Warehouse Management

2
Is it only a storage Iacility?
A warehouse is typically viewed as a place to
store inventory.
However, in many logistical system designs,
the role of the warehouse is more properly
viewed as a switching facility as contrasted to
a storage facility.
3
A Sample Warehouse
Video
4
BeneIits oI Warehousing
Consolidation
Shipment consolidation is an economic benefit of
warehousing.
With this arrangement, the consolidating warehouse
receives and consolidates materials from a number of
manufacturing plants destined to a specific customer
on a 8ingIe transportation shipment.
The benefits are the realization of the lowest possible
transportation rate and reduced congestion at a
customer's receiving dock.
5
Consolidation Warehouses
6
Consolidation Warehouses.
The primary benefit of consolidation is that it
combines the logistical flow of several small
shipments to a specific market area.
Consolidation warehousing may be used by a single
firm, or a number of firms may join together and use
a for-hire consolidation service.
Through the use of such a program, each individua1
manufacturer or shipper can enjoy lower total
distribution cost than could be realized on a direct
shipment basis individually.
7
Break bulk warehouses
Break bulk warehouse operations are similar to
consolidation except that no storage is performed.
A break bulk operation receives combined customer
orders from manufacturers and ships them to
individual customers.
The break bulk warehouse 8ort8 or 85Iit8 individual
orders and ,rr,nge8 for local delivery.
Because the long-distance transportation movement
is a large shipment, transport costs are lower and
there is less difficulty in tracking.
8
Break bulk warehouses.
9
Processing/Postponement
Warehouses can also be used to postpone, or delay,
production by performing processing and light
manufacturing activities.
A warehouse with packaging or labeling capability
allows postponement of final production until actual
demand is known.
For example, vegetables can be processed and
canned in "brights" at the manufacturer.
Brights are cans with no pre-attached labels.
10
Processing/Postponement.
The use of brights for a private label product
means that the item does not have to be
committed to a specific customer or package
configuration at the manufacturer's plant.
Once a specific customer order is received,
the warehouse can complete final processing
by adding the label and finalizing the
packaging.
11
Processing/Postponement.
Processing and postponement provide two economic
benefits:
First, risk is minimized because final packaging is not
completed until an order for a specific label and
package has been received.
Second, the required level of total inventory can be
reduced by using the basic product (brights) for a
variety of labeling and packaging configurations.
12
Stockpiling
The economic benefit of stockpiling comes from the
need of seasonal storage.
For example, lawn furniture and toys are produced
year-round and primarily sold during a very short
marketing period.
Ìn contrast, agricultural products are harvested at
specific times with subsequent consumption
occurring throughout the year.
Both situations require warehouse stockpiling to
support marketing efforts.
Stockpiling provides an inventory buffer, which allows
production efficiencies within the constraints imposed
by material sources and the customer.
13
Voice Directed Distribution:
Talkman Irom Vocollect
Video
14
Service BeneIits
Five basic service benefits are achieved
through warehousing:
spot stock,
assortment,
mixing,
production support, and
market presence.
15
Spot Stock
Under spot stocking, a 8eIected ,2ount of a firm's
5roduct Iine is placed or "spot stocked" in a
warehouse to fill customer orders during a critic,I
marketing period.
Ìn particular, manufacturers with limited or highly
seasonal product lines are partial to this service.
Rather than placing inventories in warehouse
facilities on a year-round basis or shipping directly
1742manufacturing plants, delivery time can be
substantially reduced by advanced inventory
commitment to strategic markets.
16
Spot Stock.
Utilizing warehouse facilities 147stock spotting allows
inventories to be placed in a variety of markets
,dj,cent to key cu8to2er8 just prior to a maximum
period of seasonal sales.
Suppliers of agricultural products to farmers often use
spot stocking to position their products closer to a
service-sensitive market during the growing season.
Following the sales season, the remaining inventory
is withdrawn to a central warehouse.
17
Assortment
An assortment warehouse stocks product
co2-in,tion8 in anticipation of customer orders.
The assortments may represent multiple products
1742different manufacturers or special assortments
as specified by customers.
Ìn the first case, 147example, an athletic wholesaler
would stock products 1742, nu2-er of clothing
8u55Iier8 so that customers can be offered
assortments.
Ìn the second case, the wholesaler would create a
specific team uniform including shirt, pants, and
shoes.
18
Assortment vs. Spot Stock
The differential between stock spotting and complete
line assortment is the degree and duration of
warehouse utilization.
A firm following a 8tock 85otting would typically
warehouse a narrow product assortment and place
stocks in a large number of small warehouses
dedicated to specific markets 147a Ii2ited time
period.
Distribution ,88ort2ent warehouse usually has a
-ro,d product line, is limited to a 10strategic
locations, and is functional year-round.
The combined assortments also allow larger
shipment quantities, which in turn reduce
transportation cost.
19
Mixing
Ìn a typical mixing situation, truckloads of products
are shipped from manufacturing plants to
warehouses.
Each I,rge shipment enjoys the lowest possible
transportation rate.
Upon arrival at the mixing warehouse, factory
shipments are unloaded and the desired
co2-in,tion of each product for each customer or
market is selected.
When plants are geographically separated, overall
transportation charges and warehouse requirements
can be reduced by mixing.
20
Production Support
Production support warehousing provides a steady
supply of components and materials to assembly
plants.
Safety stocks on items purchased from outside
vendors may be justified because of long lead times
or significant variations in usage.
The operation of a production support warehouse is
to supply or "feed" processed materials, components,
and subassemblies into the assembly plant in an
economic and timely manner.
21
Market Presence
While a market presence benefit may not be so
obvious, it is often cited by marketing managers as a
major advantage of local warehouses.
The market presence factor is based on the
perception or belief that local warehouses can be
more responsive to customer needs and offer quicker
delivery than more distant warehouses.
As a result, it is also thought that a local warehouse
will enhance market share and potentially increase
profitability.
22
Warehouse Operating Principles
Once it has been determined to use a
warehouse, the next step is designing it.
Whether the warehouse is a small manual
operation or a large automated facility, the
following three principles are relevant:
Design criteria,
Handling technology, and
Storage plan.
23
Design Criteria
Warehouse design criteria address physical
facility characteristics and product movement.
Three factors to be considered in the design
process are:
the number of stories in the facility,
height utilization, and
product flow.
24
Number oI stories in the Iacility
The ideal warehouse design is limited to a single
story so that product does not have to be moved up
and down.
The use of elevators to move product from one floor
to the next requires time and energy.
The elevator is also often a bottleneck in product flow
since many material handlers are usually competing
for a limited number of elevators.
While it is not always possible, particularly in central
business districts where land is restricted or
expensive, warehouses should be limited to a single
story.
25
Height utilization
Regardless of facility size, the design should
maximize the usage of the available cubic space by
allowing for the greatest use of height on each floor.
Most warehouses have 20- to 30-foot ceilings
(1 foot = 12 inch; 1 inch = 2.54 cm), although modern
automated and high-rise facilities can effectively use
ceiling heights up to 100 feet.
Through the use of racking or other hardware, it
should be possible to store products up to the
building's ceiling.
Maximum effective warehouse height is limited by the
safe lifting capabilities of material-handling
equipment, such as forklifts.
26
Product Ilow
Warehouse design should also allow for straight
product flow through the facility whether items are
stored or not.
Ìn general, this means that product should be
received at one end of the building, stored in the
middle, and then shipped from the other end.
Straight-line product flow minimizes congestion and
confusion.
27
Handling technology
The second principle focuses on the
effectiveness and efficiency of material-
handling technology.
The elements of this principle concern:
movement continuity and
movement scale economies.
28
Movement continuity
Movement continuity means that it is better for a
material handler or piece of handling equipment to
make a longer move than to have a number of
handlers make numerous, individual, short segments
of the same move.
Exchanging the product between handlers or moving
it from one piece of equipment to another wastes
time and increases the potential for damage.
Thus, as a general rule, fewer longer movements in
the warehouse are preferred.
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Movement scale economies
Movement scale economies imply that all warehouse
activities should handle or move the largest quantities
possible.
Ìnstead of moving individual cases, warehouse
activities should be designed to move grou58 of
cases such as pallets or containers.
This grouping or batching might mean that multiple
products or orders must be moved or selected at the
same time.
While this might increase the complexity of an
individual's activities since multiple products or orders
must be considered, the principle reduces the
number of activities and the resulting cost.
30
Storage Plan
According to the third principle, a warehouse design
should consider product characteristics, particularly
those pertaining to volume, weight, and storage.
Product volume is the major concern when defining a
warehouse storage plan.
High-volume sales or throughput product should be
stored in a location that minimizes the distance it is
moved, such as near primary aisles and in low
storage racks.
Such a location minimizes travel distance and the
need for extended lifting.
Conversely, low-volume product can be assigned
locations that are distant from primary aisles or
higher up in storage racks.
31
A Sample Storage Area
32
Storage Plan.
Similarly, the plan should include a specific strategy
for products dependent on weight and storage
characteristics.
Relatively heavy items should be assigned to
locations low to the ground to minimize the effort and
risk of heavy lifting.
Bulky or low-density products require extensive
storage volume, so open floor space or high-level
racks can be used for them.
On the other hand, smaller items may require storage
shelves or drawers.
The integrated storage plan must consider and
address the specific characteristics of each product.
33
Alternative Warehouse Strategies
Warehouse alternatives include:
(1) Private warehouses,
(2) Public warehouses, and
(3) Contract warehouses.
A 5riv,te w,rehou8e facility is owned and managed
by the same enterprise that owns the merchandise
handled and stored at the facility.
A 5u-Iic w,rehou8e, in contrast, is operated as an
independent business offering a range of services
-such as storage, handling, and transportation- on the
basis of a fixed or variable fee.
Public warehouse operators generally offer relatively
8t,nd,rdized 8ervice8 to all clients.
34
Alternative Warehouse Strategies...
Contr,ct w,rehou8ing, which is evolving from the public
warehouse segment, provides benefits of both the private
and public alternatives.
Contract warehousing is a long term, mutually beneficial
arrangement which provides unique and specially tailored
warehousing and logistics services exclusively to one
client, where the vendor and client share the risks
associated with the operation.
Ìmportant dimensions that differentiate contract
warehousing operators from public warehouse operators
are the extended time frame of the service relationship,
tailored services, exclusivity, and shared risk.
35
Private Warehouses
A private warehouse is operated by the firm owning
the product.
The actual facility, however, may be owned or
leased.
The decision as to which strategy best fits an
individual firm is essentially financial.
Often it is not possible to find a warehouse for lease
that fits the exact requirements of a firm.
36
Private Warehouses.
The major benefits of private warehousing include
control, flexibility, cost, and other intangible benefits.
Private warehouses provide more control since the
enterprise has absolute decision-making authority
over all activities and priorities in the facility.
This control facilitates the ability to integrate
warehouse operations with the rest of the firm's
internal logistics process.
37
Private Warehouses.
Private warehousing is usually considered less costly
than public warehousing because private facility
costs do not have a profit markup.
This perceived benefit, however, may be misleading
since public warehouses often are more efficient or
may operate at lower wage scales.
Private warehousing has also some intangible
benefits, particularly with respect to market presence.
A private warehouse with a firm's name on it may
produce customer perceptions of responsiveness and
stability.
This perception sometimes provides a firm with a
marketing advantage over other enterprises.
38
Public Warehouses
On the basis of the range of specialized operations
performed, public warehouses are classified as
(1) general merchandise,
(2) refrigerated,
(3) special commodity,
(4) bonded, and
(5) household goods and furniture.
Each warehouse type differs in its material handling
and storage technology as a result of the product and
environmental characteristics.
39
Public Warehouses.
Gener,I 2erch,ndi8e warehouses are designed to
handÌe general package commodities such as paper,
small appliances, and household supplies.
Refriger,ted w,rehou8e8 (either frozen or chilled)
handle and maintain food, medical items, and
chemical products with special temperature
requirements.
Co22odity w,rehou8e8 are designed to handle
bulk material or items with special handling
considerations, such as tires or clothing.
40
Public Warehouses.
Bonded w,rehou8e8 are licensed by the
govern2ent to store goods prior to payment of taxes
or duties.
They exert very tight control over all movements in
and out of the facility since government documents
must be filed with each move.
For example, cigarettes are often stored in bonded
warehouses prior to having the tax stamp applied.
This tactic saves the firm money by delaying tax
payments; it also reduces inventory value
substantially.
41
Public Warehouses.
Finally, a hou8ehoId good8 or furniture
w,rehou8e is designed to handle and store
large, bulky items such as appliances and
furniture.
Of course, many public warehouses offer
combinations of these operations.
42
Public Warehouses.
From a financial perspective, public warehousing
may have a lower variable cost than comparable
privately operated facilities.
The lower variable cost may be the result of lower
pay scales, better productivity, or economy of scale.
Public warehouses certainly result in lower capital
costs.
When management performance is judged according
to return on investment (ROÌ), the use of public
warehousing can substantially increase enterprise
return.
43
Public Warehouses.
Public warehousing offers fIexi-iIity in that it is easy
to change the location, size, and number of facilities,
allowing a firm to quickly respond to supplier,
customer, and seasonal demands.
Private warehouses are relatively fixed and difficult to
change because buildings have to be constructed or
sold.
Public warehousing can also offer significant scale
economies since the volume for each customer is
leveraged with that of other users.
This results in high-volume operations that can
spread fixed costs and justify more efficient handling
equipment.
44
Public Warehouses.
A public warehouse can also leverage
transportation by providing delivery of loads
that represent many public warehouse
customers.
For example, rather than have vendor A and
vendor B each deliver to a retail store from
their own warehouse, a public warehouse
serving both vendors could deliver a single
combined load more efficiently.
45
Public Warehouses.
A public warehouse charges clients a basic fee for
handling and storage.
Ìn the case of h,ndIing, the charge is based on the
number of cases or pounds handled.
For 8tor,ge, the charge is assessed on the number
of cases or weight in storage during the month.
Such charges normally exceed the cost of private
warehousing if adequate private facility volume
exists.
However, when economies of scale are not possible
in a private facility, public warehousing may be a low-
cost alternative.
46
Contract Warehouses
Contract warehousing combines the best
characteristics of both private and public operations.
The long-term relationship and shared risk result in
lower cost than typical public warehouse
arrangements.
Contract warehouse operations can provide benefits
of expertise, flexibility, and economies of scale by
sharing management, labor, equipment, and
information resources across a number of clients.
47
Contract Warehouses.
Although it is common for contract warehouse
operators to share resources across clients in the
same industry such as grocery products, it is not
common that direct competitors will want to share
resources.
Contract warehouse operators are also expanding
the scope of their services to include other logistics
activities such as transportation, inventory control,
order processing, customer service, and returns
processing.
48
Contract Warehouses.
For example, Rich Products, a frozen food
manufacturer in Buffalo, New York, has increasingly
utilized contract warehousing.
Since 1992, Rich has had a long term commitment
with a refrigerated warehousing and distribution
company, Christian Salvesen, for storage, handling,
and distribution services at its facilities in New York.
The nature of the arrangement benefits both parties
and allows Rich to expand its distribution network
without incurring any fixed facility cost.
49
Contract Warehouses.
Rich is assured that there will always be storage
space for its products.
Christian Salvesen doesn't have to be concerned
with filling space in its warehouses and can focus on
providing service.
Moreover, the longer Rich Products utilizes Christian
Salvesen's services, the better the contract
warehousing firm will be able to understand Rich's
business needs and provide customized services.
50
Warehousing Strategy
Many firms utilize a combination of private, public,
and contract facilities.
A private or contract facility may be used to cover
basic year round requirements, while public facilities
are used to handle peak seasons.
Ìn other situations, central warehouses may be
private, while market area or field warehouses are
public facilities.
Each use of warehouse combinations will be
discussed now.
51
Warehousing Strategy.
Full warehouse utilization throughout a year is a
remote possibility.
As a planning rule, a warehouse designed for full-
capacity utilization will in fact be fully utilized between
75 and 85 percent of the time.
Thus from 15 to 25 percent of the time, the space
needed to meet peak requirements is not utilized.
Ìn such situations, it may be more efficient to build
private facilities to cover the 75 percent requirement
and use public facilities to accommodate peak
demand.
52
Warehousing Strategy.
Ìt may be more efficient to build private facilities to cover the 75
percent requirement and use public facilities to accommodate
peak demand.
53
Warehousing Strategy.
The second form of combined public warehousing
may result from market requirements.
A firm may find that private warehousing is justified at
specific locations on the basis of distribution volume.
Ìn other markets, public facilities may be the least-
cost option.
Ìn logistical system design the objective is to
determine whatever combination of warehouse
strategies most economically meets customer service
objectives.
54
Warehousing Strategy.
An integrated warehouse strategy focuses on two
questions.
The fir8t concerns how many warehouses should be
employed.
The 8econd question concerns which warehouse
types should be used to meet market requirements.
For many firms, the answer is a combination that can
be differentiated by customer and product.
Specifically, some customer groups may be served
best from a private warehouse, while a public
warehouse may be appropriate for others.
55
Warehousing Strategy.
Other qualitative factors that should be considered
include:
(1) presence synergies,
(2) industry synergies,
(3) operating flexibility,
(4) location flexibility, and
(5) scale economies.
Each consideration and its rationale will be discussed.
56
Presence synergies
Pre8ence 8ynergie8 refer to the marketing benefits
of having inventory located nearby in a building that
is clearly affiliated with the enterprise (e.g., the
building has the firm's name on the door).
Ìt is widely thought that customers are more
comfortable when suppliers maintain inventory in
nearby locations.
Products and customers that benefit from local
presence should be served from private or contract
facilities.
57
Industry synergies
Indu8try 8ynergie8 refer to the operating benefits of
collocating with other firms serving the same industry.
For example, firms in the grocery business often
receive substantial benefits when they share public
warehouse facilities with other suppliers serving the
same industry.
Reduced transportation cost is the major benefit
since joint use of the same public warehouse allows
frequent delivery of consolidated loads from multiple
suppliers.
Public and contract warehousing increase the
potential for industry synergy.
58
Operating Ilexibility
O5er,ting fIexi-iIity refers to the ability to adjust
internal policies and procedures to meet product and
customer needs.
Since private warehouses operate under the
complete control of the enterprise, they are usually
perceived to demonstrate more operating flexibility.
On the other hand, a public warehouse often employs
policies and procedures that are consistent across its
clients to minimize operating confusion.
There are many public and contract warehouse
operations that have demonstrated substantial
flexibility and responsiveness.
59
Location Ilexibility
Loc,tion fIexi-iIity refers to the ability to quickly
adjust warehouse location and number in accordance
with seasonal or permanent demand changes.
For example, in-season demand for agricultural
chemicals requires that warehouses be located near
markets that allow customer pickup.
Outside the growing season, however, these local
warehouses are unnecessary.
Thus, the desirable strategy is to be able to open and
close local facilities seasonally.
Public and contract warehouses offer the location
flexibility to accomplish such requirements.
60
Scale economies
Sc,Ie econo2ie8 refer to the ability to reduce
material-handling and storage through application of
advanced technologies.
High-volume warehouses generally have greater
opportunity to achieve these benefits because they can
spread technology's fixed cost over larger volumes.
Ìn addition, capital investment in automated equipment
can reduce direct variable cost.
Public and contract warehouses are generally
perceived to offer better scale economies since they
are able to design operations and facilities to meet
higher volumes of multiple clients.
61
Qualitative Decision Factors
Presence synergy and Operating flexibility is higher in Private
Warehouses.
Other factors are higher in Public Warehouses.
62
Planning the Distribution Warehouse
The initial decisions of warehousing are related to
planning.
A master plan of the layout, space requirements, and
material-handling design should be developed first
and a specific site for the warehouse selected.
These decisions establish the character of the
warehouse, which, in turn determines the degree of
attainable handling efficiency.
63
Site Selection
Location analysis techniques are available to assist in
selecting a general area for warehouse location.
Once location analysis is completed, a specific
building site must be selected.
Three areas in a community may be considered for
location:
1) commercial zones, 2) outlying areas served by
motor truck only, and 3) central or downtown areas.
The primary factors in site selection are the
availability of services and cost.
The cost of procurement is the most important factor
governing site selection.
64
Site Selection.
A warehouse need not be located in a major
industrial area.
Ìn many cities, one observes warehouses among
industrial plants and in areas zoned for light or heavy
industry.
Ìnterestingly, this is not a legal necessity because
most warehouses can operate under the restrictions
placed on commercial property.
65
Site Selection.
Beyond procurement cost, setup and operating
expenses such as rail sidings, utility expenses, taxes,
insurance rates, and highway access require
evaluation.
These expenses vary between sites.
For example, a food distribution firm recently rejected
what otherwise appeared to be a totally satisfactory
site because of insurance rates.
The site was located near the end of a water main.
66
Site Selection.
During most of the day, adequate water supplies
were available to handle operational and emergency
requirements.
The only possible water problem occurred during two
short periods each day.
From 6:30 to 8:30 in the morning and from 5 to 7 in
the evening, the demand for water along the line was
so great that a sufficient supply was not available to
handle emergencies.
Because of this deficiency, abnormally high
insurance rates were required and the site was
rejected.
67
Site Selection.
Several other requirements must be satisfied
before a site is purchased.
The location must offer adequate room for
expansion.
Necessary utilities must be available.
The soil must be capable of supporting the
structure, and the site must be sufficiently
high to afford proper drainage (su akìsìna izin
verme).
68
Product-Mix Considerations
The design and operation of a warehouse are related
directly to the character of the product mix.
Each product should be analyzed in terms of annual sales,
stability of demand, weight, and packaging.
Ìt is also desirable to determine the total size and weight
of the average order processed through the warehouse.
These data provide necessary information for determining
requirements in warehouse space, design and layout,
material-handling equipment operating procedures, and
controls.
69
Expansion
Future expansion is often neglected when an
enterprise consider initial establishment of its
warehouse facilities.
Ìnclusion of a warehouse into the logistical system
should be based partially on estimated requirements
for future operations.
Well-managed organizations often establish five- to
ten-year expansion plans.
Such expansion considerations may require
purchase or option of a site three to five ti2e8 the
size of the initial structure.
70
Expansion.
Special construction is often considered to
ease expansion without seriously affecting
normal operations.
Some walls may be constructed of semi-
permanent materials to allow easy removal.
Floor areas, designed to support heavy
movements, are extended to these walls in a
manner that facilitates expansion.
71
Selection oI Material-Handling System
A material-handling system is one of the initial
considerations of warehouse planning.
Movement is the main function within a warehouse.
Consequently, the warehouse is viewed as a
structure designed to facilitate maximum product
flow.
Ìt is important to stress that the material-handling
system should be selected early in the warehouse
design stage.
72
Warehouse Layout
Layout of a warehouse depends on the proposed
material handling system and requires development
of a floor plan to facilitate product flow.
Ìt is difficult to generalize about warehouse layouts
since they must be refined to fit specific needs.
Ìf pallets are to be utilized, the first step is to
determine the pallet size.
A pallet of nonstandard size may be desirable for
specialized products, but whenever possible,
standardized pallets should be used because of their
lower cost.
73
Warehouse Layout.
The most common sizes are 40 by 48 inches and 32
by 40 inches.
Ìn general, the larger the pallet load, the lower the
cost of movement per package over a given distance.
The packages to be placed on the pallet and the
related patterns will determine, to a certain extent,
the size of pallet best suited to the operation.
Regardless of the size finally selected, management
should adopt one size for the total operation.
74
Warehouse Layout.
The second step in planning a layout involves the
pallet positioning.
The basic method of positioning pallets in a
mechanized warehouse is a ninety-degree, or
square, placement.
Square placement means that the pallet is positioned
perpendicular to the aisle.
The square method is widely used because of layout
ease.
75
Pilferage Protection
Protection against theft of merchandise has become
a major factor in warehouse operations.
Such protection is required as a result of the
increased vulnerability of firms to riots and civil
disturbances.
All normal precautions employed throughout the
enterprise should be strictly enforced at each
warehouse.
Security begins at the fence.
As standard procedure, only authorized personnel
should be permitted into the facility and surrounding
grounds and entry to the warehouse yard should be
controlled through a single gate.
76
Pilferage Protection.
Without exception, no private automobile-regardless
of management rank or customer status-should be
allowed to penetrate the yard adjacent to the
warehouse.
To illustrate the importance of the stated guidelines,
the following actual experience may be helpful.
A particular firm enforced the rule that no private
vehicles should be permitted in the warehouse yard.
Exceptions 070made 147two h,ndic,55ed office
employees.
77
Pilferage Protection.
One night af907work, one of these employees
accidentally discovered a bundle taped under one
fender of his car.
Subsequent checking revealed that the car was
literally a delivery truck.
The matter was promptly reported to security, which
informed the employee not to alter any packages
taped to the car and to continue parking inside the
yard.
Over the next several days, the situation was fully
uncovered, with the ultimate arrest and conviction of
several warehouse employees who confessed to
stealing over of company merchandise.
78
Pilferage Protection.
The firm would have been better off purchasing a
small vehicle to provide transportation 147the
handicapped employees from the regular parking lots
to the office.
Shortages are always a major consideration in
warehouse operations.
Many are honest mistakes in order selection and
shipment, but the purpose of security is to restrict
theft from all angles.
The majority of thefts occur during normal working
hours.
79
Pilferage Protection.
Computerized inventory control and order processing
systems help protect merchandise from being carried
out of the warehouse doors.
No items should be released from the warehouse
unless accompanied by a computer release
document.
Ìf samples are authorized 147use by salespersons,
the merchandise should be separate from other
inventory.
80
Pilferage Protection.
Not all pilferage occurs on an individual basis.
Numerous instances have been discovered where
organized efforts between warehouse personnel and
truck drivers resulted in deliberate over-picking or
high-for-low-value product substitution in order to
move unauthorized merchandise out of the
warehouse.
Employee rotation, total case counts, and occasional
complete line-item checks can reduce vulnerability to
such collaboration.
81
Product Deterioration
Within the warehouse, a number of factors can
reduce a product or material to a non-usable or non-
marketable state.
The most obvious form of product deterioration is
damage from careless transfer or storage.
Another major form of deterioration is non-
compatibility of products stored in the same facility.
82
Product Deterioration.
The primary concern is deterioration that results from
improper warehouse work procedures.
A constant concern is the carelessness of warehouse
employees.
Ìn this respect, the forklift truck may well be
management's worst enemy.
Regardless of how often operators are warned
against carrying overloads, some still attempt such
shortcuts when not properly supervised.
83
Product Deterioration.
Ìn one situation, a stack of four pallets was dropped
off a forklift truck at the receiving dock of a food
warehouse.
Standard procedure was to move two pallets per
load.
The value of the damaged merchandise exceeded
the average daily profit of two supermarkets.
Product deterioration from careless handling within
the warehouse is a form of loss that cannot be
insured against and constitutes a 100 percent cost
with no compensating revenue.

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