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A New Technology To Be Discovered
Presented By: JAGDEEP PANI Roll-107439 Regd.no-0701211180 Comp. Science & Engg.
what is DNA computing ?
The field of DNA computing is concerned with the possibility of performing computations using biological molecules. So DNA computer can be defined as a computer that “computes” using enzymes that react with DNA strands, causing reactions. These reactions act as a kind of simultaneous computing or parallel processing . Moore’s Law concludes our requirement for a successor to silicon chips.
Leonard Adleman wrote the paper “Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems”.History Began in 1994 when Dr. more than 100. Israeli scientists have devised a computer that can perform 330 trillion operations per second.000 times the speed of the fastest PC. Adleman first solved a 7-point hamiltonian problem using bio-molecules. .
Instead of showing up on a computer screen. There is no mechanical device. results are analyzed using a technique that allows scientists to see the length of the DNA output molecule.STEPS IN DNA COMPUTING Here DNA is taken as software and enzymes as hardware. They are put together in a test tube. the DNA computer looks like clear water solution in a test tube. . The scientists tell the devices what to do by controlling the composition of the DNA software molecules. To the naked eye. A trillion bio-molecular devices could fit into a single drop of water. The way in which these molecules undergo chemical reactions with each other allows simple operations to be performed as a byproduct of the reactions.
COPYING . . REPAIRING as basic suite operations which allows it to perform even complex calculations.DNA Parallelism FAST DNA is modified biochemically by a variety of operational proteins called ENZYMES DNA has CUTTING. Enzymes work over many DNA molecules simultaneously providing DNA Parallelism.PASTING .
. Successfully tested on animals.Advantages Biological computer developed that could be used to fight cancers. ‘Designer DNA’ identifies abnormal and is attracted to it. The Designer molecule then releases chemicals to inhibit its growth or even kill the malignant cells.
One cm3 of DNA can hold approximately 10 terabytes of data. One pound of DNA has the capability to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. Excellent for NP-complete problems such as the Knight problem and the Travelling Salesman problem. It is a cheap resource.Advantages Continued… DNA computers can be made many times smaller than today's computers. DNA computer the size of a teardrop would be more powerful than the worlds most powerful supercomputer . DNA computers are massively parallel in their computation.
When many copies of the replication enzymes are allowed to work on DNA in parallel. machines that approach computation in a different way from ordinary computers for the purpose of solving a different class of problems.the number of DNA strands increases exponentially (2^n after n iterations). instructions are handled sequentially. are non-von Neuman. basically repeats the same "fetch and execute cycle" over and over again. what happens after each replication is finished .DNA vs. A von Neumann machine. SILICON In the basic von Neumann architecture computer. . which is what all modern CPUs are. however. DNA computers.
DNA computer moved from test tube to gold plates .
Used in gene analysis.First practical DNA computer unveiled in 2002. .
TRAVELLING SALESMAN ALGORITHM A hypothetical salesman tries to find a route through a set of cities so that he visits each city only once Chicago Destination Atlanta Detroit Boston Adleman’s Experiment .
Select itineraries with correct number of cities. the method based on Adleman’s experiment would be as follows: Generate all possible routes. .Specifically. Select itineraries that contain each city only once. Select itineraries that start with a proper city & end with the final city.
2) Encode itineraries by connecting the city sequences for which routes exist City Encoding Synthesizing short single stranded DNA by DNA SYNTHESIZER .PART I: Generate all possible routes STRATEGY: 1) Encode city names in short DNA sequences.
PART I: Generate all possible routes STRATEGY: 1) Encode city names in short DNA sequences. 2) Encode itineraries by connecting the city sequences for which routes exist Route Encoding Atlanta ACTT GCAG Atlanta Boston Atlanta to Boston GCAGTCGG GCAG TCGG Boston TCGG ACTG Hybridized DNA .
Output of Stage I GGCTATGT Chicago ACTTGCAG Source Atlanta CCGAGCAA Detroit Destination Boston TCGGACTG .
PART II : Select itineraries that start and end with the correct cities STRATEGY : Selectively copy & amplify only selection of DNA that start with Atlanta & ends with Detroit . START PRIMER GCAG ACTTGCAG Atlanta Source END PRIMER GGCT CCGAGCAA Detroit Destination Technique used is POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) Allows to produce many copies of a specific sequence of DNA .
VOLTAGE .PART III : Select itineraries that contain the correct no. GEL slows down DNA passing through it at different rates depending on it’s lengthProducing BANDS Technique used is: GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Used to resolve size of DNA Long DNA Short DNA . of cities STRATEGY: Sort the DNA by length & select the DNA whose length equals to four cities + VOLTAGE DNA Starts here Gel Matrix Generally DNA is –vely charged molecule but with constant charge density.
PART IV : Select itineraries that have a complete set of cities STRATEGY: Successively filter the DNA molecule by city. one city at a time TGAACGTC AGCCTGAC CCGATACA GGCTCGTT ACTTGCAG TCGGACTG GGCTATGT CCGAGCAA ATLANTA to BOSTON BOSTON to CHICAGO CHICAGO to DETROIT Technique used is: AFFINITY PURIFICATION Uses HYBRIDIZATION of DNA .
Molecules are attatched to iron balls.Affinity Purification Uses multiple copies of DNA molecule that encodes complementary name of a city. Magnet is placed to attract the annealed molecules towards the side of test tube. . Those molecules that contained the desired city’s name will anneal to the given molecules.
at most 10^14 bits space. One cubic centimeter of DNA soup could store as much as 10^21 bits of information.DNA Computers Vs Classical Computers DNA-based computers slow at individual operations can do billions of operations simultaneously Classical computers fast at individual operations can do substantially fewer operations simultaneously can provide huge memory in small smaller memory. setting up a problem may involve considerable preparations DNA is sensitive to chemical deterioration setting up only requires keyboard input electronic data are vulnerable but can be backed up easily .
As of now. the DNA computer can only perform rudimentary functions. but it's not universal. and it has no practical applications. and its implications are only beginning to be explored. "Our computer is programmable." said Shapiro.Limitations DNA computing is in its infancy. "There are computing tasks it inherently can't do." .
for example. It can't. it can only answer yes or no to a question. The device can check whether a list of zeros and ones has an even number of ones. Also. .Limitations Continued…. correct a misspelled word.
automation. automata and lots of other things that haven’t even been invented yet. and miniaturization. Perhaps it wont be used to play games or surf the web– things that traditional computers are good at—but it certainly might be used in the study of logic. The future of DNA manipulation is speed.Conclusion DNA . . certainly has been the molecule of this century and most likely the next one. genetic programming and algorithms. encryption. the genetic code of life itself .
Some scientists predict a future where our bodies are patrolled by tiny DNA computers that monitor our well-being and release the right drugs to repair damaged or unhealthy tissue ..Conclusion Continued. In the future. there may be hybrid machines that use traditional silicon for normal processing tasks with DNA co-processors for specific tasks.
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