Classlcal vlewpolnL

W Penrv 8Ŧ 1owne's call Lo esLabllsh manaaemenL as
a separaLe fleld aeneraLed ma[or approach called
Lhe Classlcal vlewpolnLŦ
W lL comprlsed Lhree dlfferenL manaaemenL
approachesť
SclenLlflc ManaaemenL
8ureaucraLlc ManaaemenL
AdmlnlsLraLlve ManaaemenL
W 1hls vlewpolnL lncludes earlv work and conLrlbuLlons
maklna up Lhe core of Lhe fleld of manaaemenL
W lrederlck 1avlor aLLended Penrv's paper presenLaLlon
CLA55ICAL 1nLCkI515 Ŵ 5CILN1IIIC
MANAGLMLN1
W lrederlck 1avlorť
Causes of so|d|er|ng
W lncrease producLlvlLv mav cause Lhem or oLher worker Lo lose
!ob
W laulLv waae svsLem
W Ceneral MeLhod of worklna or rule of 1humb
W Þrlnclples
SelecL and Lraln Lhe besL
'Cne besL wav' Lo do work
CoŴoperaLe wlLh workers for success
ulvlde work and responslblllLvţ
workers/manaaers
lavol's Ceneral prlnclples of manaaemenL
1Ŧulvlslon of work
2ŦAuLhorlLv
3Ŧulsclpllne
4ŦunlLv of Command
3ŦunlLv of dlrecLlon
6ŦSubordlnaLlon of lndlvldual lnLeresL Lo aeneral lnLeresL
7Ŧ8emuneraLlon
8ŦCenLrallzaLlon
9ŦScalar chaln
10ŦCrder(8lahL person 8lahL place)
11ŦLqulLv
12ŦSLabllLv of personnel 1enure
13ŦlnLlaLlve
14ŦLsprlL de corps
lrederlck 1avlor
W lrederlck 1avlor (1836Ŵ1913)ţ called Lhe faLher of
sclenLlflc manaaemenLŦ
W Was an apprenLlce paLLern maker and machlnlsL aL a
local flrm
W Moved Lo Mldvale SLeelţ rlslna from labourer Lo chlef
enalneer ln slx vears allowed hlm Lo Lackle a serlous
problem he sawţ
W Workers were worklna aL raLe less Lhan full capaclLvţ
lrederlck belleved Lhe reason wasť
Workers feared LhaL lncreased producLlvlLv would cause loss
of [obs
ManaaemenL waae svsLem encouraaed workers Lo operaLe
slowlv
Ceneral meLhods of worklna and rules of Lhumb were ofLen
lnefflclenL
CLA55ICAL 1nLCkI515 Ŵ 8UkLAUCkA1IC
MANAGLMLN1
Max Weber
lormal rules and
procedures
SpeclallsaLlon
of labour
lmpersonallLv of
processes
Plerarchv of
poslLlons
AdvancemenL
on merlL
CLA55ICAL 1nLCkI515 Ŵ ADMINI51kA1IVL
MANAGLMLN1
Penrl lavol
CoŴordlnaLlna
Commandlna
ConLrolllna
Þlannlna
Craanlslna
8LPAvlCu8AL 1PLC8lS1S
Lar|y theor|stsť
W Puao MunsLerberať
SelecLlonţ
CreaLlna opLlmal psvcholoalcal condlLlonsţ
behavlour shaplna
W Marv Þarker lolleLLť
lmporLance of aroup funcLlonlna
8LPAvlCu8AL 1PLC8lS1S Ŵ CCn1Ŧ
1he nawthorne stud|es
I|rst set of stud|es(1924Ŵ1927)ťlllumlnaLlon
SLudlesŦ
5econd set of stud|es(1927Ŵ1933)ťAlerL work
condlLlonsţsupervlsorv arranaemenL and
evaluaLe resulLŦ
1h|rd set Cf stud|esť SLudvlna aroups
nawthorne effect
PhysioIogicaI
Safety
SociaI
Esteem
SeIf-actuaIisation
MASLCW'S PlL8A8CP? Cl nLLuS
%heory X
Work is naturaI Work is naturaI
CapabIe of seIf-direction CapabIe of seIf-direction
Seek responsibiIity Seek responsibiIity
Can make good decisions Can make good decisions
Work avoiding Work avoiding
Need to controI Need to controI
Avoid responsibiIity Avoid responsibiIity
Workers seek security Workers seek security
%heory Y
MCC8LCC8'S 1PLC8? x Ǝ ?
8LPAvlCu8AL 1PLC8lS1S Ŵ CCn1Ŧ
8ehav|oura| sc|ence
SclenLlflc sLudv of human behavlour ln
oraanlsaLlons
"uantitative management
Management science - mathematical and
statistical methods & modelling
Operations management - control of inventory,
scheduling, planning
CCn1LMÞC8A8? 1PLC8lLS
SvsLems Lheorv
lnpuLsţ LransformaLlonţ ouLpuLsţ feedbackŦ
Cpen Ǝ closed svsLems
ConLlnaencv Lheorv
lew unlversal rules exlsL
1ransformaLlon
Þrocess
lnpuLs
CuLpuLs
8esourcesť
Puman
MaLerlals
LqulpmenL
llnanclal
lnformaLlon
manaaerlalť
Þlannlna
CraanlsaLlon
Leadlna
ConLrolllna
1echnoloav
CuLcomesť
ÞroducLs Ǝ servlces
ÞroflL Ǝ loss
emplovees arowLh Ǝ
saLlsfacLlon
1heorv Z (1he besL of !apanese and Amerlcan pracLlce)
American
$hort term
employment
Ìndividual decision
Making, responsibility
Rapid promotion
Formalized Control
$pecialized Career
path
$egment concern
apanese
ife time employment
Consensual decision
making
Collective
responsibility
$low Promotion
Ìnformal Control
non specialized
Career Path
Holistic Concern
theory
Long-term
empIoyment
ConsensuaI decision
making
IndividuaI
responsibiIity
SIow promotion
FormaIized measures
ModerateIy
speciaIized career path
HoIistic concern
lMÞLlCA1lCnS lC8 MAnAClnC
lnnCvA1lCn
W Classlcal
W 8ehavloural
W CuanLlLaLlve
W ConLemporarv
SvsLems
ConLlnaencv
externa| env|ronmentť
1he ma[or forces ouL slde Lhe
orať LhaL have poLenLlallv
slanlflcanL effecL on Lhe
success and fallure of Lhe
producLs and servlces
1he |nterna| env|ronmentť
1he aeneral condlLlon LhaL
exlsL wlLhln Lhe oraanlzaLlonŦ
Crgan|sat|ona| cu|tureť
A svsLem of shared values
and bellefs and norms LhaL
unlLes Lhe oraanlzaLlon
members Ŧ
1nL MLGAŴLNVIkCNMLN1
1he broad cond|t|ons and trends |n the soc|ety w|th |n wh|ch
organ|zat|on operatesŦ
1he
oraanlsaLlon
SocloculLural
elemenL
LeaalŴpollLlcal
elemenL
lnLernaLlonal
elemenL
1echnoloalcal
elemenL
Lconomlc
elemenL
1he 1echnoloalcal LlemenL
W 1he Lechnoloalcal elemenL ls Lhe parL of Lhe
meaaŴenvlronmenL reflecLlna Lhe currenL sLaLe of
knowledae reaardlna Lhe producLlon of aoods
and servlcesŦ
W 8esearch lndlcaLes Lechnoloav Lends Lo evolve
Lhrouah perlods of lncremenLal chanae
puncLuaLed bv Lechnoloalcal breakLhrouahs LhaL
elLher enhance or desLrov Lhe compeLence of
flrms ln an lndusLrvŦ
1he Lconomlc LlemenL
W ls Lhe parL of Lhe meaaŴenvlronmenL
encompasslna svsLems of produclnaţ dlsLrlbuLlnaţ
and consumlna wealLhŦ
ln a caplLallsL economvţ economlc acLlvlLv ls aoverned
bv markeL forces and Lhe means of producLlon are
prlvaLelv owned bv lndlvldualsţ elLher dlrecLlv or
Lhrouah corporaLlonsŦ
ln a soclallsL economvţ Lhe means of producLlon are
owned bv Lhe sLaLe and economlc acLlvlLv ls coŴ
ordlnaLed bv planŦ
ln pracLlceţ counLrles Lend Lo have hvbrld economlesţ
lncorporaLlna elemenLs of caplLallsm and soclallsmŦ
CraanlsaLlons are lnfluenced bv a varleLv of economlc
condlLlons over whlch Lhev have llLLle conLrolţ such as
lnflaLlon and lnLeresL raLesŦ
1he LeaalŴÞollLlcal LlemenL
W 1he leaalŴpollLlcal elemenL ls Lhe parL of Lhe
meaaŴenvlronmenL LhaL lncludes Lhe leaal and
aovernmenLal svsLems wlLhln whlch an
oraanlsaLlon musL funcLlonŦ
CraanlsaLlons musL operaLe wlLhln Lhe aeneral leaal
framework of Lhe counLrles ln whlch Lhev do buslnessŦ
CraanlsaLlons are currenLlv belna sub[ecLed Lo an
lncrease ln lawsulLs flled bv cusLomers or emploveesŦ
1he pollLlcal lssues affecLlna oraanlsaLlons lnclude
Lhose whlch lnfluence Lhe exLenL of aovernmenL
reaulaLlonŦ
1he Soclo culLural LlemenL
W ls Lhe elemenL of Lhe meaaŴenvlronmenL
lncludlna Lhe aLLlLudesţ valuesţ normsţ bellefsţ
behavlourţ and assoclaLed demoaraphlc Lrends
characLerlsLlc of a alven aeoaraphlcal areaŦ
1he soclo culLural elemenL ls of parLlcular
lmporLance Lo mulLlnaLlonal corporaLlonsŦ
CurrenL chanaes lnclude Lhe delav of marrlaae Lo a
laLer aaeţ Lhe emeraence of Lhe slnale head of
householdţ Lhe aaelna of Lhe babvŴboomer aroupţ
and lncreaslna lnfluence of mlnorlLlesŦ
Soclo culLural Lrends resulL ln lmporLanL shlfLs ln
producL demand
1he lnLernaLlonal LlemenL
W ls Lhe meaaŴenvlronmenL elemenL whlch lncludes
developmenLs ln counLrles ouLslde an
oraanlsaLlonƌs home counLrv wlLh Lhe poLenLlal of
havlna an lmpacL on Lhe oraanlsaLlonŦ
llucLuaLlons of Lhe dollar aaalnsL forelan currencles
lnfluence an oraanlsaLlonƌs ablllLv Lo compeLe ln
lnLernaLlonal markeLsŦ
lree Lrade aareemenLs offer vasL posslblllLles for lonaŴ
Lerm markeL arowLh wlLhln Lhe freeŴLrade relanŦ
new alobal compeLlLors can aaln a slanlflcanL share of
Lhe domesLlc markeLŦ
Suppllers
CompeLlLors
CovernmenL Ǝ
reaulaLors
1he emplovmenL
markeL
Þubllc pressure aroups
1nL 1A5k LNVIkCNMLN1
1he spec|f|c out s|de e|ements w|th|n wh|ch organ|zat|on |nterfaces |n course of
conduct|ng bus|ness
1he
Crgan|sat|on
CusLomers/cllenLs
Analvslna LnvlronmenLal CondlLlons
W ÞerspecLlvesť
ÞopulaLlon ecoloav modelť Lnvť facLors ls Lhe cause of
survlval or fallure of an oraanlzaLlonŦ
8esource dependence modelť CraanlzaLlon can
aLLempL Lo manlpulaLe Lhe Lnvť Lo reduce
dependenceŦ
W CharacLerlsLlcsť
LnvlronmenLal uncerLalnLv
W LnvlronmenLal complexlLv ť homoaeneous/heLeroaeneous
W LnvlronmenLal dvnamlsm ť sLable/unsLable
Manaalna LlemenLs of Lhe
LnvlronmenL
W AdapLaLlonť
8ufferlna
SmooLhlna
lorecasLlna
8aLlonlna
W lavourablllLv lnfluence
AdverLlslna Ǝ Þ8
8oundarv spannlna
8ecrulLlna
W lavourablllLv lnfluence
(conLŦ)
neaoLlaLlna conLracLs
CoŴopLlna
SLraLealc alllances
1rade assoclaLlons
ÞollLlcal acLlvlLv
W uomaln shlfLlna
1he lnLerenal LnvlronmenLť
CraanlsaLlonal CulLure
W ueflnlLlonť ºŧ a svsLem of shared valuesţ
assumpLlonţ bellefs and norms unlLlna
oraanlsaLlonal members" (Smlrclch 1983Ť kllman
eL al 1986)
W º1he wav we do Lhlnas around here"
W 1he 'alue' blndlna Lhe dlsparaLe parLs (or Lhe oll
LhaL keeps Lhem movlna)
W 1he lnLerpreLlve parL of oraanlsaLlonal behavlourť
lL explalnsţ alves dlrecLlonţ susLalns eneravţ
commlLmenLţ and coheslon
1?ÞLS Cl Þ8C8LLMSť
W crisis prob/em Ŵ ls a serlous dlfflculLv requlrlna
lmmedlaLe acLlonŦ
W nonŴcrisis prob/em Ŵ ls an lssue requlrlna
resoluLlon buL noL wlLh Lhe lmporLance and
lmmedlacv characLerlsLlcs of a crlslsŦ
W n opportunity prob/em Ŵ ls a slLuaLlon offerlna
a sLrona poLenLlal for slanlflcanL oraanlsaLlonal
aaln lf approprlaLe acLlons are LakenŦ
An CÞÞC81unl1? 1C LxCLL
W CpporLunlLles lnvolve ldeas Lo be usedţ raLher
Lhan dlfflculLles needlna resoluLlonŦ
W nonŴlnnovaLlve manaaers Lend Lo focus on
problems lnsLead of opporLunlLlesŦ
1PL nA1u8L Cl MAnACL8lAL uLClSlCn
MAklnC
W Þroarammed declslons Ŵ appllcaLlon of
experlenceţ rulesţ pollcv
W nonŴproarammed declslons Ŵ new or complexţ
dearees of uncerLalnLv
W 1he elemenL of rlsk
Þ8CC8AMMLu uLClSlCnS
W Programmed decisions are those made in routine,
repetitive, well-structured situations through
predetermined decision rules.
W Computers are an ideal tool Ior dealing with complex
programmed decisions.
W Most decisions made by Iirst-line managers and many
by middle managers are programmed decisions.
nCnŴÞ8CC8AMMLu uLClSlCnS
W Non-programmed decisions are those Ior which
predetermined decision rules are impractical (novel
situations and/or ill-structured.
W &ncertaintv is a condition in which the decision maker
must choose a course oI action without complete
knowledge oI the consequences Iollowing
implementation.
W #isk is the possibility a chosen action could lead to
losses rather than the intended results.
W &ncertainty is seen as the reason why a situation is
risky.
W A rapidly changing environment is a maior cause oI
uncertainty.
MAnACL8S AS uLClSlCn MAkL8S
W 1he raLlonal declslonŴmaklna model
W nonŴraLlonal models
SaLlsflclna
lncremenLal
8ubblsh bln
Managers as
decision makers
Assumptions of the
Rational Model
Managers as
decision makers
Assumptions of the
Rational Model
kat|ona|
dec|s|on
mak|ng
kat|ona|
dec|s|on
mak|ng
An opt|ma| dec|s|on
|s poss|b|e
An opt|ma| dec|s|on
|s poss|b|e
A|| re|evant |nformat|on
|s ava||ab|e
A|| re|evant |nformat|on
|s ava||ab|e
A|| re|evant |nformat|on |s
understandab|e
A|| re|evant |nformat|on |s
understandab|e
A|| a|ternat|ves are known A|| a|ternat|ves are known
A|| poss|b|e outcomes known A|| poss|b|e outcomes known
Managers as
decision makers
$atisficing
Managers as
decision makers
$atisficing
#5at|sf|c|ng'
dec|s|on
mak|ng
#5at|sf|c|ng'
dec|s|on
mak|ng
1|me constra|nts 1|me constra|nts
L|m|ted ab|||ty to
understand a|| factors
L|m|ted ab|||ty to
understand a|| factors
Inadequate base
of |nformat|on
Inadequate base
of |nformat|on
L|m|ted memory of
dec|s|onŴmakers
L|m|ted memory of
dec|s|onŴmakers
Þoor percept|on of factors
to be cons|dered
|n dec|s|on process
Þoor percept|on of factors
to be cons|dered
|n dec|s|on process
EvaIuation
of decision
effectiveness
EvaIuation
of decision
effectiveness
Identification
of the probIem
Identification
of the probIem
Generate aIternative soIutions Generate aIternative soIutions
EvaIuate aIternatives and choose an aIternatives EvaIuate aIternatives and choose an aIternatives
ImpIementation and monitoring
of the chosen aIternative
ImpIementation and monitoring
of the chosen aIternative
$teps in decision-
making
$teps in decision-
making
Scanning Categorization Diagnosis
Don't criticize FreewheeI Offer as many ideas as
possibIe
Combine and
improve
FeasibiIity "uaIity AcceptabiIity Costs ReversibiIity Ethics
PIan ImpIementation Decision's Effect FoIIow-up Mechanism
1he overall plannlna process
mlsslon aoals plans
aoal aLLalnmenL
(oraanlsaLlonal
efflclencv and
effecLlveness)
1PL ÞLAnnlnC Þ8CCLSS
W Ma[or componenLsť
Coals/ob[ecLlves ƹ Lhe ends
Þlans ƹ Lhe means
ueclslonŴmaklna processes
Þlannlna Ǝ declslon alds
W CraanlsaLlonal mlsslonť
ºŧ fundamenLal reason for exlsLenceŦ"
Mav be unwrlLLen
Mav address cusLomersţ producLs or servlcesţ locaLlonţ
Lechnoloavţ concern for survlvalţ phllosophvţ selfŴconcepLţ
concern for publlc lmaaeţ concern for emplovees (uavldţ 1989)
1he mlsslon sLaLemenL
W CusLomers
W producLs or servlces
W LocaLlon
W 1echnoloav
W Concern for survlval
W Þhllosophv
W SelfŴconcepL
W Concern for publlc lmaae
W Concern for emplovees
1PL nA1u8L Cl C8CAnlSA1lCnAL
CCALS
W 8eneflLs of aoalsť
lncreases performance
Clarlfles expecLaLlons
laclllLaLes conLrol
lncreases moLlvaLlon
W Levels of aoals
1Ŧ CperaLlonal aoals (base)
2Ŧ 1acLlcal aoals (mld)
3Ŧ SLraLealc aoals (Lop)
LacLlcal
aoals
LacLlcal
aoals
LacLlcal
plans
LacLlcal
plans
operaLlonal
aoals
operaLlonal
aoals
operaLlonal
plans
operaLlonal
plans
sLraLealc
aoals
sLraLealc
aoals
sLraLealc
plans
sLraLealc
plans
1op ManaaemenL
oraanlsaLlonalŴwlde perspecLlve
Mlddle ManaaemenL
deparLmenL perspecLlve
llrsLŴLevel ManaaemenL
unlL/lndlvldual perspecLlve
MAnACLMLn1 8? C8!LC1lvLSť S1LÞS ln
1PL M8C Þ8CCLSS
1ť uevelop overall
oraanlsaLlonal aoals
2ť LsLabllsh speclflc
aoals for unlLs
and lndlvlduals
3ť lormulaLe acLlon plans
4ť lmplemenL plansţ
malnLaln selfŴconLrol
3ť 8evlew proaress
6ť Appralse performance
S18LnC1PS Anu WLAknLSSLS Cl M8C
SLrenaLhs SLrenaLhs
ne|ps ||nk goa|s w|th p|ans ne|ps ||nk goa|s w|th p|ans
C|ar|f|es pr|or|t|esţ
expectat|ons
C|ar|f|es pr|or|t|esţ
expectat|ons
Iosters organ|sat|ona|
commun|cat|on
Iosters organ|sat|ona|
commun|cat|on
8u||ds member
mot|vat|on
8u||ds member
mot|vat|on
Weaknesses Weaknesses
Need for strongţ
endur|ng comm|tment
Need for strongţ
endur|ng comm|tment
kequ|res tra|n|ng
of managers
kequ|res tra|n|ng
of managers
May be m|sused to pun|sh May be m|sused to pun|sh
k|sk of dom|nance
of quant|tat|ve goa|s
k|sk of dom|nance
of quant|tat|ve goa|s
43
1he SLraLealc ManaaemenL Þrocess
W SLraLeav lormulaLlonť
ldenLlfv oraanlsaLlonal mlsslon and sLraLealc aoals
Þerformlna compeLlLlve slLuaLlon analvslsţ conslderlna
boLh exLernal envlronmenL and lnLernal oraanlsaLlonal
facLorsŦ
ueveloplna Lhe sLraLeales Lo reach Lhe sLraLealc aoals
W SLraLeav lmplemenLaLlonť
LffecLlve lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe sLraLealc plan
8rllllanLlv formulaLed sLraLeales wlll noL succeed lf
Lhev are lmplemenLed lneffecLlvelv
44
Ìdentify
current
mission
and
strategic
goals
Conduct
competitive
analysis:
Wstrengths
Wweakness
Wopportunity
Wthreats
Develop
specific
strategies:
Wcorporate
Wbusiness
Wfunctional
carry out
strategic
plans
maintain
strategic
control
assess
organisational
factors
assess
environmental
factors
SLraLeav lmplemenLaLlon SLraLeav formulaLlon
43
ConducLlna CompeLlLlve Analvsls
W SLrenaLhs on whlch Lo caplLallseţ
W Weaknesses vou need Lo addressţ
W CpporLunlLv avallable Lo vouţ and
W 1hreaLs LhaL could adverselv affecL vouŦ
5wO1 Aoolvsls 5wO1 Aoolvsls
46
SWC1 Analvsls
kev kev
SLrenaLhs SLrenaLhs
kev kev
Weaknesses Weaknesses
kev kev
CpporLunlLles CpporLunlLles
kev kev
1hreaLs 1hreaLs
,st llkelv ,st llkelv
lsslble lsslble
lsslble lsslble
uollkelv uollkelv
lnLernal lacLors lnLernal lacLors
LxLernal lacLors LxLernal lacLors
47
CraanlsaLlonal AssessmenL
CraanlsaLlonal culLure
lnformaLlon svsLems
(upŴLoŴdaLe)?
LlquldlLv (and
oLher flnanclal
dlmenslons)
Skllls levels
(compeLencv proflles)
CraanlsaLlonal sLrucLure
(flexlblllLv)
1analble asseLs
(bulldlnas
and equlpmenL)
Sales and
dlsLrlbuLlon channels
1he oraanlsaLlon's
sLrenaLhs and
weaknessesť
48
LnvlronmenLal AssessmenL
1he
oraanlsaLlon
1he
oraanlsaLlon
Soclal Analvsls
ÞollLlcal Ǝ
8eaulaLorv
Analvsls
ÞollLlcal Ǝ
8eaulaLorv
Analvsls
Puman
8esources
Analvsls
Puman
8esources
Analvsls
lndusLrv and
MarkeL Analvsls
lndusLrv and
MarkeL Analvsls
CompeLlLor
Analvsls
CompeLlLor
Analvsls
Lconomlc
Analvsls
Lconomlc
Analvsls
1echnoloalcal
Analvsls
1echnoloalcal
Analvsls
49
Levels of SLraLeav
W CorporaLeŴLevel SLraLeav
Lhe buslness an oraanlsaLlon wlll operaLe
coŴordlnaLlon of sLraLeales
allocaLlon of resources
W 8uslnessŴLevel SLraLeav
sLraLealc buslness unlLs
focuslna on a parLlcular buslness
W luncLlonalŴLevel SLraLeav
manaalna funcLlonal area Lo supporL buslnessŴlevel
sLraLeav
Lhe davŴLoŴdav manaaemenL of buslness
30
CORPORATE
$TRATEGY
Operations
Management
$trategy
R & D
$trategy
Financial/
Accounting
$trategy
Marketing
$trategy
Human
Resources
$trategy
Business 1
$trategy
Business 2
$trategy
Business 3
$trategy
CorporaLe Level CorporaLe Level
luncLlonal Level luncLlonal Level
8uslness Level 8uslness Level
31
CoŴordlnaLlna Levels of SLraLeav
W CoŴordlnaLlna sLraLeales across Lhe levels ls
crlLlcal Lo maxlmlslna sLraLealc lmpacL
W 8uslnessŴlevel sLraLeav ls enhanced when
funcLlonalŴlevel sLraLeales supporL lLŦ
W CorporaLeŴlevel sLraLeav wlll have more lmpacL
when supporLed bv buslnessŴlevel sLraLeales
complemenLlna each oLherŦ
W 1husţ Lhe Lhree levels musL be coŴordlnaLed as
parL of Lhe SLraLealc ManaaemenLŦ
W 1opŴuown or 8oLLomŴup approach ?
32
liquidation
bankruptcy
Diversification
Vertical
integration
concentration
divestiture
turnaround
harvest
Defensive
$tability
Growth
GRAND
$TRATEGÌE$
33
CrowLh SLraLeav
W ConcenLraLlon
MarkeL developmenL
ÞroducL developmenL
PorlzonLal lnLearaLlon
W verLlcal lnLearaLlon
8ackward lnLearaLlonţ buslness arows bv becomlna lLs
own suppller
lorward lnLearaLlonţ buslness arowLh encompasses a
role prevlouslv fulfllled bv a cusLomer
34
CrowLh SLraLeav Ŵ ConLŦ
W ulverslflcaLlon
ConalomeraLe dlverslflcaLlon when an oraanlsaLlon
dlverslfles lnLo areas unrelaLed Lo lLs currenL buslness
ConcenLrlc dlverslflcaLlon when an oraanlsaLlon
dlverslfles lnLo relaLedţ buL dlsLlncLţ buslness
W CrowLh sLraLeales can be lmplemenLed bvť
lnLernal arowLh
An acqulslLlon
A meraer
33
SLablllLv SLraLeav
W MalnLalnlna Lhe sLaLus quo or arowlna ln a
meLhodlcalţ buL slowţ mannerŦ
W AdopLed bv small prlvaLelv owned buslnesses
W 8easons for adopLlna Lhls sLraLeavť
Avold rlsk
Þrovlde an opporLunlLv Lo recover afLer a perlod
of an acceleraLed arowLh
LeLs companv hold on Lo currenL markeL share
Mav occur Lhrouah defaulL
36
uefenslve SLraLeav
W arvest entails minimising investments while
attempting to maximise short-run proIits and cash
Ilow, with the long-run intention oI exiting the
market.
W turnaround is designed to reverse a negative
trend and restore the organisation to appropriate
levels oI proIitability.
W A divestiture involves an organisation's selling or
divesting oI a business or part oI a business.
W iquidation entails selling or dissolving an entire
organisation
37
lormulaLlna 8uslness level SLraLeav
W Concerned wlLh how a parLlcular buslness
compeLes
W 1hree aenerlc buslness level sLraLeales
developed bv Mlchael ÞorLer
W CosL leadershlp
W ulfferenLlaLlon
W locus
38
lormulaLlna luncLlonal sLraLeav
W Spell ouL Lhe speclflc wavs LhaL funcLlonal areas
can be used Lo bolsLer Lhe buslness level sLraLeavŦ
W luncLlonal areas develop Lhe dlsLlncLlve
compeLencles LhaL lead Lo poLenLlal compeLlLlve
advanLaaesŦ
W Such compeLencles need Lo be care fullv
concelved and mav Lake several vear Lo developŦ
39
SLraLeav lmplemenLaLlon
W Þrlnclpal facLor requlred Lo carrv ouL sLraLealc
plan(SLraLeav) are
W 1echno|ogy (knowledaeţ Lools Ǝ work
Lechnlques)
W numan kesources( lndlvldual wlLh necessarv
skllls ln Lhe approprlaLe poslLlon ls prerequlslLe
for effecLlve sLraLeav lmplemenLaLlon)
W Dec|s|on Þrocess( Means for resolvlna quesLlons
and problems LhaL occur ln oraanlzaLlon)
W 5tructure( lnLeracLlon and coordlnaLlon deslaned
bv manaaemenL Lo Lo llnk Lhe Lask of lndlvldual
and aroups ln achlevlna orať aoals)
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
60
naLure of oraanlsaLlonal sLrucLure
lormal paLLern of lnLeracLlons and
coŴordlnaLlon deslaned bv manaaemenL
Lo llnk Lhe Lasks of lndlvlduals and
aroups ln achlevlna oraanlsaLlonal aoalsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
61
naLure of oraanlsaLlonal sLrucLure
Iour e|ementsť
1Ŧ AsslanmenL of Lasks and responslblllLles
Lo lndlvlduals and unlLsŦ
2Ŧ ClusLerlna Lhese Lo form a hlerarchvŦ
3Ŧ Mechanlsms for verLlcal coŴordlnaLlonŦ
4Ŧ Mechanlsms for horlzonLal coŴ
ordlnaLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
62
naLure of oraanlsaLlonal sLrucLure
W 1he oraanlsaLlon charL
Llne dlaaram deplcLlna broad ouLllnes of an
oraanlsaLlon's sLrucLureŦ
W Þrlnclples charL deslan
As few hlerarchlcal levels as posslbleŦ
CharLs should show who has auLhorlLv over
whoŦ
CharLs should show offlclal llnes
responslblllLv Ǝ communlcaLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
63
naLure of oraanlsaLlonal sLrucLure
ABC ÌNC.
DÌRECTOR
H.R.M.
$&BORDÌNATE
MANAGER
FÌNANCE
DÌRECTOR
FÌNANCE
DÌRECTOR
$AE$
C.E.O.
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
64
!ob deslan
W !ob deslan
SpeclflcaLlon of Lask acLlvlLles assoclaLed wlLh a
parLlcular [obŦ
W ueslan [obs Lo enhance moLlvaLlon
ob s|mp||f|cat|onť breaklna [obs lnLo small elemenLsŦ
ob rotat|onť movlna Lhrouah seLs of Lasks ln
sequenceŦ
ob en|argementť wlder ranae of slmllar LasksŦ
W AlLernaLlve work schedules
Manaalna work dlverslLvŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
63
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
Llnklna of acLlvlLles aL Lhe Lop of Lhe
oraanlsaLlon
wlLh Lhose aL Lhe mlddle and lower levels Lo
achleve oraanlsaLlonal aoalsŦ
W lormallsaLlon
W Span of manaaemenL
W CenLrallsaLlon vs deŴcenLrallsaLlon
W ueleaaLlon
W Llne Ǝ sLaff poslLlonsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
66
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
Iorma||sat|onť
W uearee Lo whlch wrlLLen pollclesţ rulesţ
proceduresţ [ob descrlpLlons and oLher
documenLs speclfv whaL acLlons are(noL)
Lo be Laken under a alven seL of
clrcumsLancesŦ
W LxLenL of formallsaLlon Lends Lo arow
wlLh
aae Ǝ slzeŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
67
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
Iactors |nf|uenc|ng span of managementť
Plah compeLence levelsŦ
Low lnLeracLlon requlremenLsŦ
Work slmllarlLv (beLween oraanlsaLlonal peers)Ŧ
Low problem frequencv and serlousnessŦ
Þhvslcal proxlmlLvŦ
lew nonŴsupervlsorv duLles of manaaersŦ
Conslderable avallable asslsLanceŦ
Plah moLlvaLlonal posslblllLles of workŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
68
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
CenLrallsaLlon
LxLenL Lo whlch power Ǝ auLhorlLv are reLalned aL Lhe
Lop oraanlsaLlonal levelsŦ
ueŴcenLrallsaLlon
LxLenL Lo whlch power Ǝ auLhorlLv are deleaaLed Lo
lower levelsŦ
lacLors favourlna cenLrallsaLlon
W Larae oraanlsaLlonal slze
W Ceoaraphlc dlsperslon
W 1echnoloalcal complexlLv
W LnvlronmenLal uncerLalnLvŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
69
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
extent to which power and authority will be retained at
upper levels'. Ìnfluenced by:
extent to which power and authority will be retained at
upper levels'. Ìnfluenced by:
Large size: larger
organisations
likely to be more
Decentralised.
Large size: larger
organisations
likely to be more
Decentralised.
Geographic dispersion:
more dispersed likely to be
decentralised, to enable
control at a number of sites.
Geographic dispersion:
more dispersed likely to be
decentralised, to enable
control at a number of sites.
%echnoIogicaI compIexity:
with more complex
technology,need to devolve
authority to lower levels.
%echnoIogicaI compIexity:
with more complex
technology,need to devolve
authority to lower levels.
EnvironmentaI uncertainty:
with rapid change, need for more
employees to be involved in
responding to challenges.
EnvironmentaI uncertainty:
with rapid change, need for more
employees to be involved in
responding to challenges.
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
70
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
ueleaaLlon
AsslanmenL of parL of a manaaer's work Lo oLhersţ
alona wlLh boLh responslblllLv Ǝ auLhorlLv necessarv Lo
achleve expecLed resulLsŦ
lacLors resLralnlna deleaaLlon
W lear subordlnaLe fallureŦ
W 1lme Lo Lraln subordlnaLesŦ
W Ln[ov dolna LasksŦ
W 8elease of auLhorlLvŦ
W Concern for Lask performanceŦ
W lear subordlnaLe compeLenceŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
71
MeLhods of verLlcal
coŴordlnaLlon
ConflauraLlon of llne and sLaff poslLlonsť
W Llne auLhorlLv
AuLhorlLv followlna Lhe chaln of command
esLabllshed bv Lhe formal hlerarchvŦ
W luncLlonal auLhorlLv
AuLhorlLv of sLaff over oLhers ln Lhe oraanlsaLlon ln
maLLers relaLed dlrecLlv Lo Lhelr respecLlve funcLlons
eŦaŦ P8M depLŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
72
MeLhods of horlzonLal
coŴordlnaLlon
PorlzonLal coŴordlnaLlonť
Llnklna of acLlvlLles across deparLmenLs aL
slmllar levelsŦ
W need for lnformaLlon processlna across
Lhe oraanlsaLlonŦ
W ÞromoLes lnnovaLlon Lhrouah
dlssemlnaLlon of ldeas Ǝ lnformaLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
73
MeLhods of horlzonLal
coŴordlnaLlon
PorlzonLal coŴordlnaLlon promoLed bvť
W Slack resources
Cushlon of resources LhaL faclllLaLes
adapLaLlons Lo lnLernal/exLernal pressuresţ as
well as lnlLlaLlon of chanaesŦ
W lnformaLlon svsLems
Cne lnformaLlon source for manv usersŦ
W LaLeral relaLlons
ulrecL conLacLţ llalson rolesţ Lask forcesţ LeamsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
CraanlsaLlon sLrucLure deslan
W SLraLeav Ǝ sLrucLureť whlch comes flrsL?
SLraLeav Ǝ sLrucLure are closelv llnked wlLh
each oLherŦ
MlsmaLches ln sLraLeav/sLrucLure lead Lo
dlfflculLlesŦ
W lacLors lnfluenclna oraanlsaLlon deslan
ConLlnaencv facLorsť Lechnoloavţ slzeţ
envlronmenLŦ
need Lo promoLe lnnovaLlonť rolesţ
dlfferenLlaLlonţ Lransfer processesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
CraanlsaLlon sLrucLure deslan
Strategy Strategy
Contingency factors
WTechnology
W$ize
WEnvironment
Contingency factors
WTechnology
W$ize
WEnvironment
Organisation structure
WFunctional
WDivisional
WHybrid
WMatrix
Organisation structure
WFunctional
WDivisional
WHybrid
WMatrix
StructuraI methods for
promoting innovation
WRoles
WReservations
WDifferentiation
WTransfer processes
StructuraI methods for
promoting innovation
WRoles
WReservations
WDifferentiation
WTransfer processes
OrganisationaI goaIs
(efficiency &
effectiveness)
OrganisationaI goaIs
(efficiency &
effectiveness)
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
W luncLlonal sLrucLure
W ulvlslonal sLrucLure
W Pvbrld sLrucLure
W MaLrlx sLrucLure
W LmeraenL sLrucLure
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
luncLlonal sLrucLure
SLrucLure ln whlch poslLlons are arouped
accordlna Lo Lhelr maln funcLlonal (or
speclallsed) areaŦ
CEO
Manager,
Distribution
Manager,
Administration
Manager,
Manufacturing
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
luncLlonal sLrucLure
AdvanLaaes
W lnŴdepLh experLlse
developmenLŦ
W Clear career paLh wlLhln
funcLlonŦ
W LfflclenL use of
resourcesŦ
W Lconomles of scale
(posslble)Ŧ
W Lase of coŴordlnaLlonŦ
W 1echnlcal advanLaae on
compeLlLlonŦ
ulsadvanLaaes
W Slow response reť
mulLlfuncLlon problemsŦ
W ueclslon backloa aL Lop
of hlerarchvŦ
W 8oLLlenecks reť
sequenLlal LasksŦ
W lnexacL measures of
performanceŦ
W narrow Lralnlna of
fuLure manaaersŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
ulvlslonal sLrucLureť
SLrucLure ln whlch poslLlons are arouped
accordlna Lo slmllarlLv of producLsţ
servlces
or markeLsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
CEO, AIpha Industries CEO, AIpha Industries
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Copier products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Copier products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Scanner products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Scanner products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Photographic
products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Photographic
products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
IndustriaI
Imaging products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
IndustriaI
Imaging products
Chief GeneraI
Manager Computer
Storage products
Chief GeneraI
Manager Computer
Storage products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Marine EIectronic products
Chief GeneraI
Manager
Marine EIectronic products
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
ulvlslonal sLrucLure
Advantages
W lasL response Lo
envlronmenLal chanae
W Slmpllfled coŴordlnaLlon
across funcLlons
W SlmulLaneous emphasls on
oraanlsaLlonal aoals
W SLrona cusLomer orlenLaLlon
W AccuraLe measuremenL of
performance
W 8road Lralnlna ln
manaaemenL skllls
D|sadvantages
W 8esource dupllcaLlon ln each
dlvlslon
W 8educLlon of lnŴdepLh
experLlse
W CompeLlLlon amonasL
dlvlslons
W LlmlLed sharlna of experLlse
beLween dlvlslons
W lnnovaLlon resLrlcLed Lo each
dlvlslon
W nealecL of overall aoals
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
Pvbrld sLrucLureť
SLrucLure adopLlna boLh funcLlonal and
dlvlslonal sLrucLures aL Lhe same manaaemenL
levelsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Pvbrld sLrucLure
Advantages
W AllanmenL of
corporaLe Ǝ
dlvlslonal aoalsŦ
W luncLlonal experLlse
Ǝ/or efflclencvŦ
W AdapLablllLv Ǝ
flexlblllLv ln
dlvlslonsŦ
D|sadvantages
W ConfllcLs beLween
corporaLe
deparLmenLs Ǝ
dlvlslonsŦ
W Lxcesslve
admlnlsLraLlon
overheadŦ
W Slow response Lo
excepLlonal
slLuaLlonsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
MaLrlx sLrucLureť
SLrucLure superlmposlna a horlzonLal seL of
dlvlslonal reporLlna relaLlonshlps onLo a
hlerarchlcal funcLlonal sLrucLureŦ
ApproprlaLe whenť
W need for a sLrona focus on boLh funcLlonal Ǝ
dlvlslonal dlmenslonsŦ
W need Lo qulcklv process lnformaLlon Ǝ coŴ
ordlnaLe acLlvlLlesŦ
W 1here ls pressure for shared resourcesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
GM,
%ransport
GM,
SaIes
GM,
HRM
GM,
Finance
Manager,
Business A
Manager,
Business B
Manager,
Business C
Manager,
Business D
Manager,
Business E
Transport,
Business A
Transport,
Business B
Transport,
Business C
Transport,
Business D
Transport,
Business E
$ales,
Business A
$ales,
Business B
$ales,
Business C
$ales,
Business D
$ales,
Business E
HRM,
Business A
HRM,
Business C
HRM,
Business D
HRM,
Business E
Finance,
Business A
Finance,
Business B
Finance,
Business C
Finance,
Business D
Finance,
Business E
HRM,
Business B
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
MaLrlx sLrucLure
Advantages
W uecenLrallsed declslonŴ
maklnaŦ
W SLrona producL coŴ
ordlnaLlonŦ
W lmproved
envlronmenLal
monlLorlnaŦ
W llexlble use of human
resourcesŦ
W LfflclenL use of supporL
svsLemsŦ
W lasL response Lo chanaeŦ
D|sadvantages
W Plah admlnlsLraLlve
cosLsŦ
W Confuslon over
auLhorlLv Ǝ
responslblllLv
(poLenLlal)Ŧ
W Lxcesslve focus on
lnLernal relaLlonsŦ
W Cveremphasls on aroup
declslon maklnaŦ
W Slow response Lo
chanae (posslble)Ŧ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Assesslna sLrucLural alLernaLlves
Lmeralna sLrucLuresť
W Þrocess sLrucLure
1vpe of deparLmenLallsaLlon where poslLlons are
arouped bv a compleLe flow of workŦ
W neLworked sLrucLure
lorm of oraanlslna where manv funcLlons are
conLracLed ouL Lo oLher lndependenL flrms Ǝ
coordlnaLed bv use of lnformaLlon Lechnoloav
neLworks Lo operaLe as lf Lhev were wlLhln a slnale
corporaLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Welahlna conLlnaencv facLors
1he besL sLrucLure for an oraanlsaLlon
depends
on conLlnaencv facLors such asť
W 1echnoloav
W Slze
W LnvlronmenLŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Welahlna conLlnaencv facLors
1echno|ogyť
W 1echno|og|ca| comp|ex|ty (Woodward)
unlL Ǝ small baLch producLlon
Larae baLch Ǝ mass producLlon
ConLlnuous process producLlon
W 1echno|og|ca| |nterdependence (1hompson)
Þooled lnLerdependence
SequenLlal lnLerdependence
8eclprocal lnLerdependence
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Welahlna conLlnaencv facLors
· Four trends · Four trends
With growth:
more departments,
shift from functional
to divisional form
With growth:
more departments,
shift from functional
to divisional form
With growth:
more staff positions
to assist senior
management
With growth:
more staff positions
to assist senior
management
With growth:
tendency to decentralise
(enabled by
formalisation)
With growth:
tendency to decentralise
(enabled by
formalisation)
With growth:
additional rules
& regulations
(formalisation)
With growth:
additional rules
& regulations
(formalisation)
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
Welahlna conLlnaencv facLors
$tab|e env|ronments,
mechan|st|c
· Na((oW las|s. p(esc(|oed
las|s. r|e(a(cr|ca| corl(o|.
dec|s|or-ra||rd |eve|s.
corrur|cal|or ve(l|ca|.
|rsl(ucl|ors ov supe(|o(s.
|ova|lv lo o(dar|sal|or &
ooed|erce lo supe(|o(s
Unstab|e|uncerta|n
env|ronments, organ|c
· 0ere(a| las|s. las|s suojecl lo
corl|ruous redol|al|or. relWo(|
corl(o|. dec|s|or ra||rd (esls W|lr
lrose W|lr |roW|edde.
corrur|cal|or ac(oss & oelWeer
|eve|s. 'supe(v|s|or' |s |rlo(ral|or &
adv|ce. corr|lrerl lo
o(dar|sal|ora| doa|s. possess|or ol
expe(l|se
· Lawrence & Lorsch: ßa|ance of d|fferent|at|on & |ntegrat|on · Lawrence & Lorsch: ßa|ance of d|fferent|at|on & |ntegrat|on
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
MaLchlna sLraLeav Ǝ sLrucLure
Manaaers musL maLch sLraLeav Ǝ sLrucLure
Lo
achleve effecLlveness eŦať
|che
d|fferent|at|on:
-ra((oW la(del ra(|el
|che
d|fferent|at|on:
-ra((oW la(del ra(|el
6ost |eadersh|p:
-o(dar|sal|ora|
ell|c|ercv.
|oWe( p(|ces
6ost |eadersh|p:
-o(dar|sal|ora|
ell|c|ercv.
|oWe( p(|ces
Harket d|fferent|at|on:
- adve(l|s|rd. p(esl|de
p(|c|rd &
ra(|el sedrerlal|or
Harket d|fferent|at|on:
- adve(l|s|rd. p(esl|de
p(|c|rd &
ra(|el sedrerlal|or
|nnovat|ve
d|fferent|at|on:
-corp|ex p(oducl
o( se(v|ce |rroval|ors
|nnovat|ve
d|fferent|at|on:
-corp|ex p(oducl
o( se(v|ce |rroval|ors
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
ÞromoLlna lnnovaLlon
SLrucLure's ablllLv Lo supporL sLraLeav can be
enhanced bv uslna sLrucLural means Lo
encouraae lnnovaLlonŦ
lnnovaLlon ls crlLlcal Lo varlous dlfferenLlaLlon
sLraLealesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
ÞromoLlna lnnovaLlon
lour ma[or means of uslna oraanlsaLlon
sLrucLure Lo faclllLaLe lnnovaLlon areť
W vlLal roles
ldea champlonţ sponsorţ orchesLraLorŦ
W 8eservaLlons
CraanlsaLlon unlLs devoLed Lo Lhe aeneraLlon of
lnnovaLlve ldeasŦ
W ulfferenLlal paradox
SeparaLlna lnnovaLlon process decreases chance of
lmplemenLaLlonŦ
W 1ransfer process
1he dlfflculLv of LranslaLlna ldeas lnLo
producLs/servlcesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
93
1he P8M framework
1hose manaaemenL funcLlons concerned
wlLh aLLracLlnaţ malnLalnlna and
developlna people ln Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlpŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
96
1he P8M framework
P8M funcLlons
Ìdentifying HR needs
Attracting human resources
Maintaining human resources
Terminating the relationship
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
97
1he P8M framework
Þr|nc|p|es of nkM
W ÞroacLlve approachţ llnk Lo sLraLealc
plannlna Ǝ culLural chanaeŦ
W vlew of people as caplLalţ noL cosLŦ
W ÞosslblllLv of muLuallv beneflclal
relaLlonshlp beLween sLakeholdersŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
98
1he P8M framework
kegu|atory framework
W AusLralla Ǝ new Zealandţ lona hlsLorv of
aovernmenL supporL for unlon lnvolvemenLŦ
W Slnce earlv 1990sţ ma[or shlfL Loward
enLerprlse or lndlvldual aareemenLsŦ
W lncreaslna rellance on clvll law processesŦ
W CrowLh of reaulaLlon relaLlna Lo human rlahLsţ
dlscrlmlnaLlonţ LLCţ CPƎSţ envlronmenLal
maLLersŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
99
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
W Puman resource plannlna
W !ob analvsls
W 8ecrulLmenL
W SelecLlon
W lnLervlews
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
100
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
numan resource p|ann|ng
ueLermlnlna fuLure human resource needs ln
relaLlon Lo an oraanlsaLlon's buslness
ob[ecLlves or sLraLealc planŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
101
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
ob ana|ys|s
1he svsLemaLlc collecLlna and recordlna of
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe purpose of a [obţ lLs ma[or
duLlesţ Lhe condlLlons under whlch lL ls performedţ
Lhe requlred conLacLs wlLh oLhers and Lhe
knowledaeţ skllls and ablllLles needed Lo perform
lL effecLlvelvŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
102
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
ob ana|ys|s
CuLcomesť
W !ob descrlpLlons and [ob speclflcaLlonsŦ
lmpacLs uponť
W 8ecrulLmenL Ǝ selecLlon
W Þerformance appralsal
W 8emuneraLlon
W 1ralnlna Ǝ developmenL
W !ob deslan Ǝ redeslanŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
103
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
ob ana|ys|sŴmethods
W lor exlsLlna [obsţ lnLervlews wlLh emploveesŦ
W lnLervlews wlLh supervlsorsŦ
W CbservaLlonŦ
W ComblnaLlonţ lnLervlews Ǝ observaLlonŦ
W SLrucLured quesLlonnalresŦ
W Lmplovee [ournals/loabooksŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
104
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
kecru|tment
'1he process of flndlna and aLLracLlna [ob candldaLes
capable of effecLlvelv fllllna [ob vacanclesŦ' (WeLher Ǝ
uavldţ Schuler Ǝ PuberŦ)
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
103
8ecrulLmenL
Objectives Objectives
Maximising the
pool of applicants
at minimum cost.
Maximising the
pool of applicants
at minimum cost.
Attracting suitably
qualified &
skilled applicants.
Attracting suitably
qualified &
skilled applicants.
Ensuring
compliance
by organisation
with government
Regulations.
Ensuring
compliance
by organisation
with government
Regulations.
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
106
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL relaLlonshlp
MeLhods of recrulLmenL
Advertisements Advertisements
EmpIoyee referraIs EmpIoyee referraIs
InternaI promotion InternaI promotion
EmpIoyment
agencies
EmpIoyment
agencies
Internet job
& career sites
Internet job
& career sites
Contractors Contractors
Campus interviews Campus interviews
Executive recruitment
('head hunters')
Executive recruitment
('head hunters')
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
107
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
SelecLlon processť
1he declslonŴmaklna svsLem used Lo ldenLlfv
whlch [ob appllcanLs are besL sulLed Lo Lhe
vacanL poslLlonŦ
kev aspecLsť
8ellablllLv
valldlLv
SelecLlon devlcesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
108
LsLabllshlna Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp
kev aspecLs of selecLlonť
ReIiabiIity
The degree to which the
decision making process
will measure the same
Consistently.
VaIidity
Whether the decision
process actually measures
what it sets out to measure.
SeIection devices
W Application form
W Written tests
W $election interview
W Assessment centre
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
109
MalnLalnlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
W 8emuneraLlon
1he flnanclal pavmenL Lo emplovees for Lhelr
workŦ
W 1ralnlna
1he process of equlpplna people wlLh skllls
and compeLenclesŦ
W uevelopmenL
8road preparaLlon emplovee for fuLure
opporLunlLles Lhrouah Lhe acqulslLlon of new
knowledaeţ sklllsŦ
W Þerformance appralsal
!udaemenLal assessmenL of emplovee
performanceŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
110
MalnLalnlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
8emuneraLlon Ǝ beneflLsť
W Llnked Lo [ob analvsls
W Coverned bv reaulaLorv framework
W lnLernal pav equlLv
W LxLernal pav equlLv
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
111
MalnLalnlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
1ralnlna Ǝ developmenLť
Cholcesť
8uv sklllsţ bulld Lhemţ or a mlxed approachŦ
SLraLealc raLlonales for Lralnlnať
ÞroacLlve
8eacLlve
LnhancemenL of emplovee moLlvaLlonţ
commlLmenL Ǝ reLenLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
112
MalnLalnlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
PERFORMANCE APPRAÌ$A$
V0uL0 EVPL0YEE
8ElA\l0uR T0
C0VPANY N0RV3
lVPR0\E 0uALlTY
0F 3ALARY RE\lEw3
lVPR0\E lR PLANNlN0
TRAlNlN0 & 3uCCE33l0N
8ulL0 C0N3l3TENCY 0F
EVPL0YEE ACTl0N3 &
0R0ANl3ATl0N 00AL3
PR0\l0E REC0R0 F0R 0l3Vl33AL.
0EV0Tl0N. 0RlE\ANCE. APPEAL
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
113
MalnLalnlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
Performance
appraisaI
Performance
appraisaI

o
feedback -
non-hierarchicaI method

o
feedback -
non-hierarchicaI method
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
114
P8lSţ lnLerneLţ lnLraneLs Ǝ
LxLraneLs
W P8lS
Puman 8esource lnformaLlon SvsLemŦ
W lnLerneL
Clobal connecLlon of compuLer servers Lhrouah whlch
users can access sLored lnformaLlon from Lhelr ÞCsŦ
W lnLraneLs
Closed neLworks of lnformaLlon daLabases Ǝ svsLems
wlLhln an oraanlsaLlonŦ
W LxLraneLs
Closed neLworks of lnformaLlon svsLems beLween
oraanlsaLlonsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
113
P8lSţ lnLerneLţ lnLraneLs Ǝ
LxLraneLs
!erformance appra|sa|,
|nc|ud|ng 3ô0
0
feedback
w|despread
e|ectron|c
systems
Enhanced d|str|but|on
of hR po||cy,
news, |nformat|on
ßetter |nterna|
commun|cat|on
Emp|oyee ma|ntenance
of own hR records
Hu|t|-s|te co||aborat|ve
work teams, e|ectron|ca||y
||nked
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
116
1he fuLure of work
W lewer core emplovees
W lncreased parLŴLlmeţ casual Ǝ Lemporarv sLaff
W 1eleŴworklna
W PoLŴdesklna
W 1emporarv aaencv workţ shorLŴLerm labour
hlresţ onŴcall Ǝ conLracL workers
W Þersonnel supplv flrms
W ldea of emplovee as an lndependenL
conLracLor
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
117
1he fuLure of work
I|ex|b|e emp|oy|ng organ|sat|onsť
W need for sLraLealcţ vsŦ cosL reducLlon
focusŦ
W 8ellance on sLafflna aaenclesŦ
I|ex|b|e emp|oyeesť
W SelfŴemplovedŦ
W use of sLafflna aaencvŦ
W MalnLaln skllls baseŦ
W 'ÞorLfollo' workerŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
118
1ermlnaLlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
W 8eLrenchmenL
1he forced LermlnaLlon of Lhe emplovmenL
relaLlonshlp due Lo flnanclalţ Lechnoloalcal or
oraanlsaLlonal clrcumsLancesŦ
W 8edundancv
A forced LermlnaLlon of Lhe emplovmenL relaLlonshlp
resulLlna from Lhe permanenL deleLlon of speclflc
poslLlonsŦ
W ulsmlssal
1he emplover alves Lhe requlred noLlce Lo LermlnaLe
Lhe emplovmenL relaLlonshlpŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
119
1ermlnaLlna Lhe relaLlonshlp
key aspectsť
W 8eaulaLorv requlremenLsŦ
W LxlL lnLervlewsŦ
W use of ouLŴplacemenL consulLanLsŦ
W LffecL on P8 Ǝ oLher funcLlons of Lhe oraanlsaLlonŦ
nUMAN kL5CUkCL5 DLIINLD
W 1he peop|e an organ|zat|on emp|oys
1o carry out var|ous
W [obsţ tasksţ and funct|ons
In exchange for
W wagesţ sa|ar|esţ and other rewards
WnA1 I5 nUMAN kL5CUkCL
MANAGLMLN1?
W 1he comprehenslve seL of manaaerlal acLlvlLles and
Lasks concerned wlLh developlna and malnLalnlna a
quallfled workforceŸhuman resourcesŸln wavs LhaL
conLrlbuLe Lo oraanlzaLlonal effecLlvenessŦ
W P8M ls a process of developlna Ǝ applvlna pollclesţ
proceduresţ Ǝ meLhods relaLed Lo lndlvlduals ln Lhe
oraanlzaLlon ln order Lo achleve lndlvldualţ
oraanlzaLlonalţ Ǝ socleLal aoalsŦ
P8M lS MAnACLMLn1 Cl LMÞLC?LLS
WnA1 I5 nUMAN kL5CUkCL
MANAGLMLN1?
1ŦÞ|ann|ng
2Ŧ Crgan|z|ng
3Ŧ Lead|ng
4Ŧ Contro|||ng
1Ŧ Þrocurement
2Ŧ Deve|opment
3Ŧ ketent|on
4Ŧ 5eparat|on
nUMAN kL5CUkCL MANAGLMLN1
A5 A CLN1Lk CI LkÞLk1I5L
1nL nUMAN kL5CUkCL MANAGLMLN1
IUNC1ICN A1 1LkA5 IN51kUMLN15
nk Department
Crgan|zat|ona|
Chart
IUNC1ICN5 CI nk MANAGLk
1Ŧ P8 ÞlannlnaŦ
2Ŧ ueslanlna rlahL [obs Lo achleve oraanlzaLlonal
aoalsŦ
3Ŧ Acqulrlna rlahL people for rlahL [obsŦ
4Ŧ ueveloplna emplovees Lo keep Lhem updaLeŦ
3Ŧ CompensaLlna emplovees Lo make Lhem saLlsfledŦ
6Ŧ ueallna wlLh separaLlon lssues for smooLh funcLlonlna
of oraanlzaLlonŦ
7Ŧ ueveloplna amlable relaLlon wlLh emplovees Ǝ unlon
for conaenlal Ǝ producLlve envlronmenLŦ
8Ŧ ueallna wlLh afflrmaLlve acLlon plans (AAÞ)
1Ŧ nk ÞLANNING
W Lst|mat|ng Demand for numan kesources
W Lnsure 5upp|y of requ|red Þeop|e
2Ŧ DL5IGNING kIGn1 C85 1C ACnILVL
CkGANI2A1ICNAL GCAL5
W ob Ana|ys|s (Data Co||ect|on)
W Des|gn|ng the ob
ob Descr|pt|on
ob 5pec|f|cat|on
ob 5tandards
3Ŧ ACCUIkING kIGn1 ÞLCÞLL ICk kIGn1 C85
W kecru|tment
W 5e|ect|on
4Ŧ DLVLLCÞING LMÞLC¥LL5 1C kLLÞ 1nLM
UÞDA1L
W Cr|entat|on
W 1ra|n|ng
W Career Counse||ng
W Þerformance Appra|sa|s
W 1eam 8u||d|ng
Ŧ CCMÞLN5A1ING LMÞLC¥LL5 1C MAkL 1nLM
5A1I5IILD
W Waaes and salarles
W lncenLlves and aaln sharlna
W 8eneflLs and servlces
ŦDLALING WI1n 5LÞAkA1ICN I55UL5 ICk 5MCC1n
IUNC1ICNING CI CkGANI2A1ICN
W Pandllna reLlremenL lncomeţ penslon and
araLulLv fund lssuesŦ
W Þaper work relaLed Lo separaLlonŦ
W LxlL lnLervlewŦ
7Ŧ DLVLLCÞING AMIA8LL kLLA1ICN WI1n
LMÞLC¥LL5 AND CCNGLNIAL AND
ÞkCDUC1IVL LNVIkCNMLN1
W CWL lnLervenLlon Lhrouah emplovee
lnvolvemenL
W laclllLaLe communlcaLlonŦ
W M8C approach ln declslon maklnaŦ
W ueallna wlLh collecLlve baraalnlnaŦ
Ŧ DLALING WI1n AIIIkMA1IVL AC1ICN ÞLAN
(AAÞ)Ŧ
W Abldlna bv all rules and reaulaLlons lmposed
bv CovLŦ
W ueveloplna and sendlna LLC/AAÞ reporLs Lo
CovLŦ
1nL C8LC1IVL5 CI nkM
W CraanlzaLlonal ob[ecLlvesŦ
W luncLlonal ob[ecLlves
W SocleLal ob[ecLlves
W lndlvldual ob[ecLlvesŦ
nUMAN kL5CUkCL MANAGLMLN1
IN 5MALLLk CkGANI2A1ICN5
W Small oraanlzaLlons sLlll use operaLlna
manaaers Lo handle Lhelr baslc human
resource funcLlonsŦ
W Small lndependenL buslnesses are aenerallv
operaLed ln Lhe same wav as small
oraanlzaLlonsŦ Some admlnlsLraLlve acLlvlLles
mav be subconLracLedŦ
W verv small oraanlzaLlons are exempL from
manv leaal reaulaLlonsŦ
nUMAN kL5CUkCL MANAGLMLN1
IN LAkGLk CkGANI2A1ICN5
W As Lhe oraanlzaLlon arows a separaLe human
resource unlL becomes a necesslLvŦ
W When an oraanlzaLlon reaches 200 Lo 230
emploveesţ lL aenerallv esLabllshes a selfŴ
conLalned human resource deparLmenLŦ
W As Lhe oraanlzaLlon conLlnues Lo arow Lhe
human resource deparLmenL arows as well
lnLo speclallzed deparLmenLsŦ
5¥51LM VILW CI nkM
leedback
W lnpuLs LransformaLlon ouLpuLs
*Challenaes *P8M acLlvlLles * ÞroducLlve Ǝ
*LducaLlon *8ecrulLlna MoLlvaLed Workers
*people *SelecLlon
*Skllls
ÞkCAC1IVL V/s kLAC1IVL nkM
VILW ÞCIN15 CI nkM
W SLraLealc Approach
W Puman 8esource Approach
W ManaaemenL Approach
W SvsLem approach
W ÞroacLlve Approach
WnA1 INILULNCL5 1nL ÞkAC1ICL CI
nkM?
AŦ Lxterna| Inf|uences
W SLaLe of Lhe Lconomv
W CompeLlLlon for ÞroducL and Labor MarkeLs
W CovernmenL Lawsţ 8eaulaLlonţ and Þubllc
Þollcv
W CharacLerlsLlcs of Lhe Labor lorce
W 1echnoloav
8Ŧ Interna| Inf|uences
W unlons
W CharacLerlsLlcs of P8M AcLlvlLles
W ALLlLudes of Manaaers
141
1he naLure of MoLlvaLlon
W MoLlvaLlon ls an lnLernal force LhaL we cannoL
dlrecLlv measureŦ
W MoLlvaLlon ls lnferred bv Lhe observaLlon of
behavlourŦ
W lL mlahL be concluded LhaL an enalneer who
sLarLs work earlv and flnlshes laLeţ aoes Lo Lhe
offlce on weekendsţ and conLlnuallv reads and
researches Lhe fleld ls hlahlv moLlvaLedŦ
142
W Cn Lhe oLher handţ we mlahL suspecL LhaL an
enalneer who ls usuallv flrsL Lhrouah Lhe door
aL Lhe end of Lhe davţ who rarelv puLs ln exLra
hoursţ and aenerallv spends llLLle Llme readlna
ls noL moLlvaLed Lo excelŦ
W Pow successful Lhese Lwo enalneers are ln
Lhelr work wlll depend noL onlv on Lhelr
moLlvaLlon buL also on Lhelr ablllLv as
enalneersŦ
143
Work LnvlronmenL
W Work envlronmenL can have a loL of lnfluence
on Lhe performance of Lhose Lwo enalneersŦ
W lnLerrupLlonsţ exLra asslanmenLsţ or cramped
offlce space mav affecL performance
neaaLlvelvŦ
W CuleL workplace and Lhe avallablllLv of
supporL and help personnelţ mav enhance
performance ln a poslLlve wavŦ
144
Þerformance
letftmooce ,tlvotlo
£ovltomeotol
coJltlos
Abllltv
ƹ x x
143
1he MoLlvaLlon Þrocess
Needs
hlerarchv of needs Lheorv
L8C Lheorv
LwoŴfacLor Lheorv
acqulredŴneeds Lheorv
Cogn|t|ve Act|v|t|es
expecLancv Lheorv
equlLv Lheorv
aoal seLLlna Lheorv
kewards/re|nforcement
relnforcemenL Lheorv
soclal learnlna Lheorv
behavlours
146
baslc pavţ work spaceţ heaLţ waLerţ companv
cafeLerla
[ob securlLvţ beneflLs (llke llfe lnsurance)ţ safeLv
reaulaLlons
aood coŴworkersţ peersţ superlorsţ cusLomers
lmporLanL pro[ecLsţ recoanlLlonţ presLlalous
offlce locaLlon
Maslow's Plerarchv of needs
challenalna pro[ecLsţ opporLunlLv for lnnovaLlon
and creaLlvlLvţ Lralnlna
phvsloloalcal needs
safeLv needs
belonalnaness needs
esLeem needs
selfŴacLuallsaLlon
needs
147
MoLlvaLors help
Lo promoLe saLlsfacLlon
Perzbera's 1woŴlacLor 1heorv
Pvalene facLors help Lo
prevenL dlssaLlsfacLlon
nyg|ene factorsť
- pav
- work condlLlons
- supervlsors
- companv pollcles
- frlnae beneflLs
Mot|vatorsť
- achlevemenL
- responslblllLv
- work lLself
- recoanlLlon
- arowLh and
advancemenL
Plah
dlssaLlsfacLlon
Plah
saLlsfacLlon
neuLral polnL
148
L8C 1heorv
L LxlsLence needsť xlsLence needsť
Þhvsloloalcal (foodţ waLer) Þhvsloloalcal (foodţ waLer)
Þav Þav
8eneflLs 8eneflLs
Worklna condlLlons Worklna condlLlons
L LxlsLence needsť xlsLence needsť
Þhvsloloalcal (foodţ waLer) Þhvsloloalcal (foodţ waLer)
Þav Þav
8eneflLs 8eneflLs
Worklna condlLlons Worklna condlLlons
88elaLedness elaLedness needsť needsť
8elaLlonshlps wlLh famllvţ 8elaLlonshlps wlLh famllvţ
work and professlonal work and professlonal
aroups aroups
88elaLedness elaLedness needsť needsť
8elaLlonshlps wlLh famllvţ 8elaLlonshlps wlLh famllvţ
work and professlonal work and professlonal
aroups aroups
CCrowLh needsť rowLh needsť
CreaLlvlLv CreaLlvlLv
lnnovaLlon lnnovaLlon
ÞroducLlvlLv ÞroducLlvlLv
CCrowLh needsť rowLh needsť
CreaLlvlLv CreaLlvlLv
lnnovaLlon lnnovaLlon
ÞroducLlvlLv ÞroducLlvlLv
SaLlsfacLlon SaLlsfacLlonŴ Ŵproaresslon proaresslon
prlnclple prlnclple
lrusLraLlon lrusLraLlonŴ Ŵrearesslon rearesslon
prlnclple prlnclple
SaLlsfacLlon SaLlsfacLlonŴ Ŵproaresslon proaresslon
prlnclple prlnclple
lrusLraLlon lrusLraLlonŴ Ŵrearesslon rearesslon
prlnclple prlnclple
149
AcqulredŴneeds 1heorv
Deve|oped by Dav|d McC|e||and Deve|oped by Dav|d McC|e||and Ŵ Ŵ
clLes Lhe need for clLes Lhe need for ach|evementţ powerţ ach|evementţ powerţ
and and afflllaLlon as ma[or moLlves ln work afflllaLlon as ma[or moLlves ln work
Deve|oped by Dav|d McC|e||and Deve|oped by Dav|d McC|e||and Ŵ Ŵ
clLes Lhe need for clLes Lhe need for ach|evementţ powerţ ach|evementţ powerţ
and and afflllaLlon as ma[or moLlves ln work afflllaLlon as ma[or moLlves ln work
Need for ach|evement Need for ach|evement Ŵ Ŵ drlve Lo excel drlve Lo excel
Need for power Need for power Ŵ Ŵ lnfluence oLhers behavlour lnfluence oLhers behavlour
Need for aff|||at|on Need for aff|||at|on Ŵ Ŵ deslre for frlendlv deslre for frlendlv
and close lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps and close lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps
Need for ach|evement Need for ach|evement Ŵ Ŵ drlve Lo excel drlve Lo excel
Need for power Need for power Ŵ Ŵ lnfluence oLhers behavlour lnfluence oLhers behavlour
Need for aff|||at|on Need for aff|||at|on Ŵ Ŵ deslre for frlendlv deslre for frlendlv
and close lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps and close lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps
130
8aslc ComponenLs of LxpecLancv
1heorv
LfforL LfforL Þerformance Þerformance
CuLcomes CuLcomes
(eŦaŦ bonusţ pralseţ (eŦaŦ bonusţ pralseţ
feellnas of accompllshmenL) feellnas of accompllshmenL)
WhaL ls Lhe WhaL ls Lhe
probablllLv probablllLv
LhaL l can LhaL l can
perform aL perform aL
Lhe requlred Lhe requlred
level lf l Lrv? level lf l Lrv?
WhaL ls Lhe WhaL ls Lhe
probablllLv probablllLv
LhaL mv aood LhaL mv aood
performance performance
wlll lead Lo wlll lead Lo
deslred deslred
ouLcomes? ouLcomes?
WhaL value WhaL value
do l place on do l place on
Lhe poLenLlal Lhe poLenLlal
ouLcomes? ouLcomes?
131
LxpecLancv 1heorv
W 1he efforLŴperformance llnk Ŵ wlll our efforLs
lead Lo requlred performance levels?
W Þerformance Ŵ ouLcome llnk Ŵ wlll successful
performance lead Lo parLlcular ouLcomes?
LxLrlnslc Ǝ lnLrlnslc rewards
W valence Ŵ ºanLlclpaLed value of varlous
ouLcomes"
132
LqulLv 1heorv
W ºŧwe prefer slLuaLlons of balanceţ or equlLvţ
whlch exlsL when we see our lnpuLsť lncomes
raLlo Lo be equal Lo LhaL for a comparlson
oLher (or oLhers)"
133
8elnforcemenL 1heorv
W ÞoslLlve Ŵ uses pleasanLţ rewardlna consequences Lo
encouraae deslred behavlourŦ use of shaplna
W neaaLlve Ŵ º(unpleasanL) sLlmull so an lndlvldual wlll
enaaae ln Lhe deslred behavlour Lo sLop Lhe sLlmull"
W LxLlncLlon Ŵ ºsLopplna prevlouslv avallable poslLlve
ouLcomes from a behavlour Lo decrease Lhe
behavlour"
W ÞunlshmenL Ŵ ºprovldlna neaaLlve consequences Lo
decrease or dlscouraae a behavlour"
134
1vpes of 8elnforcemenL SlLuaLlons Ŵ
Sklnner
loolsbmeot loolsbmeot
Neootlve Neootlve
keloftcemeot keloftcemeot
£xtloctlo £xtloctlo
lsltlve lsltlve
keloftcemeot keloftcemeot
LffecL on maLurlLv
Lncouraaes
maLurlLv
Lncouraaes
lmmaLurlLv
lncreases
behavlour
decreases
behavlour
L
f
f
e
c
L

o
n

b
e
h
a
v
l
o
u
r
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
133
naLure of moLlvaLlon
Mot|vat|on ls Lhe force eneralslna orţ alvlna
dlrecLlon Loţ behavlourŦ
lL ls a complex lnLeracLlon of behavloursţ
needsţ rewards/relnforcemenL and coanlLlve
acLlvlLlesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
136
naLure of moLlvaLlon
ab|||ty
mot|vat|on
env|ronmenta|
cond|t|ons
performance
ƹ
x
X
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
137
needs Lheorles
W Plerarchv of needs Lheorv (Maslow)
W 1woŴfacLor Lheorv (Perzbera)
W L8C Lheorv (Aldefer)
W Acqulred needs Lheorv (McClelland)
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
138
needs Lheorles
Plerarchv of needs Lheorv (Maslow)ť
W 1heorv araulna LhaL lndlvldual needs form a
flveŴlevel hlerarchvŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
139
needs Lheorles
PhysioIogicaI
Safety
BeIongingness
Esteem
SeIf-actuaIisation
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
160
needs Lheorles
1woŴfactor theory (nerzberg)
Perzbera's Lheorv LhaL hvalene facLors are necessarv
Lo keep workers from feellna dlssaLlsfled buLţ onlv
moLlvaLors can lead workers Lo feel saLlsfled and
moLlvaLedŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
161
needs Lheorles
Achievement
ResponsibiIity
Work itseIf
Recognition
Growth
Advancement
Pay
Working
Conditions
Supervisors
Company
PoIicies
Fringe
benefits
hyg|ene factors
Hot|vators Hot|vators
Tnese laorors ne|o orevenr Tnese laorors ne|o orevenr
o|ssar|slaor|on o|ssar|slaor|on. .
Tnese laorors oromore sar|slaor|on Tnese laorors oromore sar|slaor|on. .
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
162
needs Lheorles
LkG theory (A|defer)
AlLernaLlve Lo Maslow's hlerarchv of needs
Lheorvţ whlch araues LhaL Lhere are Lhree
levels of lndlvldual needsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
163
needs Lheorles
Existence needs
Physiological (food, water)
Pay
Benefits
Working conditions
Existence needs
Physiological (food, water)
Pay
Benefits
Working conditions
ReIatedness needs
Relationships with family,
work and professional
groups
ReIatedness needs
Relationships with family,
work and professional
groups
Growth needs
Creativity
Ìnnovation
Productivity
Growth needs
Creativity
Ìnnovation
Productivity
$atisfaction-progression
principle
Frustration-regression
principle
$atisfaction-progression
principle
Frustration-regression
principle
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
164
needs Lheorles
Acqu|red needs theory (McC|e||and)
1heorv sLaLlna LhaL our needs are acqulred or
learned on Lhe basls of our llfe experlencesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
163
needs Lheorles
Acqulred needs Lheorv
DeveIoped by David McCIeIIand -
cites the need for achievement, power,
and affiliation as major motives in work
DeveIoped by David McCIeIIand -
cites the need for achievement, power,
and affiliation as major motives in work
Need for achievement -drive to excel
Need for power-influence others behaviour
Need for affiIiation-desire for friendly
and close interpersonal relationships
Need for achievement -drive to excel
Need for power-influence others behaviour
Need for affiIiation-desire for friendly
and close interpersonal relationships
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
166
CoanlLlve Lheorles
W LxpecLancv Lheorv
W LqulLv Lheorv
W CoalŴseLLlna Lheorv
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
167
CoanlLlve Lheorles
Lxpectancy theory (Vroom)
1heorv araulna LhaL we conslder Lhree
maln lssues (efforLŴperformanceţ
performanceŴouLcomeţ valence) before
we expend efforL necessarv Lo perform
aL a alven levelŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
168
CoanlLlve Lheorles
W LfforLŴperformance expecLancv
Cur assessmenL of Lhe probablllLv our efforLs wlll lead
Lo Lhe requlred level of performanceŦ
W ÞerformanceŴouLcome expecLancv
Cur assessmenL of Lhe probablllLv our successful
performance wlll lead Lo deslred ouLcomesŦ
W valence
Cur assessmenL of anLlclpaLed value of varlous
ouLcomes or rewardsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
169
CoanlLlve Lheorles
Lqu|ty theory (Adams)
1heorv araulna LhaL we prefer slLuaLlons of
balance orţ equlLvŦ
lmpllcaLlons for manaaersť
CommunlcaLlon essenLlal Lo assess
equlLv/lnequlLv percepLlons ln emploveesŦ
CompllmenLarv Lo LxpecLancv LheorvŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
170
CoanlLlve Lheorles
Goa|Ŵsett|ng theory
CoalŴseLLlna Lheorv żLechnlqueŽ works bv
focusslna aLLenLlon Ǝ acLlonţ moblllslna
efforLţ lncreaslna perslsLenceţ Ǝ
encouraalna Lhe developmenL of
sLraLeav Lo achleve aoalsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
171
CoanlLlve Lheorles
ke|nforcement theory
1heorv araulna LhaL our behavlour can be
explalned bv consequences ln Lhe
envlronmenLŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
172
CoanlLlve Lheorles
1ypes of re|nforcementť
W Þos|t|ve
uses pleasanLţ rewardlna consequences Lo encouraae
deslred behavlourŦ use of shaplnaŦ
W Negat|ve
(unpleasanL) sLlmull so an lndlvldual wlll enaaae ln Lhe
deslred behavlour Lo sLop Lhe sLlmullŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
173
CoanlLlve Lheorles
1ypes of re|nforcementť
W Lxt|nct|on
SLopplna prevlouslv avallable poslLlve ouLcomes from a
behavlour Lo decrease Lhe behavlourŦ
W Þun|shment
Þrovldlna neaaLlve consequences Lo decrease or dlscouraae a
behavlourŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
174
8elnforcemenL Lheorv
F|xed |nterva|:
d|ver or l|xed l|re
scredu|e. urever
(esporses. exl|rcl|or
(ap|d |l (e|rlo(cererl
|ale. o( slops
F|xed |nterva|:
d|ver or l|xed l|re
scredu|e. urever
(esporses. exl|rcl|or
(ap|d |l (e|rlo(cererl
|ale. o( slops
F|xed rat|o:
d|ver alle( l|xed ruroe(
ol cases ol des|(ed oerav|ou(.
l|dr (esporse (ales. (ap|d
exl|rdu|srrerl |l slopped
ever lerpo(a(||v.
F|xed rat|o:
d|ver alle( l|xed ruroe(
ol cases ol des|(ed oerav|ou(.
l|dr (esporse (ales. (ap|d
exl|rdu|srrerl |l slopped
ever lerpo(a(||v.
Var|ab|e rat|o:
d|ver or va(|ao|e o(
(ardor l(ecuercv
ol oerav|ou( oas|s.
l|dr (esporse (ale.
ve(v s|oW exl|rdu|srrerl
Var|ab|e rat|o:
d|ver or va(|ao|e o(
(ardor l(ecuercv
ol oerav|ou( oas|s.
l|dr (esporse (ale.
ve(v s|oW exl|rdu|srrerl
Var|ab|e |nterva|:
d|ver or va(|ao|e o(
(ardor l|re oas|s.
l|dr. sleadv
(esporse (ale. s|oW
exl|rdu|srrerl.
|l slopped
Var|ab|e |nterva|:
d|ver or va(|ao|e o(
(ardor l|re oas|s.
l|dr. sleadv
(esporse (ale. s|oW
exl|rdu|srrerl.
|l slopped
Us|ng
re|nforcement
theory:
ercou(ade des|(ed
oerav|ou(. oe c|ea(
or Wral |s des|(ed.
use va(|ao|e |rle(va|
& va(|ao|e (al|o
(e|rlo(cererl.
Pur|sr rode(ale|v
seve(e|v & p(orpl|v.
Us|ng
re|nforcement
theory:
ercou(ade des|(ed
oerav|ou(. oe c|ea(
or Wral |s des|(ed.
use va(|ao|e |rle(va|
& va(|ao|e (al|o
(e|rlo(cererl.
Pur|sr rode(ale|v
seve(e|v & p(orpl|v.
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
173
Soclal learnlna Lheorv
5oc|a| |earn|ng theory (8andura)
1heorv araulna LhaL learnlna occurs Lhrouah
conLlnuous reclprocal lnLeracLlon of our
behavloursţ varlous personal facLors and
envlronmenLal forcesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
176
Soclal learnlna Lheorv
Learnlna occurs bv conLlnuous lnLeracLlon
beLween our behavloursţ personal facLors
and
envlronmenLal forcesţ vlzť
W Svmbollc processes
W SelfŴconLrol/reaulaLlon
W vlcarlous learnlnaŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
177
Leadershlp
Þrocess of lnfluenclna oLhers Lo achleve
oraanlsaLlonal aoalsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
178
Pow leaders lnfluence oLhers
Sources of leadershlp powerť
W Leg|t|mate power
Þower sLemmlna from a poslLlon's placemenL ln Lhe
manaaerlal hlerarchvŦ
W keward power
Þower based on Lhe capaclLv Lo provlde valued rewards Lo
oLhersŦ
W Coerc|ve power
Þower based on Lhe ablllLv Lo punlsh oLhersŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
179
Pow leaders lnfluence oLhers
Sources of leadershlp powerť
W Lxpert power
Þower based on Lhe possesslon of experLlse valued bv
oLhersŦ
W Informat|on power
Þower based on access and conLrol over Lhe
dlsLrlbuLlon of lnformaLlonŦ
W keferent power
Þower resulLlna from belna llkedţ admlred or ldenLlfled
wlLhŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
180
Sources of leadershlp power
6oerc|ve power Reward power
Leg|t|mate
power|
forma| author|ty
Expert power
Referent power
|nformat|on
power
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
181
ueveloplna leadershlp Lheorv
5|tuat|ona| |eadersh|p mode|
1heorv based on Lhe premlse LhaL leaders
need Lo alLer Lhelr behavlours dependlna on
one ma[or slLuaLlonal facLorŸLhe readlness of
followersŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
182
ueveloplna slLuaLlonal Lheorv
SlLuaLlonal leadershlp model
n|gh n|gh
k
L
L
A
1
I
C
N
5
n
I
Þ
Low Low
n|gh n|gh
1ask 1ask
n|gh
re|at|onsh|p
and
|ow task
n|gh task
and
h|gh
re|at|onsh|p
Low
re|at|onsh|p
and
|ow task
h|gh task
and
|ow
re|at|onsh|p
$e|||ng $e|||ng
Te|||ng Te|||ng
0e|egat|ng 0e|egat|ng
!art|c|pat|ng !art|c|pat|ng
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
183
1ransformaLlonal leadershlp
1ransformat|ona| |eaders
Leaders who moLlvaLe lndlvlduals Lo perform
bevond normal expecLaLlons bv lnsplrlna
subordlnaLes Lo focus on broader mlsslons
Lranscendlna Lhelr own selfŴlnLeresLsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
184
1ransformaLlonal leadershlp
Motivate others Motivate others
Vision beyond seIf-interest Vision beyond seIf-interest
Seek intrinsic higher IeveI goaIs Seek intrinsic higher IeveI goaIs
Seek performance beyond expectations Seek performance beyond expectations
Have charisma Have charisma
Key
characteristics
of
transformationaI
Ieaders
Key
characteristics
of
transformationaI
Ieaders
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
183
Are leaders necessarv?
neuLrallsersť
SlLuaLlonal facLors prevenLlna leader behavlour
from lnfluenclna subordlnaLe
performance/saLlsfacLlonŦ
1hese lncludeť
W SubordlnaLe hlah need for lndependenceŦ
W Low subordlnaLe valence for avallable rewardsŦ
W Þhvslcal dlsLance of leader from subordlnaLesŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
186
Are leaders necessarv?
SubsLlLuLesť
SlLuaLlonal facLors maklna Lhe lmpacL of
leadershlp lmposslble or unnecessarvŦ
1hese lncludeť
W SaLlsfvlna workŦ
W Able and experlenced subordlnaLesŦ
W Þrofesslonal orlenLaLlon of subordlnaLesŦ
W 8ouLlne workţ clearlv speclfled
meLhods/feedbackŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
187
Leadershlp Ǝ Lhe oraanlsaLlonal cvcle
EntrepreneuriaI EntrepreneuriaI
CoIIectivity CoIIectivity
FormaIisation &
controI
FormaIisation &
controI
EIaboration of
structure
EIaboration of
structure
%ransformationaI %ransformationaI
%ransactionaI %ransactionaI
%ransactionaI %ransactionaI
%ransformationaI %ransformationaI
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
188
ConLrol as a manaaemenL funcLlon
ConLrolllnať
Þrocess of reaulaLlna oraanlsaLlonal acLlvlLles
so LhaL acLual performance conforms Lo
expecLed oraanlsaLlonal sLandards and aoalsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
189
ConLrol as a manaaemenL funcLlon
8ole of conLrolsť
W Coplna wlLh uncerLalnLv
W ueLecLlna lrreaularlLles
W ldenLlfvlna opporLunlLles
W Pandllna complex slLuaLlons
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
190
ConLrol as a manaaemenL funcLlon
Levels of conLrol
3l(aled|c p|arr|rd 3l(aled|c p|arr|rd 3l(aled|c corl(o| 3l(aled|c corl(o|
Tacl|ca| p|arr|rd Tacl|ca| p|arr|rd Tacl|ca| corl(o| Tacl|ca| corl(o|
0pe(al|ora| p|arr|rd 0pe(al|ora| p|arr|rd 0pe(al|ora| corl(o| 0pe(al|ora| corl(o|
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
191
1he conLrol process
SLeps ln Lhe conLrol processť
Determine areas to control Determine areas to control
Establish standards Establish standards
Measure performance Measure performance
Compare performance Compare performance
Recognise positive
performance
Recognise positive
performance
ControI
process
steps
ControI
process
steps
Take corrective action Take corrective action
Adjust standards Adjust standards
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
192
1he conLrol process
uecldlna whaL Lo conLrolť
High dependence on the resource High dependence on the resource
Chance that expected resource flow will
be unacceptable
Chance that expected resource flow will
be unacceptable
Control-process feasibility Control-process feasibility
Cost acceptability Cost acceptability
0eterm|n|ng
strateg|c
contro|
po|nts
0eterm|n|ng
strateg|c
contro|
po|nts
Alternatives to control
WChange dependence relationships
WChange nature of dependence relationships
Alternatives to control
WChange dependence relationships
WChange nature of dependence relationships
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
193
1vpes of conLrol
1vpes of conLrolť
W Ma[or Lvpes bv Llmlna
W MulLlple conLrols
W CvberneLlc Ǝ nonŴcvberneLlc conLrols
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
194
1vpes of conLrol
1vpes bv Llmlnať
Input Input
%ransformation
processes
%ransformation
processes
Outputs Outputs
Feed-forward
contro|.
Arl|c|pal|rd
p(oo|ers
Feed-forward
contro|.
Arl|c|pal|rd
p(oo|ers
6oncurrent
contro|.
Allerd|rd lo
p(oo|ers as
lrev occu(
6oncurrent
contro|.
Allerd|rd lo
p(oo|ers as
lrev occu(
Feedback
contro|.
Co((ecl|rd
p(oo|ers alle(
p(oducl/ se(v|ce
|s p(oduced
Feedback
contro|.
Co((ecl|rd
p(oo|ers alle(
p(oducl/ se(v|ce
|s p(oduced
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
193
1vpes of conLrol
W MulLlple conLrols
SvsLems uslna Lwo or more of Lhe feedforwardţ
concurrenL and feedback conLrol processes and
lnvolvlna several sLraLealc conLrol polnLsŦ
W CvberneLlc
SelfŴreaulaLlna conLrol svsLem whlchţ once operaLlnaţ
can auLomaLlcallv monlLor Lhe slLuaLlon and Lake
correcLlve acLlon when necessarvŦ
W nonŴcvberneLlc
ConLrol svsLem relvlna on human dlscreLlon as a baslc
parL of lLs processŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
196
Manaaerlal approaches
W 8ureaucraLlc conLrol
W Clan conLrol
W MarkeL conLrol
W ConLrol Ǝ lnnovaLlon
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
197
Manaaerlal approaches
8ureaucraLlc conLrolť
Manaaerlal approach relvlna on reaulaLlon
Lhrouah rulesţ pollclesţ supervlslonţ budaeLsţ
schedulesţ reward svsLems and oLher
admlnlsLraLlve mechanlsms almed aL ensurlna
emplovees exhlblL approprlaLe behavlours and
meeL performance sLandardsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
198
Manaaerlal approaches
Clan conLrolť
Manaaerlal approach relvlna on valuesţ
bellefsţ LradlLlonsţ corporaLe culLureţ shared
norms and lnformal relaLlonshlps Lo reaulaLe
emplovee behavlours and faclllLaLe reachlna
of oraanlsaLlonal aoalsŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
199
Manaaerlal approaches
MarkeL conLrolť
Manaaerlal approach relvlna on markeL
mechanlsms Lo reaulaLe prlces for cerLaln
clearlv speclfled aoods and servlces needed bv
an oraanlsaLlonŦ
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
200
Manaaerlal approaches
ConLrol Ǝ lnnovaLlonť
lour levers for sLraLealc conLrol/lnnovaLlonŸ
W 8ellef svsLems
Mlsslonţ core values
W 8oundarv svsLems
8lsk avoldanceţ pollclesţ rulesţ procedures
W Þerformance manaaemenL svsLems
CrlLlcal aoalsţ evaluaLlon Ǝ feedback
W lnLeracLlve monlLorlna svsLems
CpporLunlLv focusţ neLworklnaţ conLlnuous search Ǝ learnlna
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
201
Assesslna conLrol svsLems
egat|ve att|tudes
lrduced ov excess|ve &
poo(|v des|dred corl(o|s
egat|ve att|tudes
lrduced ov excess|ve &
poo(|v des|dred corl(o|s
Operating deIays
actions needed by
feedforward &
concurrent controls'
Operating deIays
actions needed by
feedforward &
concurrent controls'
ame p|ay|ng
'rarade(s |rp(ove
lre|( slard|rd .ov
rar|pu|al|rd (esou(ce
usade &/o( dala'
ame p|ay|ng
'rarade(s |rp(ove
lre|( slard|rd .ov
rar|pu|al|rd (esou(ce
usade &/o( dala'
ßehav|oura|
d|sp|acement
'oerav|ou(
ercou(aded |rcors|slerl
W|lr o(dar|sal|ora|
doa|s'
ßehav|oura|
d|sp|acement
'oerav|ou(
ercou(aded |rcors|slerl
W|lr o(dar|sal|ora|
doa|s'
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
202
Assesslna conLrol svsLems
CverŴconLrol versus underŴconLrolť
Over-controI
limiting individual job autonomy
to the point where it seriously inhibits
job performance'.
Over-controI
limiting individual job autonomy
to the point where it seriously inhibits
job performance'.
Under-controI
...giving autonomy to an employee to
where the organisation loses the ability
to direct efforts'.
Under-controI
...giving autonomy to an employee to
where the organisation loses the ability
to direct efforts'.
' 2003 McCrawŴPlll AusLralla
ÞLv LLdŦ ÞowerÞolnL Slldes L/a
,ooooemeotť A loclflc klm
lcos Lnhanced LdlLlonŦ Slldes
prepared bv uavld Meacheam
203
Assesslna conLrol svsLems
CharacLerlsLlcs of effecLlve conLrol svsLems
W luLure orlenLed
W MulLlŴdlmenslonal
W CosLŴeffecLlve
W AccuraLe
W 8eallsLlc
W 1lmelv
W MonlLorable
W AccepLable Lo
oraanlsaLlonal members
W llexlble
The Nature Of Entrepreneurship The Nature Of Entrepreneurship
W Entrepreneurship
W Entrepreneur
W New venture
Factors Ìnfluencing Entrepreneurship Factors Ìnfluencing Entrepreneurship
W PersonaI characteristics
PersonaIity characteristics
Background characteristics (Corridor principIe )
thildhood familv environment. edueation. age
and work
historv.
Factors Ìnfluencing Entrepreneurship Factors Ìnfluencing Entrepreneurship
W Life path circumstances
Unsatisfactory work environment
Negative dispIacement
Career transitions
Positive puII infIuence
W EnvironmentaI faetors
Incubator
Preparing To Operate A $mall Business Preparing To Operate A $mall Business
W DeveIoping a Business PIan
It heIps to think carefuIIy through every
aspect of their proposed attempt.
It heIps in obtain financing
It provides a basis for measuring pIan
progress
It heIps to estabIish credibiIity with others
Preparing To Operate A $mall Business Preparing To Operate A $mall Business
W Obtaining Resources
Debit capitaI
Equity capitaI
W Human Resources
Venture team
Preparing To Operate A $mall Business Preparing To Operate A $mall Business
W SeIecting an appropriate site
W Community
W %rade area
W Lease or Buy
W oning and Iicensing
W Cost per square foot
Managing A $mall Business Managing A $mall Business
W Stages of SmaII-Business growth
Stage 1: Existence
Stage 2: SurvivaI
Stage : Success
Stage 4: %akeoff
Stage 5: Resource Maturity

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