INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH

disciplined inquiry.  The process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific manner. directed toward the clarification or resolution (or both) of a problem. varying in technique and method according to the nature and conditions of the problem identified. .  Systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic or problem.Definition of Research  A careful. critical.

for the discovery of truth. organizing. analyzing. and interpreting data for the solution of a problem. or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge. systematic and scientific process of gathering. . for invention. all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life. classifying.  A purposive. for prediction. Systematic study or investigation or something for the purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher. presenting.

 Improve existing techniques and develop new instruments or products.  To discover previously unrecognized substances or elements.  To find answers to problems which are only partially solved by existing methods and information.Purposes of Research  To discover new facts about known phenomena. .

government. and in other undertakings. industry.  To provide basis for decision-making in business. education.  To find answers to queries by means of scientific methods.  To order related. valid generalizations into systematized science. .  To satisfy the researcher¶s curiousity. Discover pathways of action of known substances and elements.

.  To provide man with more of his basic needs. and more comfortable. and communication faster. easier.  To promote health and prolong life.  To expand or verify existing knowledge. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about one phenomenon.  Tomake work. travel.  To improve educational practices for raising the quality or school products.

unbiased.Characteristics of Good Research RESEARCH:  Is systematic  Is controlled  Is empirical  Is analytical  Is objective. and logical  Employs hypothesis .

 Employs quantitative or qualitative methods  Is original work  Is done by an expert  Is accurate investigation. observation and description  Is patient and unhurried activity  Requires courage .

Scientific Method of Research  Determining (recognizing) the problem  Forming a hypothesis  Doing the library search  Designing the study  Developing the instruments for collecting data  Analyzing the data  Determining implications and conclusion from the findings  Making recommendations for further research .

the solution of which requires reflective thinking. .  A perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry.Definition of a Research Problem  Any significant. perplexing. and challenging situation. real or artificial.

Elements of a Research Problem  Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation  The subject matter or topic to be investigated  The place or locale where the research is to be conducted  The period or time of the study during which the data ar to be gathered  Population from whom the data are to be collected .

 It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle.  It must be within the interest of the researcher.  It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance .Guidelines in the Selection of a Topic  It must be chosen by the researcher herself.  It must be within the specialization of the researcher.

. and verifiability Answers to the specific questions (subproblems) can be found The hypotheses formulated are testable Equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results. It is researchable and manageable Data are available and accessible Data must meet the standards of accuracy. objectivity.

 It is significant.  The results are practical and implementable. and relevant to the present time and situation. timely. critical. It can be completed within a reasonable period of time unless it is a longitudinal research. important. . and of current interest. and reflective thinking to solve it.  It requires original.

 It can be delimited to suit the resources of ther esearcher but big or large enough to be able to give significant. and reliable results and generalization.  It must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people.  It must show or pave the way for the solution of the problem or problems intended to be solved. . valid.  It must contribute to the fund of human knowledge.

 There must be a return of investment of some kind to the researcher. social. or legal. either physical. It must not advocate any change in the present order of things by means of violence but by peaceful means.  There must be a consideration of the hazards involved. .

lectures . seminars.Sources of Problems  Experiences  Problems in work environment  Classroom discussions  Technological and scientific advancement  Off-shoots of other researches  Symposia.

It may be revised and refined later if there is a need.The Title  It is formulated before the start of the research work. the locale of the study. the population involved.  It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter to be studied .  It must contain the subject matter of the study. and the period when the data will be gathered.

´ and the like. It must be brief and concise as possible.  Avoid using the terms ³An Analysis of.  If the title contains more than one line. it must be written like an inverted pyramid. all words in capital letters. .´ ³A Study of.´ ³An Investigation of.

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