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DESIGN OF A SOLAR PV GRID CONNECTD SYSTEM FOR A HOSTEL

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
y Introduction
y Solar PV grid-connected system y Objectives

y Components needed in the system y Protection of the system y Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
y Climate Change y Global Energy imbalance (e.g. 1.6 billion people living y

y y y

without electricity ) Growing demand of energy: global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 for an estimated population of about 8 billion, with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries Majority of the energy supply are from sources that contribute to global warming Solar energy is a solution to our energy needs and climate change: eco-friendly, abundant. The future of solar energy is now. We must tap into this free, available source of energy

FACTS ABOUT SOLAR ENERGY


Solar energy=Energy from the sun Third world countries with an

abundance of sunlight represent the fastest growing market for solar energy, with the largest domestic market being the utilities sector.
Shell Oil predicts that 50% of the

world's energy will come from renewable sources by 2040.

Renewable energy flow paths.(source

SOLAR PV GRID CONNECTED SYSTEM


y Connected to the utility grid
y Distributed generation mix

y Ability to produce your own energy


y Reduce your utility bills

y Sell back to the grid when in excess

Objectives of the project


y Accessing the current state of solar PV energy

technology worldwide. y Improving overall power consumption of the hostel by determining and addressing energy inefficient practices y Designing a grid-connected solar PV system with battery backup and an active protective and maintenance schedules. y Lifting the project to a professional proposal level including specific sizes and cost of

COMPONENTS NEEDED
y Solar PV Modules y Inverters y Batteries y Charge controllers y Net Metering Device

CHARGE CONTROLLERS
prevents overcharge and subsequent damage

MPPT VS PWM CONTROLLERS


y Maximum power-point tracking: it is like a

transmission system in a car, it adjusts charging based on need or demand of the battery very accurate and efficient
y Pulse Width Modulation reduces charge current

according to the batteries need or status. It slows charging down when near fully charged to prevent overloads. Good, but less efficient

MPPT VS PWM CONTROLLERS


MPPT is much better at maintaining battery life than PWM controllers and more expensive

SOLAR BATTERIES
Output measured in amp hours!

TYPES OF BATTERY
y Starter Batteries designed to provide a surge of power

for a short period of time. If discharged often, it loses battery life.


y Deep discharge Batteries designed for high discharge

rates and often without loss of life.


Flooded require frequent addition of battery acid Sealed require less care Gel require very little maintenance

BATTERY CAPACITY
y Rated by capacity in Ah at a specified temperature,

discharge rate and cut off voltage


y Affected by temperature
y Low temperature - decreases capacity y High temperature increases capacity

FACTORS AFFECTING BATTERY


yRate of discharge yDepth of discharge yTemperature yRecharging Characteristics

BATTERY STORAGE
Needs to be isolated Requires maintenance Must be vented Needs to be planned

for peak demands


Safety equipment

required

BATTERIES DESIGNED FOR SOLAR

PROTECTION
Major safety features the system are:
y Safety disconnects y Grounding equipments y Surge Protection

CONCLUSION
yWe cannot do without energy and

energy need is on the increase yMethods used have negative impacts on the environment ySolar energy is the answer!