A SEMINAR ON ELECTROCHEMICAL SPARK MACHINING

PRESENTED BY: BHAWNA GOKANI III B.TECH ME S.R NUMBER:280/07

CONTENTS 
CLASSIFICATION OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROCESSES ELECTRO DISCHARGE MECHINING(EDM) ELECTRO CHEMICAL MACHINING(ECM) ELECTRO CHEMICAL SPARK MACHINING(ECSM) COMPARISON OF EDM , ECM & ECSM PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF ECSM EXPERIMENTAL SET ± UP AT IIT KANPUR CURRENT & TEMPERATURE WAVEFORMS INFERENCES MECHANISM OF THE PROCESS MICROCHANNEL FABRICATION FUTURE POSSIBILITIES & LIMITATIONS CONCLUSIONS

WHAT IS ECSM?? .

ECSM:ELECTRO CHEMICAL SPARK MACHINING MANUFACTURING PROCESS UNCONVENTIONAL TRADITIONAL MECHANICAL THERMOELECTRIC (EDM) ELECTROCHEMICAL (ECM) HYBRID (ECSM) .

toughness.EDM:ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING Working Principle: Powerful spark causing erosion. Major limitation: The process cannot be applied to machine non-conducting materials. Advantages:  The melting point. brittleness of the material poses no problem. . hardness. Characteristic surface obtained improves component life.

No direct contact between tool and workpiece facilitates least wear. Very thin metal sheets can easily be worked out without distortion. friction generation and heat build-up. Electro chemical machining cell .ECM:ELECTRO CHEMICAL MACHINING Working Principle: Faraday¶s classical law of electrolysis. MRR is quite high for HSTR materials compared to conventional machining processes. Advantages: Metals and alloys impossible to machine by mechanical means can be machined.

Schematic of ecsm .ECM:ELECTRO CHEMICAL MACHINING Typical applications: Machining of hard heat resistant alloys Machining of complex external shapes like that of turbine blades. Major limitation: The process cannot be applied to machine non-conducting materials. aerospace components and in electronic industry.

Example : ECG(electrochemical grinding)=conventional grinding process + electrochemical machining.ECSM:ELECTROCHEMICAL SPARK MACHINING ECSM has been defined as ´ An innovative hybrid machining process comprising the techniques of electrochemical machining (ECM) and electro discharge machining (EDM) ´ ³HYBRID PROCESS´ Hybrid processes are those in which two or more machining processes are combined to take advantage of the worthiness of each by overcoming the individual limitations. Similarly : ECSM = ECM + EDM. .

COMPARISON OF THE THREE PROCESSES PROCESS COMPONENTS MECHANISM OF DISCHARGE Not applicable as there is no discharge Breakdown of the dielectric between the electrodes MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL Electrochemic al reaction ECM Electrodes and electrolyte Electrodes and dielectric EDM Melting and vaporization of the work piece due to electrical discharge Melting and vaporization of the work piece ECSM Electrodes and electrolyte A high electric field in the vicinity of the cathode .

WHETHER THE SPARK OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY OR IN SHORT BURSTS?? IN CASE IT IS A BURST PROCESS.DOES THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WORKPIECE RISE QUICKLY IN RESPONSE TO THESE SHORT BURSTS OF CURRENT?? WHAT IS THE ACTUAL MECHANISM OF THE PROCESS?? ECSM .

PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS Synchronized measurements of time varying current and temperature have been performed No particular mechanism for the process proposed till date EXPECTED RESULTS If the discharge is in short bursts  if temperature rise were related to this burst of current Expected synchronized time varying current and temperature waveform in ECDM process .

defense science journal .pp768 Designed and developed at IIT Kanpur.no5.sep2007.vol57.V.EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP Exhaust System Main components Machining chamber ECS cell Exhaust system Control PC Power supply system Z Assembly Control PC Machining Chamber X-Y Stage Power Supplies Ref.Kulkarni A. Exhaust system especially designed and developed to take away the fumes rapidly out of the machining chamber .

pp 197 Scale for current:1V=1A.CURRENT AND TEMPERATURE WAVEFORMS Snapshots of the stored waveforms of time varying current and temperature respectively taken by a digital camera(upper one for copper and lower one for tantalum).Kulkarni A.nos3/4. Pyrometer registers the temperature reading only when the temperature of the sensing area is above its sensing limit(here 815 degrees centigrade) When the temperature is above the sensing limit . Upper waveform corresponds to current and the lower one shows the temperature. . there is a sharp rise in the temperature pulse. Ref. Temperature starts falling due to quenching in ECDM.V(2009)¶systematic analysis of ecsm¶vol 6.for temp:0.1V=100degrees centigrade.

(2009)¶systematic analysis of ecsm¶vol 6. the temperature reached by the work piece surface in that localized region is very high of the order of evaporation temperature of the material.V. If the spark is strong enough. Thus material removal takes place in that localized region. This is generally outside the sensing limit of the pyrometer(shown by the open temperature spike).A.RESULTS AND INFERENCES Each current spike represents occurrence of discharge at the cathode tip followed by the ensuing temperature rise.pp296 . Ref. discharge takes place in short bursts and there is an instantaneous temperature rise in the work piece surface.nos3/4.Kulkarni. Thus.

(2009)¶systematic analysis of ecsm¶vol6.pp211 .nos3/4.pp211 A clear ring pattern is seen Formed by melting and solidification due to quenching at the work piece surface The inner shining spot is due to the removal of material Ref.KulkarniA. Ref. Smaller circular zones are due to the low energy discharges striking the surface.V. The geometry of the single discharge affected zone is almost circular in nature.KulkarniA.(2009)¶systematic analysis of ecsm¶vol6.nos3/4.V.RESULTS AND INFERENCES SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY RESULTS OF THE DISCHARGE AFFECTED ZONE BY SEM 100*magnification for CU surface with 4 prominent discharges striking the work piece.

Bubbles formation Current decreases Bubbles grow in number Current further decreases . No bubbles Small ionic current Hydrogen bubbles evolve as per the reaction at the cathode: 2H2O+2e.MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL The potential drop across the cathode-electrolyte interface appears on application of a DC voltage causing a small ionic current to flow due to electrochemical reaction.= H2 + 2OHSize of bubbles within the interface region grows over the time.

An isolating film of hydrogen gas bubbles covers the cathode tip portion in the electrolyte. a large current flows through the spark channel for a very short duration of time as can be seen by the current spike. Discharge at the tip A large current spike due to huge number of electrons created by ionization .MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL CONTINUED.. At the instant when discharge occurs. abruptly a large dynamic resistance is present and the current through the circuit becomes almost zero Complete isolation Current is almost zero A high electric field (10^7 V/m) gets generated causing discharge within the gas layers covering the tip.

The bombardment of electrons on the work piece surface results in intense heating and hence metal removal takes place. ³Spark´ occurs at the interface of cathode and electrolyte together with the electrochemical reaction. Workpiece Energy of spark then utilized for micromachining. ³Critical voltage´ applied. Schematic of ECSM .MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL CONTINUED.. SCHEMATIC OF ECSM PROCESS Anode given positive and cathode negative supply.

dielectric photoresist material) to fabricate micro-filters needed in micro-EDM process. Heat treatment. Fabrication of miniature components. Micro ± fabrication of array of holes in SU-8 material( high aspect ratio. .quartz . Micro seam welding of copper plates and foils.APPLICATIONS OF ECSM The process is potentially useful for machining non-conducting materials such as alumina . ceramics . polymer. Micro fabrication of miniature machine tools for micromachining as in aeronautics. electrical and mechanical engineering. composites.

machining.nos3/4.(2009)¶systematic analysis of ecsm¶. and in BioMEMS devices. For circle diameter of 2500um each it took 8 minutes of total time to machine the micro channel in the form of ³8´.vol6. Kulkarni. photonic.COMPLEX SHAPED MICRO CHANNEL FABRICATION A micron region application of ECSM Micro channels find use in optical sensing .A.pp199 . cost effective .int j. ECSM acts as an innovative.V. and straight forward process without employing intermediate processing steps for micro channel fabrication.

MICROCHANNEL FABRICATION CONTINUEDuu Dial gauge mounted on EDM machine used to measure the depth of micro channels at various locations. photograph of the depth measurement set-up close-up of the tip of the dial gauge on the work piece under measurement microstructure of the micro machined glass surface at 1000* magnification. Visible cracks are formed due to the impact of the sparks. Dimensions of cracks are of the order of few tens of micrometers. .

(Avg HAZ) Avg. µm Photograph µm µm µm µm Left Circle - At Junction 110 Right Circle 70 14 2300 1650 198 150 (279) 16 _ 140 120 18 2342 1602 344 175 (210) 70 140 80 20 2850 1442 50 (?) 107 (562) 240 340 270 .MinDia Avg Width Junction . Avg Width circle.WIDTH . Max Dia Avg. Depth of Channel. DEPTH AND HAZ MEASUREMENTS Results of micro channels fabricated on glass substrate NaOH Conc % Avg.

MICRO CHANNEL MEASUREMENT RESULTS FOR V=50V ON GLASS WORKPIECE NaOH Conc % Avg. Width Junction Avg WidthCircle Avg.MEASUREMENTS CONTINUEDu. MinDia Avg. Depth of Channel. Max Dia Avg.. µm Photograph µm µm µm µm Left Circle At Junction Right Circle 14 2280 1614 320 125 (265) 75 100 50 16 2514 1516 182 120 (383) 130 180 120 18 2240 1658 394 145 (280) 140 100 110 20 2308 1572 254 127 (481) 235 400 115 .

5.no.Multi layer deposition of the desired shape and size can result in the evolution of micro fabrication of miniature structures.sept2007. Extension of the process for layered deposition and hence for micro fabrication are being studied .vol57. Both machining and deposition process are in infancy for the industrial purposes.Jain¶microfabrication using ecsm¶defense science journal.2 mm dia as work piece. ED samples with air as medium and copper wire of 0. .ref V.FUTURE POSSIBILITIESuu.K.pp766 Flowing electrolyte ECSM can also be researched for further improvements.

. Since a high voltage greater than that in ECM is required to produce the spark .LIMITATIONSuu. Beyond a certain value of electrolyte temperature . ECSM performance starts deteriorating. therefore the process is potentially useful and cost effective mainly for non-conducting materials and machining in the micron region.

The process is a stand alone process requiring no other intermediate steps as masking. it¶s a potential candidate for micro machining in a cost effective manner. metal removal takes place. When the discharge temperature is of the order of boiling temperature of the work piece material. The discharge in ECSM is a discrete phenomenon. . Hence . ECSM can be performed in the micron region and the dimensions can be further reduced by reducing the geometry of the cathode tip and by careful design of process parameters. Synchronized study of the process revealed that the discharge temperature rise is due to bombardment of electrons generated during the discharge process. pattern transfer. passivating. It is a competitive process in the sense that the machining time required to have a complex micro channel is very small.CONCLUSIONSu.

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