From Palestine to Israel

:

AlAlNakba and the Creation of Israel

From Palestine to Israel 
Background:

The Palestine Mandate and World War II - background  From Palestine to Israel: Three Phases  Aftermath or: creating a Jewish Democratic State
Short IDs: Plan D, Dayr Yassin, Al-Nakba Al-

562 .922 31.866 Jews Other 599.310.Palestine at the End of the Mandate   Population: 2/3 are Palestinian-Arabs PalestinianLand Ownership: about 7% in Jewish hands Arabs (Muslim & Christians) 1.

economically. military.The significance of World War II for the Palestine Mandate  The Zionists strengthened their position politically.  The international environment changed dramatically in the Zionists favor. favor. . and economically.

 American Jews supported the Yishuv during the war. .The Zionists strengthened themselves politically  Despite immigration restrictions. the Zionists had to support Britain against the Germans.  Shifting of Zionist focus to the US and American Jews.

fighting in North Africa.The Zionists strengthened themselves militarily  The Jewish Agency reinforced the Haganah (f.  Creation of Jewish militant organizations: The Irgun Lehi ( Stern gang ) . 1920)  Zionists joined the British army and formed the Jewish Brigade.

expanded during the war. and these only Jews.The Zionists strengthened themselves economically  The most modern factories and industries in the Middle East were owned and operated by Jews.  The agricultural sector also fourished. .

The Weakness of Palestinian Society  Political leadership imprisoned or exiled  Internal political fragmentation  Intervention by Arab states  Lack of organized armed forces  Economically: minor industrialization. impoverished peasantry .

The conflict between Britain and the Jewish authorities encouraged the Soviet Union to express its sympathy for Zionist objectives. British confinement of illegal Jewish immigrants embarrass Britain. for their part. were now represented in the international arena by the Arab League. The US pressured the British to ease immigration restrictions. .International Developments      The Nazi genocide had produced widespread sympathy for the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine. The Palestinian Arabs.

From Palestine to Israel: Three Phases  1945-1947: 1945- The Zionist war of terror (mainly) against the British  December 1947 May 1948: Intercommunal war and the beginning of the mass Palestinian exodus  May 1948 1949: War between Israel and the Arab states .

Righteous Victims. 185 . p.UN Partition Plan Resolution 181 Taken from Benny Morris.

These operations can be divided into the following categories: Destruction of villages (setting fire to. and planting mines in the debris). It also aims at gaining control of the areas of Jewish settlement and concentration which are located outside the borders [of the Hebrew state] against regular. and small forces operating from bases outside or inside the state. Mounting search and control operations according to the following guidelines: encirclement of the village and conducting a search inside it. especially those population centers which are difficult to control continuously. blowing up. In the event of resistance.. the armed force must be destroyed and the population must be expelled outside the borders of the state. semisemi-regular...Plan D   A military blueprint (Haganah) The objective of this plan is to gain control of the areas of the Hebrew state and defend its borders.  . Mounting operations against enemy population centers located inside or near our defensive system in order to prevent them from being used as bases by an active armed force.

1948 .Dayr Yassin Massacre April 9.

Palestinian military operations     Defense of villages and cities (Jaffa s defense by Hasan Salmah) Attempts to capture main roads (temporary blockage of the road to Jerusalem by Abd alalQadir al-Husseini) and attack isolated Jewish alsettlements Arab Army of Salvation. sponsored by the Arab League Sporadic retaliation (the Hadassah convoy as a retaliation for the Dayr Yassin massacre) .

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1949 Armistice .

000 Palestinians were allowed to stay. lived under military rule until 1966 .Al-Nakba ( The Disaster ) Al   The uprooting of the Palestinian people in 1948 is known as al-Nakba alCoined by Constantine Zureiq Results on the ground: ~700.000 (formerly 90% of the population of Mandatory Palestine that became Israel) became refugees 531 villages and towns depopulated Only 160.

Al Nakba .

under principles of international law or in equity.UN General Assembly resolution 194 (December 11. . should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible. 1948)  The refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date. and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which.

Syria. Under military rule until 1966  Arab controlled Palestine (until 1967): the West Bank and the Gaza strip  Palestinian refugees (Lebanon.The Palestinians after 1948 Israeli Arabs remained in Israel and acquired Israeli citizenship. Jordan) and diasporas  .

The Exodus of the Arab-Jews Arab( Mizrahim )  ~1.000 left their homes in Arab states  600.000 migrated to Israel  Upon arrival.000 Jews lived in Muslim countries of the Middle East prior to 1948  856. most sent to interim camps.000. then to remote settlements and development towns  Mizrahim consist ~50% of the Israeli population .

Interim camps ( ma abarot ) .

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