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Introduction to MIS

Chapter 3 Networks and Telecommunications

Copyright 1998-2002 by Jerry Post

Introduction to MIS

Teamwork Communication Scheduling Sharing


Suppliers Customers Banks
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Sharing Data Sharing Hardware Sharing Software Computers Media Connection Devices Software Shared Media Switched

Standards The Internet

Components of a Network

How the Internet Works Internet 2 Mobile Commerce Technical Problems Political Complications Cultural Issues Comment

Global Telecommunications

Network Structure

Cases: Specialty Retail Appendix: Creating Web Pages

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Sharing Data: Transactions


Database Management System and Web Server

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Sharing Data: Decisions & Searches

Decisions & searches Teamwork & joint authorship

File Server and Database

Team Document

Data and Tools

Report and Comments

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Sharing Data: E-mail

2. Message transferred to account on server. 3. Transferred via the Internet to the destination account. 4. Message received when user checks email.

1. User creates e-mail message.

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Sharing Data: Calendars

8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00

Mgt meeting (open) Staff meeting Staff meeting new meeting

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Printers Storage Processors

Hardware Sharing

Corporate or external computer access

tape drive (backup) Workstations

Shared Printer


Files are transferred from workstations to the server. Software automatically copies files to tapes. LAN administrator can restore files if needed.

Introduction to MIS

Packet-Switched Networks

Data, Voice, Video

All converted to packets Packet has data, destination, and source address Switched services Sent as packets: Voice Packets routed as needed B 2 Reassembled at destination Chicago
C 4 E Dallas 5 D 3


New York A 1 Atlanta


Sent as packets: A B C D E

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Network Components
Personal Computer LAN card

Servers Work stations Cables Fiber optic Radio Infrared Personal Computer LAN card


Connection devices

LAN card Router or Switch Firewall LAN card Server Shared Printer

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Server Scalability
Server farms distribute the workload. Add more computers for more power.

Sun 10000

Increasing performance within a product family.

Rack mount server farm.

Sun 3800

Sun Ultra 5
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Network Transmission Media


Electricity Fiber optics Radio waves Infrared


Fiber Optic Cable Example: Long distance phone lines

reflective cladding

Twisted Pair Example: Local phone lines

glass or p


Coaxial Example: Cable TV


Radio or Micro Waves Example: Cellular phones


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Fiber Optics

Faster More data Less magnetic interference Long stretches without repeaters

900 copper wires can be replaced by one fiber optic line (for telephone connections).

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in es

Frequency Spectrum
z -2 16 M H -1 08 z TV : M 22 H z 0M -5 00 M H z 88 M KH 54 M TV :

ub m ar

av y


AM :

55 0K


65 0

ELF 100



MF 100K

HF 1M 10M


FM :

UHF 100M

Microwave Optical 1G 10G Hertz

All waves behave similarly

Sound Radio Micro Light Amount of data Distance Interference / Noise

Frequency differences
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Pu b Pu lic b l Sa i f C c S ety el a : lu fet 15 la Pe Co r p y: 0 M rd rs ho 460 . C les ne M 16 om s p s: -5 0M . S ho 80 00 Hz ys ne 0 s (P M MH (s H C z z S) om PC : 1 e): .8 9 S ET 5 G 00 : - 2 MH 2 z . G H 2G z H z

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Telecom Services

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A thin fiber optic cable can carry as much data as 900 single copper wires, with minimal interference, and superior tensile strength.

The Importance of Bandwidth

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Shared Connections

With shared connections, machines have to take turns, and congestion can slow down all connections.

With switched connections, each computer has the full bandwidth of the connection at all times. Performance depends on how fast the switch can handle connections.

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Time Division


A time

Computers A and B split their messages into packets and share the transmission medium by taking turns sending the data.

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Frequency Division


3500 Hz


Computers A and B split the frequency: A uses a higher spectrum. By listening only to the assigned frequency, multiple transmissions can occur at the same time.

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Spread Spectrum


Sharing a medium by both frequency and time is one method of spread spectrum transmission. It is efficient for many computers because the full bandwidth can be utilized over time and frequency.

Introduction to MIS

Wireless Communication

Microwave transmissions are used to provide communications for cellular phones and laptop computers. As prices of phones, portable computers, and communication costs decrease, increasing numbers of workers are choosing wireless technologies.

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The need for standards A changing environment

Connecting Networks

Internet Backbone fiber optic Routers or Switches Switch

Hub Hub Radio-based network

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Shared-Media Network


Shared Media

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Switched Network



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Building 1 Fiber optic

Enterprise Network
Building 2 Switch

Servers Firewall


Internet ISP
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Client server Peer-to-peer

Client/Server Network

Operating system Multitasking Server Server

Workgroup Printer Workgroup Printer Clients Clients

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TCP/IP Reference


Mail, Web, FTP Authentication, compression, user services Packetize data and handle lost packets Establish connections through numbered ports Route packets to destination Requires unique host addresses: IPv4=32-bit; IPv6=128-bit Requires standards and cooperation Physical connections Transfers bits with some form of error correction


Internet Protocol (IP)


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ISO-OSI Reference Model

Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
Original Data Translate Sign on and resources Data Packet Add routing data Addresses & Error Check

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link




Physical Media

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Introduction to the Internet

No control Services

Mail Telnet FTP WWW AltaVista HotBot Lycos WebCrawler Yahoo

WEB searching

The Internet

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How the Internet Works

Network service provider (NSP) T1: 1.544 Mbps T3: 44.736 Mbps Internet service provider (ISP) Phone company Cable company Phone company OC3: 155.52 Mbps OC12: 622 Mbps

Backbone network

Introduction to MIS

Dial-up: 33.3 - 56 Kbps ISDN: 128 Kbps DSL: 256 Kbps - 6 Mbps Cable: 1 to 10 Mbps

Company Web site

Backbone providers

Internet Connections

AT&T GTE Worldcom/MCI Sprint Qwest 1998: 39 AGIS AT&T Cable & Wireless IBM MCI/Worldcom Qwest Sprint UUNet

Phone companies

Regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs) (6) Competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) (new) AT&T Cablevision Regional. Direct Satellite Starband America Online Microsoft Network Earthlink

Network service providers

Cable companies


Internet service providers

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Internet access everywhere Cell phones PDAs Laptops

Great potential Limited usability Better than voice?

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Cell Phones and Wireless Communication

Wireless cells work by handing off the wireless connection to the next tower as the caller moves. Connections to multiple towers at one time enables the system to triangulate to get a fairly precise location of the cellular device--even when it is not in a call. Location knowledge will make it possible (although perhaps not desirable) to offer new business opportunities as people move into range.

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Global Telecommunications

Technical problems

Multiple standards Language Developing nations Time zones Limits to space & waves Transborder data flows Taxes Privacy Accessibility What is an object? Management & control

Political complications

Cultural issues

Introduction to MIS