

VaIues of K
h
VaIues of P
t
F4r Cass A surIace c4nditi4ns 0.33
F4r Cass surIace c4nditi4ns 0.50
F4r Cass C surIace c4nditi4ns 0.33

VaIues of K
s
SLP-CRTCAL CONNECTON
Connection subjected to tensile force (T
u
), which reduces clamping
Nominal slip resistance should be reduced by (1- T
u
/P
t
)
Slip is not a catastrophic failure limit-state because slip-critical
bolted connections behave as bearing type connections after slip.
Slip-critical bolted connections are further designed as bearing-type
bolted connection for the applicable factored strength limit state.
EARNG CONNECTON
n a bearing-type connection, -olts are su-ected to shear and the
connecting / connected plates are subjected to bearing stresses :
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
EARNG CONNECTON
earing type connection can fail in several failure modes
a) Shear failure of the bolts
b) Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt holes in the connected parts
c) Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate
d) Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes
e) Failure of member being connected due to fracture or block shear or ...
EARNG CONNECTON
Nominal shear resistance of a bolt
Threads excluded: R
n
= 0.48 A
b
F
ub
N
s
Threads included: R
n
= 0.38 A
b
F
ub
N
s
Where, A
b
= area of the bolt corresponding to the nominal diameter
F
ub
= 120 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 0.5 through 1.0 in.
F
ub
= 105 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 1.125 through 1.5 in.
F
ub
= 150 ksi for A490 bolts.
N
s
= number of shear planes
Resistance factor for bolts in shear =
s
= 0.80
Equations above - valid for joints with length < less than 50.0 in.
f the length is greater than 50 in., then the values from the equations
have to be multiplied by 0.8
EARNG CONNECTON
Effective bearing area of a bolt = the bolt diameter multiplied by the
thickness of the connected material on which it bears
earing resistance for standard, oversize, or short-slotted holes in any
direction, and long-slotted holes parallel to the bearing force:
For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes greater than or equal to 3.0 d
and for bolts with a clear end distance greater than or equal to 2.0 d
#
3
2.4 d t F
u
For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes less than 3.0 d
and for bolts with clear end distances less than 2.0 d
#
3
1.2 L
c
t F
u
Where, d = nominal bolt diameter
L
c
= clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member in
the direction of applied bearing force
F
u
= tensile strength of the connected material
The resistance factor
--
for material in bearing due to bolts = 0.80
EARNG CONNECTON
SPACNG REQUREMENTS
Minimum spacing between centers of bolts in standard holes shall not
be less than three times the diameter of the bolt
For sealing against penetration of moisture in joints, the spacing on a
single line adjacent to the free edge shall satisfy s > (4.0 + 4.0 t) > 7.0
Minimum edge distances
4t diameter
(in.)
Sheared
edge
R4ed 4r
Gas Cut edge
5/8 1-1/8 7/8
3/4 1-1/4 1
7/8 1-1/2 1-1/8
1 1-3/4 1-1/4
1-1/8 2 1-1/2
1-1/4 2-1/4 1-5/8
1-3/8 2-3/8 1-3/4

OLTED CONNECTON
ampIe 1 Design a slip-critical splice for a tension member. For
the Service load combination, the member is subjected to a
tension load of 200 kips. For the strength limit state, the member is
subjected to a maximum tension load of 300 kips.
The tension member is a x 2 section made from M270-Gr. 50
steel. Use A325 bolts to design the slip-critical splice.
$tep I. Service and factored loads
Service Load = 200 kips.
Factored design load = 300 kips
Tension member is x 2 section made from M270 Gr.50. The
tension splice must be slip critical (i.e., it must not slip) at service loads.
OLTED CONNECTON
Step II. Slip-critical splice connection
Slip resistance of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = R
n
= K
h
K
s
N
s
P
t
= 1.0 for slip-critical resistance evaluation
Assume bolt diameter = d = in. Therefore P
t
= 28 kips from Table 1
Assume standard holes. Therefore K
h
= 1.0
Assume Class A surface condition. Therefore K
s
= 0.33
Therefore, R
n
= 1.0 x 0.33 x 1 x 28 = 9.24 kips
Therefore, number of in. diameter bolts required for splice to be slip-
critical at service loads = 200 / 9.24 = 21.64.
Therefore, number of bolts required < 22
OLTED CONNECTON
$tep III: Layout of flange-plate splice connection
To be symmetric about centerline, need the number of bolts = multiple of 8.
Therefore, choose 24 fully tensioned 3/4 in. A325 bolts with layout above.
Slip-critical strength of the connection = 24 x 9.24 kips = 221.7 kips
Minimum edge distance (L
e
) = 1 in. from Table 4.
Design edge distance L
e
= 1.25 in.
Minimum spacing = s = 3 x bolt diameter = 3 x = 2.25 in.
Design spacing = 2.5 in.
OLTED CONNECTON
$tep IV: Connection strength at factored loads
The connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing
connection beyond this point for the factored load of 300 kips
Shear strength of high strength bolt = R
n
= 0.80 x 0.38 x A
b
x F
ub
N
s
Equation given earlier for threads included in shear plane.
A
b
= 3.14 x 0.75
2
/ 4 = 0.442 in
2
F
ub
= 120 ksi for A325 bolts with d < 1-1/8 in.
N
s
= 1
Therefore, R
n
= 16.1 kips
The shear strength of 24 bolts = 16.1 kips/bolt x 24 = 386.9 kips
OLTED CONNECTON
earing strength of 3/4 in. bolts at edge holes (L
e
= 1.25 in.)

bb
R
n
= 0.80 x 1.2 L
c
t F
u
ecause the clear edge distance = 1.25 (3/4 + 1/16)/2 = 0.84375 in. < 2 d

bb
R
n
= 0.80 x 1.2 x 0.84375 x 65 kips x t = 52.65 kips / in. thickness
earing strength of of 3/4 in. bolts at non-edge holes (s = 2.5)

bb
R
n
= 0.80 x 2.4 d t F
u
ecause the clear distance between holes = 2.5 (3/4 + 1/16) = 1.6875 in. > 2d

bb
R
n
= 0.80 x 2.4 x 0.75 x 65 kips x t = 93.6 kips / in. thickness
earing strength of bolt holes in flanges of wide flange section x 2
(t = 0.465 in.)
8 x 52.65 x 0.465 +16 x 93.6 x 0.465 = 892 kips
CONNECTON STRENGTH
Connection strength (R
n
) > applied factored loads (Q).
Therefore ok
Connection Strength
Sip-critica strength 221.7 kips
Shear strength 4I b4ts 386.9 kips
earing strength (pate) 892 kips

WELDED CONNECTONS
ntroduction
The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process for field welding.
Submerged metal arc welding (SAW) used for shop welding
automatic or semi-automatic process
Quality control of welded connections is particularly difficult because of
defects below the surface, or even minor flaws at the surface, will
escape visual detection.
Welders must be properly certified, and for critical work, special
inspection techniques such as radiography or ultrasonic testing must
be used.
WELDED CONNECTONS
Two most common types of welds are the fillet and the groove weld.
lap joint fillet welds placed in the corner formed by two plates
Tee joint fillet welds placed at the intersection of two plates.
Groove welds deposited in a gap or groove between two parts to be
connected e.g., butt, tee, and corner joints with beveled (prepared) edges
Partial penetration groove welds can be made from one or both sides with or
without edge preparation.
illet weld
illet weld
illet weld illet weld
illet weld illet weld
WELDED CONNECTONS
Design of fillet welded connections
Fillet welds are most common and used widely
Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments
Fillet welds are usually fail in shear, where the shear failure occurs
along a plane through the throat of the weld
Shear stress in fillet weld of length L subjected to load P
f
v
=
a
a
Thr4at a x c4s45
4
0.707 a
a
a
Thr4at a x c4s45
4
0.707 a
Faiure Pane
L
O
w
L a 707 . 0
P
FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS
The shear strength of the fillet weld =
e2
0.60 F
exx
Where,
e2
= 0.80
F
exx
is the tensile strength of the weld electrode used in the welding
process. t can be 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120 ksi. The corresponding
electrodes are specified using the nomenclature E60XX, E70XX, E80XX,
and so on.
Therefore, the shear strength of the fillet weld connection
R
n
=
e2
x 0.60 F
exx
x 0.707 a L
w
Electrode strength should match the base metal strength
f yield stress (9
y
) of the base metal is A 60 - 65 ksi, use electrode
f yield stress (9
y
) of the base metal is K 60 - 65 ksi, use electrode
E70XX is the most popular electrode used for SMAW fillet welds
For E70XX, R
n
= 0.80 x 0.60 x 70 x 0.707 a L
w
= 0.2375 a L
w
kips
FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS
The shear strength of the base metal must be considered:
R
n
=
v
x 0.58 A
g
F
y
where,
v
= 1.0
F
y
is the yield strength of the base metal and A
g
is the gross area in shear
Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal
= 0.80 x 0.60 x F
exx
x 0.707 x a x L
w
= 1.0 x 0.58 x F
y
x t x L
w
Smaller governs the strength of the weld
T
Ee;ati4n
Pan
T
Ee;ati4n
Pan
FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS
Limitatio3s o3 weId dime3sio3s
Minimum size (a
min
)
Weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.
a
min
depends on the thickness of the thicker part joined
f the thickness of the thicker part joined (T) is less than or equal to in.
a
min
= in.
f T is greater than in. a
min
= 5/16 in.
Maximum size (a
max
)
Maximum size of fillet weld along edges of connected parts
for material with thickness < 0.25 in., a
max-
= thickness of the material
for plates with thickness K 0.25 in., a
max
= thickness of material - 1/16 in.
Minimum length (L
w
)
Minimum effective length of fillet weld = 4 x size of fillet weld
Effective length of fillet weld > 1.5 in.
FLLET WELDED CONNECTONS
Weld terminations and end returns
End returns must not be provided around transverse stiffeners
Fillet welds that resist tensile forces not parallel to the weld axis or
proportioned to withstand repeated stress shall not terminate at corners
of parts or members
Where end returns can be made in the same plane, they shall be
returned continuously, full size around the corner, for a length equal to
twice the weld size (2a)
FLLET WELD DESGN
ampIe 1 Design the fillet welded connection system for a double
angle tension member 2 5 x 3 x 1/2 made from A36 steel to carry
a factored ultimate load of 250 kips.
$tep I. Design the welded connection
Considering only the thickness of the angles; a
min
= 1/4 in.
Considering only the thickness of the angles; a
max
= 1/2 - 1/16 in. = 7/16 in.
esign, a = 3/8 in. = 0.375 in.
V Shear strength of weld metal = R
n
= 0.80 x 0.60 x F
EXX
x 0.707 x a x L
w
= 8.9 x L
w
kips
Strength of the base metal in shear = R
n
= 1.0 x 0.58 x F
y
x t x L
w
= 10.44 L
w
kips
V Shear strength of weld metal governs, R
n
= 8.9 L
w
kips
FLLET WELD DESGN
Design strength R
n
> 250 kips
Therefore, 8.9 L
w
> 250 kips
Therefore, L
w
> 28.1 in.
Design length of 3/8 in. E70XX fillet weld = 30.0 in.
Shear strength of fillet weld = 26 kips
Connection layout
Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.
Therefore, the center or gravity of the welded connection must coincide
with the center of gravity of the member.
/
T
u
I L
2
I L
1
L
1
L
2
3.4 in.
/
T
u
I L
2
I L
1
L
1
L
2
3.4 in.
FLLET WELD DESGN
Connection layout
Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.
The c.g. of the welded connection must coincide with c.g. of the member
Total length of weld required = 30 in.
Two angles assume each angle will have weld length of 15 in.
/
T
u
I L
2
I L
1
L
1
L
2
3.4 in.
/
T
u
I L
2
I L
1
L
1
L
2
3.4 in.
FLLET WELD DESGN
The tension force T
u
acts along the c.g. of the member, which is
1.65 in. from the top and 3.35 in. from the bottom (ASC manual).
Let, f be the strength of the fillet weld per unit length.
Therefore, fL
1
+ fL
2
T
u
And fL
2
3.35 - fL
1
1.65 0 - taking moments about the member c.g.
Therefore, L
1
= 2.0 L
2
ut, L
1
+ L
2
= 15.0 in.
Therefore, L
1
= 10 in. and L
2
= 5 in.
Design: L
1
= 10.0 in. and L
2
= 5.0 in.
FLLET WELD DESGN
Consider another layout
e
T
u
I L
2
L
1
L
2
I L
1
5I
3.4 in.
e
T
u
I L
2
L
1
L
2
I L
1
5I
3.4 in.
fL
1
+ fL
2
+ 5f = T
u
fL
2
x 3.5 + 5f x 0.85 - fL
1
x 1.65 = 0 - Moment about member c.g.
Additionally, L
1
+ L
2
+ 5 = 15.0 in.
Therefore, L
1
= 7.6 in. and L
2
= 2.4 in.
Design: L
1
= 8.0 in. and L
2
= 3.0 in.
Groove Welded Connections
Connects structural members that are aligned in the same plane
asic Types:
Complete joint penetration groove weld: transmits full load of the member they join
and have the same strength as the base metal.
Partial penetration groove weld: Welds do not extend completely through the
thickness of the pieces being joined.
Groove Welds
Complete penetration groove welded connections
Tension and compression loaded
Factored resistance = factored resistance of base metal
Shear loaded on effective area lesser of
Factored resistance of weld = 0.6 x
e1
x F
exx
= 0.6 x 0.85 x F
exx
60% of factored resistance of base metal in tension
Partial penetration groove-welded connections
Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis and compression normal
to effective area factored resistance of the base metal
Tension normal to the effective area lesser of
Factored resistance of the weld = 0.6
e2
F
exx
= 0.60 x 0.80 x F
exx
Factored resistance of the base metal
Shear loaded lesser of
Factored resistance of the weld = 0.6
e2
F
exx
= 0.60 x 0.80 x F
exx
Factored resistance of base metal = 0.58 F
y
Groove Welds