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I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble shell than ordinary whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me ~ Sir Isaac Newton
- Knowing a little bit more about the
nature of science as a human activity is a necessity. - Beyond scientific research, we must see its consequences affecting our way of life and now and even our future.
Because they perceived the beauty of the star. as science developed. . their thoughts dwelt upon them.Bertrand Russell (A Great Philosopher) Science in its beginning was due to men who were in love with the world. of the winds and the mountains. and the sea. which was at first a mere camp follower. while the impulse of power. and they wished to understand the more intimately than a mere outward contemplation made possible. the impulse of love which gave it birth has been increasingly thwarted. But step by step. has gradually usurped command by virtue of its unforeseen success .
The first civilization emerged independent of one another along fertile river valley in: a.It was recorded as the longest period in history of civilization. China (Huang ho) d. India (Indus) .THE DAWN OF THE FIRST CIVILIZATION . Mesopotamia (Tigris and Euphrates) b. . Egypt (Nile) c.
.The mode of life is Adaptation and Survival. .The people of the first civilization were Nomadic. .
Discovery as the recognition and careful observation of a new natural objects or phenomena.EVIDENCE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING THE PRE HISTORIC TIMES STONE AGE : PALEOLITHIC AGE (3000 1000 B.C.) AND NEOLITHIC AGE (9000 5000 B. .) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY is governed by two elements: a.C.
Technology as a mental process wherein man s various discovery and observation.The discovery of fire (1000 B. lead to make some other ways (operations) or means (tools) of obtaining things useful or profitable. pebbles pre shaped by nature.The first tool were made of stones. . . combined and guided b experience.) in two ways: a. . Rubbing of two twigs using dried leaves.b. Lightning struck b.C.
man learns to use metal. a. Bronze (weapons) .BRONZE AGE . and other tools) b.3500 B.C. Copper (Container.
D.) IN THE OLD WWORLD A.EVIDENCES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING ANCIENT TIMES (3500 B.Was an ancient region in southern Mesopotamia (Iraq) .C. 1200 A. . SUMMERIAN CIVILIZATION SUMER The cradle of the world s earliest known civilization.
.) ..The region who inhabited b various tribes of central Asia since 5000 B.C.Invented the 1st writing system called CUNEIFORM (set of words pictures depicted in symbols made of triangular marks.
1st architectural master piece of sumerian people. 1 minute to 60 seconds. (360 circle. 1 hour to 60 minutes.) Ziggurats temples. palaces .- - - Sexagesimal (Using number 60 as base) standardized measuring. Walled cities. .
HAMMURABI (1792 1750 B.C.B.Wrote the Hammurabi code .Great Babylonian leader . BABYLONIAN CIVILIZATION BABYLONIA .) .Was the 1st ancient region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates.
C. by KING SERRACHERIB of Assyria .They adapted sexagesimal ..Destroyed 689 B.Babylon as the capital city BABYLON .Center of commercial and religion .
Made the neo Babylonian empire (604 632 B.C.NEBUCHADNEZZAR II .Ordered to construct the HANGING GARDEN OF BABYLON AND ISTHAR GATE .) .
.Divided into 2 parts: a.Desert country located at northern part of African continent.C. Upper Egypt . EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION EGYPT . Lower Egypt b.
SIRIUS as indicator or rise and fall of the NILE.Hieroglyphics system of writing.Studied the heavenly bodies. representing individual objects and actions.) . 2686 B. . Archaic Period (3100 B.The Different Periods in Egypt 1.C. .Violet as royalty.C. highness and power .
surgery and medicinal plants enabled them to master the art and science of embalming their deads. physiology. The Old Kindom (2868 2181 B.) .C. .Knowledge of human anatomy.Pyramids of Gizah was constructed (AGE OF PYRAMIDS) 3. Middle Kingdom (2133 1603 B.The golden age in Egypt .C.) .2.
) .Improved products . The New Kingdom (1567 1085 B.C.No money system but trading and exchanging good is the process of business. .4.
Grandest site of Bronze Age palaces .Minoans Famous for their artistic skills ( creating statues.D. jewels.C. CRETAN (MINOAN) CIVILIZATION ISLAND OF CRETE . . ceramics..) .Ruled by King Minos 3000 B. Etc.
Teachings through question and answering. . THALES of Miletus (624 574 B.) .Father of Philosophy (nature is composed of or convertible water) .E. GREEK CIVILIZATION . b. a.) .399 B. SOCRATES (470 .C.Famous for their PARTHENON.they systematically separate scientific ideas from superstition.C.
c. ANAXAGORAS (500 428 B.C.) - Matter is composed of countless tiny particles, each made of dominant substances such as water which is mixed with the other substances. d. EMPEDOCLES (493 433 B.C.) - Nature as a mixture of four elements; Earth, Fire, Wind, Water which continuously combine and separate under the influence of the basic forces governing all matter attraction and repulsion.
d. HIPPOCRATES ( 400 B.C) - Was known to be the first to regard medicine as a science apart from religion. - He taught that somehow the human body is capable of healing or repairing itself. - HIPPOCRATIC OATH that prescribes the physician s ethical responsibility. e. GALEN ( 129 199 B.C.) - A Greek physician, laid down the first medical theories based on scientific experiments.
f. ARISTOTLE (384 322 B.C.) - Engrossed with many areas of science, variety, structure, and behavior of animal and plants. - Proved the importance of critical observation and systematic means to identify and classify organism. g. PYTHAGORAS - Discovered the numerical ratios, he believed that the elements of the numbers were the element of the world. - Pythagorean theorem
C.) . EUCLID . k. he devoted his life with philosophy i.Father of Geometry j.) .wrote the almagest .Follower of Socrates.Geo-centric theory . PLATO (428 348 B. ARCHIMEDES ( 287 212 B. PTOLEMY .Discovered the laws of lever and pulleys.C.h.
Introduction of monetary system.) he helped the Persians to rebelled against the Medes. conquered the Egypt. CAMBYBES (530 522 B.) . PERSIAN CIVILIZATION CYRUS THE GREAT (559 530 B. . using gold and silver.F.C.C. DARIUS I THE GREAT ( 522 486 B.) son of Cyrus.C.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (355 323 B.Controlled the Asia Minor (Turkey). he spread the Greek cultures.C.C.) .The separation of city and provinces.DARIUS THE III (338 330 B.) . .
D.C. .) b.G.C. MARK ANTHONY ( 83 30 B.Romans excelled in architecture and engineering.) c. OCTAVIUS (63 14 A. ROMAN CIVILIZATION GREAT LEADERS a.Roman Numerals .) . JULIUS CAESAR (102 44 B.
Designed the PANTHEON (Greatest domed building.) VESPARIAN (69 79 A.) .D.C.HADRIAN (117 138 B.The crazy emperor . .Made artificial lakes.Made Colosseum . NERO (54 68 A.) .D.) .The most gifted of all roman emperors.
Constantinople as Rome Capital City.Byzantine empire (Istanbul. Turkey) JUSTINIAN I ( 581 565 A.D.CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (306 337 A.Build the HAGIA SOPHIA (CHURCH OF WISDOM) .) . .) .D.
The land of ARABS. . ARABIC /ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION ARABIA .HINDU SANSKRIT mode of writing .H. rocky peninsula is southwest Asia.Focused on mathematical and astronomical works.Focused on ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA AL KWARAZMI . .
CHINESE CIVILIZATION .Great Chinese Philosopher .Golden rule .The people of China first settled along the river banks of the Huang Ho (Yellow River) (Loess) and the Yang Tze river. CONFUCIUS .I.
He wrote the Tao Te Ching ( the way of virtue) .Taoism MENCIUS .LAO TZU .He wrote the book of Mencius .Confucius Great Disciple .
D. kite. . .Using of fans.) .Contributions of CHINA . chopsticks. printing press. ink.Great Wall of China .The first news paper Peking Gazette . fireworks. Tang Dynasty (705 735 A.. umbrella.paper.
.First known cities HARRAPA AND MOHENDRO DARO. INDUS/HINDU CIVILIZATION INDIA -known as the land of prayers .J.
GREATEST CONTRIBUTIONS .The first fable story. especially the number 0 .YOGA (the discipline of mind and body and soul) .MAHABHRATA AND RAMAYANA . Buddhism. Sikhism and Jainism) .HINDU ARABIC NUMBER.The 4 greatest religions (Hinduism. PANCHATANTRA .
D.EVIDENCES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING PRE COLUMBIAN TIMES (1500 B.La Venta Ruins center of architecture . a vast clay pyramids and decorated by stone carvings. OLMEC CIVILIZATION (MEXICO) .Famous for their stone images (jaguar like rigid faces with drooping thick lips and flat nose) .C. .They use calendars and counting system.) A. . 1500 A.
The Maya priest studies the positions and motions of the sun. .They made monumental sculptures called STELE on which the important dates and events in their rulers lives were recorded. .Developed a unique mathematical system based on number 20. and the planets from their observatories. MAYA CIVILIZATION (GUATEMALA AND YUCATAN PENINSULA) . stars. . moon. instead of 10 decimal system.B.
They use herbs and magic in treating the sick. . they cultivated CACAO BEANS to make CHOCOLATES. . .They improved the BAKING SYSTEM that they adapted from the Greeks.Their garments are embroidered..
great twin cities.C. artificial island in the shallow water which they cultivated intensely. represented the Aztec universe. famous carvings. AZTEC CIVILIZATION . .TENOCHTITLAN and TLATELOLCO. .CALENDAR STONES . 260 days calendar. .Famous for their CHINAMPAS.
having 18 months and 20 days each plus 5 extra days..SOLAR CALENDAR. .They used a PICTOGRAPHIC form of writing. .
D.Improved system of hunting. INCA CIVILIZATION .The Inca farmers transformed the steep mountain sides of their highland into network of terraced field linked by a system of miles long irrigation canals. clubs and nets. . using slings. .
D.The works and writings of ARISTOTLE. were treated as dogma in the field of science and mathematics.THE STATE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING THE MIDDLE AGES (400 1300 A. PTOLEMY AND GALEN. . EUCLID. IN THE WESTERN WORLD) .
ALHAZEN discovered how vision is caused by the reflection of the light objects into our eyes.AL KHWARAZMI expanded and organized ALGEBRA. . AVICENNA authored a comprehensive encyclopedia titled THE CANNON OF MEDICINE .
) JOHANN GUTENBERG (1394 -1468) . he deeply engrossed in studying ASTRONOMY.THE ADVANCE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOG DURING THE RENAISSANCE (1300 1600 A. LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452 1519) .Italian genius who personified the Renaissance spirit. .D. BOTANY.Invented the movable metal type printing press. GEOLOGY and MECHANICS.
.The founder of modern medicine.A Poland astronomer challenges the old geocentric universe of PTOLEMY. 2nd book On the fabric of Human Body ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514 1564) . .NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473 1543) .A brilliant anatomist and surgeon . .He wrote his 1st book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres.
Revolutionized the medieval way of deductive reasoning.) THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD . .D. FRANCIS BACON (1561 1626) .The observation and gathering of data based on experimentation.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (1600 1700 A.
EUROPA.Italian mathematician and astronomer. thermometer. NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473 1543) . he applies scientific method in studying astronomy. phases of Venus. GANYMEDE. . he rejected he geocentric theory of Ptolemy. believed that the sun is the center of the solar system. . Galilean Moons (IO. CALLISTO).GALILEO GALILEI (1564 1662) .Pendulum.Polish astronomer.
founded the science of analytical geometry. physicist and mathematician. TYCHO BRAHE (1546 1601) .He discovers the orbits of the planets. he conducted celestial observations. .French philosopher. ELLIPTICAL in nature.RENE DESCARTES (1596 1650) . JOHANNES KEPLER (1571 1630) .Danish astronomer.
Geometry and algebra.DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS JOHN NAPIER ( 1550 1617) .Scottish mathematician.German mathematician. and CALCULUS. RENE DESCARTES ( 1596 1659) . he discover logarithms. GOTTFRIED WHILHELM VON LEIBNIZ . invented the Leibniz calculator .
ISAAC NEWTON ( 1642 1727) .The first telescope in Holland is believed to invented by him a spectacle maker. HANS LIPPERSHEY (1570 1619) . acceleration. he use the pendulum as a time controller in clocks. action and reaction) CHRISTIAN HUYGENS (1626 1695) . .Dutch mathematician.The 3 laws of motion (inertia.
and discovers red corpuscles. .Reveals the world of protozoa and bacteria's. MARCELLO MALPIGHI ( 1628 1694 ) . ANTONY VAN LEEUWENHOEK ( 1632 1732) .Discovers capillary connections between the arteries and the veins. coined with COMPOUND MICROSCOPE.Analyze blood.JANS SWAMMERDAM (1637 1732) .
. BLAISE PASCAL (1632 1662) .Discovers the law of elasticity.Italian mathematician and physicist. invented the BAROMETER. EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI ( 1608 1647) . and in 1665 he discovers CELL.Invented the mechanical air pump.ROBERT HOOKE ( 1635 1703) . Pascal calculator.
.OTTO VON GUERICK (1602 1686) . and the role of air combustion and repulsion.He clarified what a VACUUM is.
Invented the FLYING SHUTTLE.A British historian wrote about the industrial revolution . IN THE MODERN WORLD) ARNOLD TOYNBEE .SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DURING THE AGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION (1703 1930 A.D. the machine that enabled cloth weavers to produce cloth more quickly in greater widths. . JOHN KAY .
and stove.JAMES WATT (1765) . Invented the STEAM ENGINE.Discovers the LATENT HEAT. . invented the LIGHTNING ROD.Scottish engineer. Bifocal glass. JOSEPH BLACK . conducted experiment in electricity (KITE and the KEY). BENJAMIN FRANKLIN(1706 1790) . (WATT unit of power named after him).American self educated.
Discovered the electric current could be generated by two different metals in contact with the muscle of a frog. . ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745 1827) . (VOLTZ AS UNIT OF ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE IS NAMED AFTER HIM) .LUIGI GALVANI (1780) . with metals alone proved that animal tissue was not needed to produce and electric current.Disproved GALVANI S experiment.Invented the electric battery.
Danish scientist.) HANS OERSTED (1777 1851) . Discovers the electro magnetic induction. .MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 1867) .Conduced experiment concerning electromagnetism. named after him. (FARADAY the quantity of electricity needed to deposit or evolved 1 equivalent weight of an element. conducted experiments with a magnetic compass.
named after him).Powerful electromagnet developed and use to lift heavy loads. JOSEPH HENRY ( 1797 1878) . .ANDRE AMPERE (1775 1836) .Explained the observed magnetic effects in terms of electric currents flowing in small loops. (AMPERE the unit of electric current equivalent to a flow of 1 coulombs per second.
Invented the TELEPHONE.Produced the 1st practical telegraph in 1837. developed he MORSE CODE ( a system of signals composed of dots and dashes to form an alphabet. . .) ALEXANDER GRAHAMBELL (1847 1922) . MORSE (1791 1872) .BELL in 1915.S. 1st largest telephone company in America connecting all parts of the U.SAMUEL B.
GUGLIEMO MARCONI (1874 1937) .He created a new mass communication device. THS SYSTEM OF RADIOGRAPHY. he also discovers the RADIOWAVES.German physicist was able to produce electromagnetic waves in his laboratory. .HEINRICH HERTZ (1885 1889) .
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