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Ezra Ip, Joseph M. Kahn

Stanford University, USA

2008 SPRC Annual Symposium

Outline

Transmission impairments Coherent receiver Nonlinear phase noise

Existing compensation methods

Digital backpropagation

Split-Step Fourier Method (SSFM) Simplified non-iterative, asymmetric SSFM

Simulation results

QPSK transmission in long-haul systems with erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and dispersion-compensation fiber System performance vs. dispersion map and transmission distance

1

polarization-mode dispersion (PMD). Laser phase noise Correlated noise: can be compensated effectively. four-wave mixing (FWM) Deterministic: can be compensated more effectively.Transmission Impairments Amplified spontaneous emission White noise: cannot be compensated. Linear impairments Chromatic dispersion (CD). Kerr nonlinearity Signal-signal: self-phase modulation (SPM). Optical filtering. cross-phase modulation (XPM). timing error Unitary: can be compensated without loss. Signal-noise: nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) Non-deterministic: can be compensated less effectively. 2 . polarization-dependent loss Non-unitary: can be compensated with loss.

k} MZ Modulator DSP t=kT Re{y2. 3 . recovering I and Q in x and y polarizations.k} t=kT Im{y1. Provided downconverter outputs are sampled at sufficient rate. signal processing can effectively compensate for transmission impairments.k} t=kT Im{y2.Coherent Receiver with Digital Signal Processing MZ Modulator Fiber (CD / PMD) 90° Hybrid p(t) y1(t) p(t) p(t) y2(t) p(t) t=kT Re{y1.k} 90° Hybrid Dual-Polarization Transmitter Dual-Polarization Receiver Homodyne downconverter linearly translates E-field from optical to electrical domain.

4 . Deterministic effects are compensated effectively. Low implementation complexity. Can be implemented as part of carrier recovery. Rotate the received signal by a phase proportional to the received intensity. Xiu et al 2002. Kahn 2004) Exploits the correlation between the received instantaneous phase and intensity.. An iterative technique with high complexity.Receiver-Based Nonlinearity Compensation Nonlinear phase noise compensation in dispersionless systems (Liu et al 2002.e. Effective only when the accumulated dispersion is small where the power is high (i. Intra-channel four-wave mixing compensation (Lau and Kahn 2007) Exploits the temporal correlation of the received phase shifts induced by IFWM (interaction of SPM with CD). so adds no system complexity Digital backpropagation (Li et al 2008. channel well-modeled as dispersionless). non-deterministic effects are compensated partially. Ip and Kahn 2008) A universal method to jointly compensate nonlinearity and dispersion.

mN span ¿ ° À A = launched amplitude mi = ASE added by ith EDFA 5 . Span Nspan RX In absence of dispersion. the nonlinear phase shift is given by: J NL ! KLeff 2¾ ® 2 ¯ A m1 . Arises from Kerr effect: change in refractive index (n is proportional to signal intensity |E|2. so intensity fluctuates randomly. resulting in random phase noise. A m1 . Optical amplifiers add noise. TX Span 1 Span 2 .Nonlinear Phase Noise í I Gordon and Mollenauer 1990.

Nonlinear Phase Noise í II Received phase shift JNL is correlated to received intensity. Optimized compensation algorithm (Ho and Kahn 2004): Re y0 . so constellation is spiral-shaped.

t Signal Ae jJ NL Im y .

t exp .

j\ y .

t 2 0 NLPN Compensator Optimal de-rotation: NLPN variance is reduced by four: \ opt } 2 W.

J 1 N spanKLeff 2 1 2 } W J NL \P NL 4 6 .

7 . All-Raman amplification.Experimental Verification Charlet et al 2006.060 km. Electronic NLPN compensation used at receiver. 40 Gbit/s QPSK in one polarization over 3.

50% RZ-QPSK in 1 polarization Nspan = 25 SMF: smf = 0.6 dB/km Ddcf = í80 ps/nm-km í1 í1 dcf = 0.Long-Haul Terrestrial System TX SMF DCF Nspan Rb = 21.0053 m W Ldcf = 15 km EDFA: RX ¨ 1 ¨E smf Lsmf G ! exp© © © 2 © E dcf Ldcf ª ª F = 5 dB ¸¸ ¹¹ ¹¹ ºº 12% undercompensation per span provides pulse walkoff to reduce XPM. Coherent receiver uses oversampling rate of M/K = 2.2 dB/km Dsmf = 17 ps/nm-km í1 í1 smf = 0.0013 m W Lsmf = 80 km DCF: dcf = 0. 8 .4 Gbit/s.

(ra d) A W G N Lim it 0. E q.3 P ha se E rror s.05 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 0. N LP B ackprop.05 9 4 Launch P owe r (dBm ) . B Lim it P ha se E rror s.d. O nly Lin. E N LP N + Lin.15 0.4 Gb/s RZ-QPSK 0. (ra d) 0. 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 0.1 0. A W G N ackprop. E q.15 0.2 0.d.1 Launch P owe r (dBm ) Interaction between dispersion and nonlinearity causes simple nonlinear compensation to fail. E q.2 0. N + Lin.25 Lin. O nly q.3 0.Simulation Results for 21.25 0.

at least in the absence of ASE.Backpropagation Signal propagation in the presence of nonlinearity and dispersion is governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation: F2 x2 E E xE 2 j E ! jK E E 2 xt 2 2 xz The NLSE is an invertible equation. and to find the input signal. F2 x2E E xE 2 j E ! jK E E 2 xt 2 2 xz Backward Propagation A coherent receiver recovers the E-field. SPM. Forward Propagation Given the output of the fiber. and can be exactly compensated by backpropagation. so backward propagation can be done numerically using the split-step Fourier method. 10 . 2. XPM and FWM are deterministic effects. we can ³backpropagate´ the signal through a fictitious fiber having opposite signs of .

Split-Step Fourier Method (I) xE Ö Ö ! DN E xz NLSE .

Linear & Nonlinear operators Split-Step Approximation F2 x2 E Ö D!j 2 2 xt 2 2 Ö N ! jK E Ö Ö ¨ N .

z N .

z h ¸ ¨h Ö¸ © ¹ exp¨ h D ¸ E .

z . t E .

t } exp© D ¹ exp © Ö¹ © ¹ 2 ª2 º ª2 º ª º E .z h.

z . t E .

Leads to very high computational complexity. t Ö D 2 Ö N Iterate Ö D 2 h = step size Need to divide fiber into many steps. Each step is solved iteratively.z h. 11 .

Split-Step Fourier Method (II) In the limit that the step size h is small. neglecting iteration. The nonlinear operator is a phase multiplication in the time domain. Both operators are exactly invertible! Ö D 2 exactly inverts Ö N exactly inverts Ö D 2 Ö N 12 . we have: Ö D 2 Ö N Ö D 2 Ö D 2 Ö N Ö D 2 Forward NLSE Backward NLSE The linear operator is a phase multiplication in the frequency domain.

Backpropagation Receiver E s .

t SinglePol. Downconvert. p .

M K FF. Since backpropagation has compensated all linear and nonlinear effects. the equalizer has become a fixed down-sampler. Dec. 13 . Ö ?xk AD LO The ³NLPN Compensation´ function block is replaced by digital backpropagation performed at an oversampling rate M/K.t T ! yk K Ts M Backprop. Symb. Ö xk Carrier Sync.

Perform only one iteration per step. smf 2 Step size h = length of a fiber. ¡ .Simplified Backpropagation Asymmetric Split-Step Fourier Method System Model TX SMF 1 span DCF Nspan RX Power Profile Distance Nonlinear effects are concentrated at the beginning of a fiber Mathematical Model TX e smf j \ NL . Greatly reduced computational complexity.

e j \ NL . dcf H dcf .

[ 2 RX N span 14 .

Long-Haul Terrestrial System TX SMF DCF Nspan Rb = 21.6 dB/km Ddcf = í80 ps/nm-km í1 í1 dcf = 0.0013 m W Lsmf = 80 km DCF: dcf = 0.2 dB/km Dsmf = 17 ps/nm-km í1 í1 smf = 0. 15 .0053 m W Ldcf = 15 km EDFA: RX ¨ 1 ¨E smf Lsmf G ! exp© © © 2 © E dcf Ldcf ª ª F = 5 dB ¸¸ ¹¹ ¹¹ ºº 12% undercompensation per span provides pulse walkoff to reduce XPM. Coherent receiver uses oversampling rate of M/K = 2.4 Gbit/s. 50% RZ-QPSK in 1 polarization Nspan = 25 SMF: smf = 0.

3 P ha se E rror s. N + Lin. E q.d. E N LP N + Lin. (ra d) A W G N Lim it 0.Simulation Results for 21.1 0.15 0. A W G N ackprop.3 0. O nly Lin.1 Launch P owe r (dBm ) Simplified backpropagation yields superior performance compared to other techniques 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 0. O nly q.25 0.2 0. B Lim it P ha se E rror s.4 Gb/s RZ-QPSK 0.15 0.2 0. N LP B ackprop. E q.05 16 4 Launch P owe r (dBm ) .d.25 Lin. E q. (ra d) 0.05 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 0.

4 Gbit/s.2 dB/km Dsmf = 17 ps/nm-km í1 í1 smf = 0.0053 m W Ldcf = variable EDFA: RX ¨ 1 ¨E smf Lsmf G ! exp© © © 2 © E dcf Ldcf ª ª F = 5 dB ¸¸ ¹¹ ¹¹ ºº Vary Ldcf to vary inline dispersion compensation. Vary oversampling ratio M/K in coherent receiver.0013 m W Lsmf = 80 km DCF: dcf = 0.6 dB/km Ddcf = í80 ps/nm-km í1 í1 dcf = 0. 17 . 50% RZ-QPSK in 1 polarization Nspan = 25 SMF: smf = 0.Long-Haul Terrestrial System with Variable Inline Dispersion Compensation TX SMF DCF Nspan Rb = 21.

d.4 Gb/s RZ-QPSK 0.2 0.15 P ha se E rr r s. (ra d) P ha se E rr r s. (ra d) 0.d.1 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 0.Simplified Backpropagation Results for 21.1 0.25 0.1 0.05 0.1 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 0 -8 0% CD under-compensation per span -6 -4 -2 0 Launch P we r (dBm ) 0 2-8 5% CD under-compensation per span 4-6 -4 -2 0 Launch P we r (dBm ) £ ¢ ¢ 0.25 3/2 2 3 4 AW G N Lim it M /K = 3/2 M /K = 2 M /K = 3 M /K = 4 AW G N Lim it 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.2 0. (ra d) 0.2 P ha se E rr r s.15 0.05 Launch P w r (dBm ) 2 18 .05 0.05 Launch P w e r (dBm ) ¤ ¤ 0.25 0.25 M /K M /K = = 3/2 M /K = 2 M /K = M /K = 3 M /K M /K = = 4 A W G N/K = M Lim it 0.d. (ra d) P ha se E rr r s.d.

.Simplified Backpropagation Results for 21. .4 Gb/s RZ-QPSK 0. . (r ha se P a M / = /2 M/ = 2 M/ = M/ = 4 AW G N Lim i . P ow r ( ) 100% CD under-compensation per span 4- § ¨ ! § © ¨ ¦ 0 -8 21 1 ¥© P 31 © © #" © %$ 23 1 $ © & # 01 & ¨© .2 0. . 0. rror s. . ra d) E rror . (r E rror .05 Launch o Launch o e r dBm ) ( 2- P ow r ( ) 19 0 1 0 ) ' 1 10% CD under-compensation per 0 span -8 -6 -4 -2 0 S R QP I H G F -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 - - - - r . Y ` Y Y ` Y E X E X V U T W .25 0...d.05 0. 5 0. . ra d) 0. D C B A@ 9 8 )654 7654 0654 07654 / / / / / i i ) ) 2¨0© 1 .25 0. P ha se 0. .2 rror s. 5 0.

20 . causing the digital BP solution to diverge from the analog BP solution. Significant performance improvement is obtained by increasing oversampling ratio to at least 3v: The nonlinear term in the NLSE is third-order in the electric field. Signal processing performed at an insufficient rate leads to aliasing when the nonlinear operator is applied. CD causes out-of-band noise to walk off from the signal.Discussion of Simplified Backpropagation Results The best performance is obtained at 100% CD under-compensation: DCF incurs loss and nonlinearity. digital CD compensation incurs neither.

2 G N Lim i B -1S B -S S F 1 0 Lin. O nly G N Lim i B -1S B -S S F 10 Lin.15 ha se h se 0. of s ans 30 40 50 60 70 800 20 30 80 To achieve BER = 103.25 y t w v u 80 21 . (ra d) 0. (ra d) rror s.1 0. O nly G N Lim i pi g g h pi g g 0. < 70 No.d. .d.05 N o.d. QPSK10needs phase 40 error50 s.4 Gb/s RZ-QPSK 100% CD under-compensation.23 rad.2 rror s. b 10 20 30 40 50 w x 0 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 s rq ff d e c s rq B -1S B -S S F 1 0 Lin.d.05 0. O nly 0. 0 dBm launch power h B -1S B 0.Transmission Distance for 21. . O nly G N Lim i 0. backpropagation enables transmission well over 80×80 km = 6. of s a ns 0.15 0.400 km of SMF. of s ans Using 2v or 3v oversampling ratio.2 0.25 -S S F 10 Lin.05 ha se 0.1 0 70 0 No.1 0. . .15 0.25 0. of s ans 2v oversampling 0 0 10 20 3v oversampling No. 60 0. (ra d) or s.

such as SPM. Signal-noise nonlinearities. system performance is optimized by: Omitting DCF Using 3v oversampling. Signal-signal nonlinearities. 22 . When using BP. are deterministic. and can be compensated effectively. and can be compensated partially. XPM and FWM. ASE causes random fluctuations in the received amplitude. are non-deterministic. the NLSE is invertible. BP is a universal method to compensate linear and nonlinear. single-channel and multichannel impairments.Conclusions Ignoring ASE. causes the BP output to diverge from the correct solution. such as NLPN.

Future Work Investigate the performance of BP for multichannel systems. 23 . dualpolarization systems and other modulation formats. Information-theoretic capacity of nonlinear fiber using BP compensation is open problem.

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