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History of Computer
GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
There are total five generations of the computers. Which depend upon the period of developments in this field? First Generation (1942-1959) (1942 Second Generation (1959-1965) (1959 Third Generation (1965-1971) (1965 Fourth Generation (1971-Present) (1971 Fifth Generation (Future)
First Generation (1942(1942-1959)
In first generation of computers vacuum tube was used. In 1946 Professor J.Presper and John Mauchly developed the first vacuum computer ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrated and Calculator) EINAC has no idea of stored program concept In 1946 Br. John Von Neumann started work on EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) which used the concept of storing the program.
Its development was completed in 1952 Before the EDVAC in 1949 the EDSAC (Electronic delay Storage automatic Computer) was developed by Maurice an Englishman In 1951 Eckert and John developed UNIVAC (Universal Variable Automatic Computer) which was the first digital computer. .
. The first Business Oriented computer UNIVACUNIVAC-1 was developed by General Electronic Corporation in 1954 In the first generation of computers the punch card were used for getting and feeding information The use of the vacuum tube in computer is usually regarded as the beginning of the computer age.
Punch Card .
Punch Card .
more reliable and more versatile than the first generation of computers Like the first generation of computers punch cards and magnetic tape used for input of the data .Second Generation (1959(1959-1965) In 1948 the transistors were developed in the Bell Labs which formed the basis for the second generation of the computers Through the use of transistors the second generation these computers were much faster.
BURROUGHS 220 etc. In the second Generation high level languages were developed like FORTRAN. . COBOL and BASIC etc The typical computers are IBM 650.
IBM 650 .
IBM 650 .
Clair and Robert Noyce. more efficient and more reliable than their predecessor were In 1958 the ICs were developed by Jack St.Third Generation (1965(1965-1970) The use of ICs (Integrated Circuits) signified the beginning of third generation of computers Again the third generation computers were smaller. .
IC (Integrated Circuit) .
IC (Integrated Circuit) .
IC (Integrated Circuit) .
. The earliest ICs using a technology now called SSI (Small Scale Integration) could pick up 10 or 20 Circuits By the late 1960 the engineers had achieved MSI (Medium Scale Integration) which placed up to between 20 and 200 transistors on a chip By 1969 as many as 1000 transistors could be build on one chip of silicon.
.Fourth Generation (1970(1970-Present) The significant distinction of the 4th generation of the computers is the development of LSI (Large Scale Integration) With VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). they could place the equivalent of more than 5. Similarly in the MID 70s the first microprocessor the Intel 4004 was developed.000 transistors on a single chip.
more powerful microprocessors. such as the Intel 80386. In MID 1970s it was followed by VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). the incorporation of several thousand transistors on a single chip This creation was followed by the creation of faster. .
true AI.Fifth Generation (Future) Some say that the creation and use of a computer with AI (Artificial Intelligence) will present the next step Although expert systems are already being used for the specialized applications. or computers that can think and behave like human mind .
TYPES OF COMPUTERS ACCORDING TO WORKING There are three basic types of computer according to working: Analog Computer Digital Computer Hybrid Computer .
. these quantities are continuous and having an infinite variety of values. speed. depth etc. weight. pressure.ANALOG COMPUTER Analog computer is used to process analog data Analog data is of continuous nature which is not discrete or separate Such type of data include ± ± ± ± ± temperature.
E. ± the weight is measured by weight machine ± These are such computers where data can be accepted directly from measuring instrument without having to convert it into numbers or codes . ± speedometer of a car measures speed. It measures the change in some physical quantity. ± the change of the temperature is measured by a thermometer.g.
A digital computer can be used to process numeric as well as nonnonnumeric data It can perform arithmetic operations like Addition. works with digits to represent ± numeric. as its name implies. and digits or ± other special symbols Digital computers operate on inputs which are ON-OFF ONtype. Subtraction. . division) and also logical operations. ± letters.DIGITAL COMPUTER A digital computer. multiplication.
. Most of the computers in use today are digital computers The most examples of the digital computers are accounting machines and calculators. The results of digital computers are more accurate than the results of analog computers.
Analog computers are faster than digital Analog computers lack memory whereas digital computers store information We can say that digital computers count and analog computers measure .
.e. ± it has the speed of the analog computer and ± memory and accuracy of the digital computer Hybrid computers are mainly used in specialized applications where both kind of data need to be processed.HYBRID COMPUTER A hybrid is a combination of digital and analog computers It combines the best features of both types of computers. I.
which are then converted and displayed in the form of digits. ± In hospitals intensive-care. . ± a petrol pump contains a processor that converts fuel flow measurement into quantity and price.. they help the user to process both continuous and discrete data. which measures intensivepatient¶s blood pressure and temperature etc. For example.
TYPES OF COMPUTER ACCORDING TO SPEED AND SIZE .
These computers are 50.000 times faster then the micro computer . It is placed in a special room. fastest and most expensive computers in the world They are used where vast quantity of data must be manipulated The price of the super computer ranges from $5 to $20 million dollars They are designed to process complex scientific applications As it produces enough internal heat therefore. SUPER COMPUTER The super computers are the largest. it needs special requirements.
They are five times faster then the large mainframe computers 60 miles of wiring is used while constructing a super computer. . They can calculate 400 million number s per second where as mainframe can 10 millions numbers There accuracy is up to 14 decimal places.
± generation of the film imagery etc. CYBER- . Examples of the super computer are CRAYCRAY-1 and CYBER-205. It can process 1billion instruction in a second 1000 individual PCs can be attached to a super computer They are used in: ± oil exploration. ± weather prediction.
Computers for Organizations Supercomputers ± The most powerful computers made ± Handle large and complex calculations ± Process trillions of operations per second ± Found in research organizations .
.MAINFRAME COMPUTER They are less expensive. The cost of the normal mainframe computer ranges from several hundred dollars to many million dollars. Still they are faster then the other types of computer. less powerful and slower then the super computer. large). medium. The IBM introduced the families of mainframes (small. They can process 10 million numbers per second.
ICL- . and NEC 610 etc. hospitals. The application areas of the mainframe computers are banks. 1000 workstation can be attached to a normal mainframe. Examples of mainframe computers are IBMIBM-4381. These computers are mainly used for the networking purposes. ICL-2900. universities etc.
MINI COMPUTER Mini computers are also known as midsize or low-end lowmainframe computers They are less expensive and smaller then the mainframe computers They are designed for the computerization of data for research. industrial process and small business application The size of the mini computer prevents it from being portable but it can be moved more easily than a mainframe. .
Time sharing. VAX-8650. . and IBM System VAX36 etc. batch processing and online processing are available on the mini computers The examples of mini computers are PRIMEPRIME-9755.
less expensive of all the computers They generally fall into the price of $100 to $10.000 The word micro refers mainly to the physical size and circuitry It a small computer and originally it had rather limited capabilities as compared to the large mainframe computers Now the microcomputer is more powerful than the early mainframe.MICRO /Personal COMPUTER A micro computer is the smallest. .
Examples of the micro computers are ± IBM. The micro computers are easily accommodateaccommodate-able on a table and thus had the name desktop. ± Apple. ± Commodore. ± Atari ± HP ± DELL . ± Radio Shack. ± Compaq.
IBM compatibilities: 286.386. and hand held computers fall into this category .486.586 and now Pentium IV as the latest The desktop. laptop.
TYPES OF COMPUTER ACCORDING TO PURPOSE There are two types of computer according to the purpose. General Purpose Computer Special Purpose Computer .
. various tasks can be performed. ± manipulating facts in a database.GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER Most computers in use today are general purpose computers Those built for a great variety of processing jobs Simply by using a general purpose computer and different software. including ± writing and editing.
± electricity consumption etc. ± making scientific calculations to even ± controlling an organization¶s security system.± tracking manufacturing inventory. .
SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTER A special computer as the name implies is designed to perform a specific operation and usually satisfies the needs of a particular type of problem Special purpose computers are also known as dedicated computers. control traffic lights. . because they are designed to perform a particular job Such a computer would be useful in games. weather prediction. satellite tracking or programming a video cassette recorder.
While a special purpose computer may have many of the same features found in a general purpose computer. . its applicability to a particular problem is a function of its design rather than to a stored program.
End of the Chapter .