# PROJECT PHASE-II REVIEW ³PREDICTION OF METAL REMOVAL RATE AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN ELECTRO CHEMICAL MACHINING PROCESS USING

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ´

By V.Suresh

Guided by ± Prof.S.AYYAPPAN.,M.E.,
6/20/2011 1

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Electro Chemical Machining (ECM) is capable of machining geometrically complex material components, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides and heat resistant steels which are widely used in aerospace, nuclear and die making Industries.

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Fig 1 Principle of Working

OBJECTIVES :
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Maximize the Metal Removal Rate(MRR) Minimize the Surface roughness(Ra)

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Process parameters
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Electrolyte flow rate (U)= 6-10 lit/min Feed rate (F)= 0.1-0.54 mm/min Voltage (V)= 15-25 volts

Fig 2 ECM equipment

Fig 2 ECM equipment

Mathematical model for MRR and SR using MINITAB software
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MRR = -0.0765+0.0511U+0.7181F+0.006V-0.001U^2 0.6812F^2+0.0001V^2+0.0124UF-0.0001UV-0.0074FV SR = 4.473-0.0676U-0.4963F+0.0163V-0.014U^2 +0.9412F^2+0.0001V^2+0.0663UF+0.0003UV-0.0045FV

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Where,
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MRR = Metal removal rate SR = Surface roughness U = Electrolyte flow rate F = Feed rate V = Voltage

F Vs V
Contour Plot of MRR
25 24 23 22 21 0.125 0.150 0.175 0.200

V

20 19 18 17 16 15 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

F
Hold values: U: 0.0

U Vs V
Contour
25 24 23 22 21 0.40 0.45 0.50

ot of MRR

V

20 19 18 17 16 15 6 7 8 9 10

U
Hold lues: F: 0.0

U Vs F

F

U
u s V:

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F Vs V

V

F
s U

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U vs v
C

v

V
s

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U vs F

F

U
v s

Mai Effects Pl t - Data Means for R

U
4.20

F

V

3.95

R

3.70

3.45

3.20

6

8

10

10 0.

32 0.

54 0.

15

20

25

Main Effects Plot - Data Means for MRR

0.60

U

F

V

0.56

M RR

0.52

0.48

0.44

6

8

10

10 0.

32 0.

54 0.

15

20

25

Optimal Hi D Cur 1.0000 Lo MRR Maximum y = 0.6214 d = 1.0000 R Minimum y = 3.2987 d = 1.0000

U 10.0 [10.0] 6.0

F 0.540 [0.540] 0.10

V 25.0 [15.0] 15.0

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Models of the brain and nervous system ighly parallel
Process information much more like the brain than a serial computer

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Learning Very simple principles Very complex behaviours

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ANNs incorporate the two fundamental components of biological neural nets

1. Neurons (nodes) 2. Synapses (weights)

Information flow is unidirectional
Data is presented to Input layer Passed on to Hidden Layer Passed on to Output layer

Information is distributed

Information processing is parallel

Internal representation (interpretation) of data

Back propagation
    Requires training set (input / output pairs) Starts with small random weights Error is used to adjust weights (supervised learning) Gradient descent on error landscape

1. 2.

3.

Initialize the weights in the network (often randomly) repeat for each e in the training set do a. O = neural-net-output(network, e) ; forward pass b. T = teacher output for e c. Calculate error (T - O) at the output units d. Compute error term Di for the output node e. Compute error term Dih for nodes of the intermediate layer f. Update the weights in the network Dwij=a*ai*Dj until all inputs classified correctly or stopping criterion satisfied return(network)

F U

MRR

SR V

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Experimental Data¶s
U lit/min 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 F mm/min 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.3200 0.3200 0.3200 0.5400 0.5400 0.5400 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.3200 V Volt 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 MRR 10 kg/min 0.3612 0.4019 0.4458 0.4312 0.4501 0.4669 0.4654 0.4717 0.5112 0.3987 0.4423 0.4796 0.5425 R m 4.1100 4.1800 4.2800 4.2100 4.3000 4.4100 4.2900 4.3800 4.5100 3.6100 3.7200 3.8300 3.7300

U lit/min 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

F mm/min 0.3200 0.3200 0.5400 0.5400 0.5400 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.3200 0.3200 0.3200 0.5400 0.5400 0.5400

V Volt 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25

MRR 10 kg/min 0.5612 0.5912 0.5411 0.5701 0.5879 0.4987 0.541 0.5602 0.5909 0.6012 0.6523 0.6135 0.6411 0.6501

R m 3.8200 3.9300 3.8100 3.9200 4.0200 3.0100 3.1300 3.2400 2.9900 3.1400 3.2500 3.3800 3.4500 3.5100

Mean Square Error Vs Epochs

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Epoch 2000 Iteration 27 Calculated Output idden Layer (Z) 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 1.000000 Output (Y) 0.739 0.000 Target (T) 1.001 -0.316 Output Error Information Term 0.050515 -0.000022 Back Propagation idden Layer -261.808672 -1153.493559 4962.172565 354.643815 -1231.684756 -2112.860792 -258.539886 -967.286913

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Updated Vector: 43.499365 46.569241 -23.501805 41.212759 21.545410 23.080787 -47.508943 20.362101 11.666677 12.430252 -12.737709 11.186230 Updated Weight: 0.062012 -2.629617 0.985727 -4.395553 -5.214606 -0.667345 0.066378 -2.556346 Updated Weight Bias: 0.035361 -0.000015 Updated Vector Bias: 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.00000

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Experiment is designed and conducted based on Response Surface Methodology. Neural Network model is found for Electro chemical machining process. Neural Network coding is done with C language and its performance is compared against the NN training with MATLAB.NN model is proved to be very efficient and accurate one than regression model.

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The present work can be extended by integrating NN model with optimization techniques such as GA, PSO, SA, ACO etc.,.

[1] Dubey AK, Shan HS, Jain NK(2006)Analysis of surface roughness and out-of-roundness in electro-chemical honing process. Proc ist Int and 22nd AIMTDR,Roorkee(India)Dec21-23.Int J Adv Manuf Technol DOI10.1007/s00170-007-1180-z. [2] Dubey AK, Shan HS, Jain NK(2006) precision micr-finishing by electrochemical honing.Proc int confon Manuf Sci and Technol,Meaka,Aug2830:173-176.Int J Manuf Technol &Management(in process. [3] Acharya B.G, Jain V.K and Batra J.L (1986) µMulti-objective optimization of ECM process¶, Precision Engineering (Butterworth & Co Ltd). [4] Dubey A.K (2008) µA hybrid approach for multi-performance optimization of the electro-chemical honing process¶, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. [5] Satishkumar µNeural Networks A Classroom Approach¶, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company limited, New Delhi.

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