Prepared by: St. Afnan Mahmoud Abu Tamam Instructor: Dr.

Zaid Qamhiya

Each ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is denoted chemically as O3 Ozone is found primarily in two regions of the atmosphere. the region closest to Earth (from the surface to about 10-16 kilometers (6-10 miles)).Definition: Ozone is a gas that is naturally present in our atmosphere. The remaining ozone (90%) resides in the stratosphere. primarily between the top of the troposphere and about 50 kilometers (31 miles) altitude.´ . The large amount of ozone in the stratosphere is often referred to as the ³ozone layer. About 10% of atmospheric ozone is in the troposphere.

it forms a dark blue liquid below í112 °C and a violet-black solid below í193 °C. The concentration above which it can be smelled (odor threshold) is between 0.0076 and 0. At concentrations found in the atmosphere it is colorless.036 ppm. Ozone Molecule .Physical properties & Structure Undiluted ozone is a pale blue gas at standard temperature and pressure.

S Ozone Layer .

UV-A Least Can cause Energetic sunburns but (320not harmful to 400nm) biological life UV-B Harmful to (280biological life 320nm) UV-C Most Harmful to (200Energetic biological life 280nm) NOT filtered by O3 or O2 Only filtered by O3 Filtered by both O3 and O2 .

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Instruments use optical techniques with the Sun and lasers as light sources or use chemical reactions that are unique to ozone. Measurements at many locations over the globe are made weekly to monitor total ozone amounts. instruments measure ozone Some directly in sampled air and others measure ozone remotely some distance away from the instrument. .Ozone is measured throughout the atmosphere with instruments on the ground and on board aircraft. and satellites. highaltitude balloons.

F. foams ƒ phase out by 1996 in developed countries ƒ . and nonflammable ƒ in 1960·s used in refrigerators. C ƒ long-lived. non-corrosive.Š Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC·s) contains: Cl. solvents. non-toxic. air conditioners. spray cans.

C ƒ Br many times more effective in destroying O3 ODPs range up to 10 used in fire extinguishers ƒ phase out by 1994 ƒ Š Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) an effective pesticide. used to fumigate ag soil and products ƒ ODP = 0.Š Halons ƒ contain: Br. Cl (in some but not all). F. H (in some but not all).4 ƒ production in US will end 12/31/2000 ƒ .

C ƒ do not deplete O3 ƒ some HFC·s have a high GWP ƒ .Š Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ƒ contains: H. C ƒ first major replacement for CFC ODP·s range from 0. Cl. F.01 .1 much less destructive by also ozone depleting ƒ reduce HCFC·s by 35% by 2004 in developed countries ƒ Š Hydrofuluorocarbons (HFC) contain: H. F.0.

4) (14.5) (14.7) .6) (14.CFCl3 + hv Cl + O3 O + ClO O + O3 Cl + CFCl2 ClO + O2 Cl + O2 O2 + O2 (14.

Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Cars and Trucks Wood stacks Burning of Trash Power Plants Burning of Fossil Fuels Natural Fires Burning of Tobacco Burning of Plastics Natural Gases .

more like a thinner window .Š Ozone totals are measured in ´Dobson Unitsµ 350 Dobson Units is typical in temperate regions ƒ Ozone levels have decreased below 150 Dobson Units over Antarctica ƒ Š Began to occur in late 1970·s ƒ ƒ ƒ Levels are lowest in Antarctica·s Spring (Sept³Nov) Normal levels regained by June³July Geographic Region effected is growing each year Š Not really a hole.

related to the fact that the lower stratosphere over the South Pole is the coldest spot on Earth. During the Antarctic winter (June to September). clouds of ice crystals containing sulfates and nitric acid can develop in the stratosphere. .A special mechanism appears to be in effect here. a strong circumpolar wind develops in the middle to lower atmosphere keeps warmer new air (w/ new O3) from entering Temps can get as low as -90oC! At temps < 80oC.

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02.14 .Fig.

Š Š Š Š Service air conditioners to catch CFC leaks Make sure cars & refrigerators don·t use CFC as a refrigerant Choose washable clothing rather than dry cleaned Use a pump dispenser rather than propellant .

1975: 200% increase in CFC use from 1968. only eight years 1979: The FDA. EPA ban non-essential uses of CFCs ! First time substance EVER banned without direct proof of harm 1982: 20 other countries join US in ban of CFCs .

1982:British science teams in Antarctica observe 20% decline in O3 layer US scientists relying on TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) measurements from space claim to observe nothing 1983: British scientists observe 30% reduction in ozone layer. WHY THE SCIENTIFIC SNAFUS?? . 1985:British observe 50% reduction. US scientists claims no reduction. US claims no reduction US re-tests and confirms.

.1986:DuPont scientists continue to argue that tropospheric ozone (smog) will migrate up and ´fill the ozone holeµ in the stratosphere.

1987:2 yrs of intensive research reveal that ozone hole is anthropogenic 1988:UN hold meeting in Montreal 45 Nations sign to reduce CFC use by 50% by year 2000. Developing countries· efforts would be ¶subsidized· .

with assistance from developed nations US agrees to complete phaseout by 1996. DuPont to halt production by 1997 1995: Prize Rowland and Molina receive Nobel .19901992: 2000 Follow up meetings result in: Industrialized nations: total ban by Developing nations: ban by 2010.

1870 ( ) 1944 1931 Š Š Š Š Š Š Š .

Disinfect laundry in hospitals.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ disinfect water in place of chlorine Deodorize air and objects such as after fire. manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis clean and bleach fabrics . food factories. care homes etc . sanitize swimming pools and spas . Kill bacteria on food .