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PARTH KHUNADIA-11 ABHI KAPADIA-12 AKSHAY UNK R-13 HARSHI M HTA-14 DEVANSH MISTRY-15 SHYAM SHAH-16 PRATEEK SHANKAR-17 HARSH VAN-18 YASH VERMA-19(GROUP EADER)
 In enzymatic reactions.. the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. and they are converted into different molecules.e. called the products. the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates.` Enzymes (pronounced / nza mz/) are proteins that catalyze (i. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities. increase the rates of) chemical reactions. .
 This is often referred to as "the lock and key" model. However. . and it was suggested by the Nobel laureate organic chemist Emil ischer in 1894 that this was because both the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another. while this model explains enzyme specificity.` Enzymes are very specific. it fails to explain the stabilization of the transition state that enzymes achieve.
which are often direct or indirect products or substrates of the reaction catalyzed. and only a small portion of the enzyme (around 3±4 amino acids) is directly involved in catalysis. for the monomer of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. . Most enzymes are much larger than the substrates they act on. The activities of enzymes are determined by their three-dimensional structure. However. to over 2. and then carries out the reaction is known as the active site.500 residues in the animal fatty acid synthase. Diagram drawn from PDB 1MOO. which are needed for catalysis. A small number of RNA-based biological catalysts exist. Enzymes can also contain sites that bind cofactors. Some enzymes also have binding sites for small molecules. these are referred to as either RNA-enzymes or ribozymes.` ` ` in the active site. although structure does determine function. providing a means for feedback regulation. with the most common being the ribosome. predicting a novel enzyme's activity just from its structure is a very difficult problem that has not yet been solved. binds the substrate. This binding can serve to increase or decrease the enzyme's activity. The region that contains these catalytic residues. Enzymes are generally globular proteins and range from just 62 amino acid residues in size.
from where they can be recovered. . When the synthesis of these stimulating compounds exceed their requirement they are stored in cultures .` All micro organisms during their active growth phase synthesis vitamins and other growth ±stimulating compounds. Man takes advantages of such activities of microorganisms and collects vitamins from them.
` ` ` ` Some of the base vitamins produced by micro organisms are:Carotene-Vitamin A Riboflavin-VitaminB2 Sarbose-Vitamin C & Vitamin B12 .
so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism. to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen).g. when administered to humans.g. fromvacca cow). destroy it. and "remember" it. see cancer vaccine). and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. which. . vaccines against cancer are also being investigated.` ` ` A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign. or therapeutic(e. The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of the term cow pox (Latin variolæ vaccinæ. adapted from the Latin vacc n-us. Vaccines can be prophylactic (e. provided them protection against smallpox.
Killed vaccines are not as effective as live vaccines. Live vaccines are usually more potent than inactivated vaccines. or instance the pertussis vaccine. These are administered by injection . These organisms are passed through chick embryos or other such media repeatedly till they lose their capacity to induce the disease fully. ` ` Activated or Killed Vaccine Certain organisms when killed by heat or chemicals and then introduced into the body induce immunity. They multiply within the host and produce more antigens. after three doses is about 80% effective in the first three years and after 12 years not at all.` ` Live Vaccines Live vaccines are prepared from live organisms. but retain the capacity to trigger off the defence mechanism. Inactivated vaccines may require two or three doses.
the toxin is called a "toxoid" ` . In these cases. Tetoxification ` Some vaccines are made from toxins.Some Processes associated with preparation of vaccines Attenuation ` To "attenuate" is to weaken a live micro-organism by ageing it or altering its growth conditions. the toxin is often treated with aluminium or adsorbed onto aluminium salts to decrease the toxin's harmful effects. After the treatment.
When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level the body begins to use fat as an energy source or gluconeogenesis. As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism. its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells). storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood. insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood. Insulin causes cells in the liver. by transfer of lipids from adipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source. for example. In addition. . muscle. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and Metabolic syndrome. which otherwise would be toxic.` ` Insulin starts the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body.
In 1923.` ` ` In 1921. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. . The first recombinant human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982. Collip. a feat accomplished in 1966 by the American worker Michael Katsoyannis and scientists in China. rederick Grant Banting and Charles H. The US ood and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939. In 1923. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely in the laboratory. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects. Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. James B. a biochemist.
insulin also Stimulates lipogenesis Diminishes lipolysis Increases amino acid transport into cells Modulates transcription Altering the cell content of numerous mRNAs Stimulates growth DNA synthesis .` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Functions of Insulin In addition to its role of regulating glucose metabolism.
and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20. .000±25.000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.` The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project with a primary goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA.
A working draft of the genome was announced in 2000 and a complete one in 2003.` The project began in 1989 and was initially headed by Ari Patrinos. with further. France. Germany. and China. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in universities and research centers from the United States. A parallel project was conducted outside of government by the Celera Corporation. the United Kingdom. head of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the U.S. which was formally launched in 1998. Department of Energy's Office of Science. . more detailed analysis still being published. Francis Collins directed the National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute efforts. The mapping of human genes is an important step in the development of medicines and other aspects of health care. Japan.
Personal Genome Project. and the laboratory mouse. JCVI. Illumina. the fruit fly. Applied Biosystems. The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion). the project has also focused on several other nonhuman organisms such as E. Several groups have announced efforts to extend this to diploid human genomes including the International HapMap Project. It remains one of the largest single investigative projects in modern science.` ` While the objective of the Human Genome Project is to understand the genetic makeup of the human species. coli. and Roche-454 . Perlegen.
or some other form of therapy. Though medical technology and clinical expertise are pivotal to contemporary medicine. typically through medication. Contemporary medicine applies health science. biomedical research. meaning the art of healing. The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina. and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease. surgery. successful face-to-face relief of actual suffering continues to require the application of ordinary human feeling and compassion.` Medicine is the science and art of healing. ` ` ` ` . It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. known in English as bedside manner.
The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs. Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century.). taxol. not only animal and plant products were used as medicine. but also human body parts and fluids. aspirin. ephedrine. medicine became more reliant upon medications. vinca alkaloids. Vaccines were discovered by Edward Jenner and The first antibiotic was arsphenamine / Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. digoxin. derived by French chemists originally from azo dyes. etc. Pharmacology developed Louis Pasteur ` . As science and technology developed.` From herbalism and many drugs are still derived from plants (atropine. hyoscine. warfarin.
with the help of biotechnology a ray of hope has emerged for treating some of these diseases. Many of these diseases are incurable and patients generally have to live with abnormalities. Most disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Some types of recessive gene disorders confer an advantage in the heterozygous state in certain environments. ` . Albinos are a result of absence of pigment melanin when the colour genes do not work properly. are due in part to genetic disorders. However. While some diseases. Dwarfism is the result of abnormal growth of genes.` A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. Genetic diseases are those diseases or abnormalities at or before birth by deformed genes. The result may be a defect in some organ or part of the body. such as cancer. they can also be caused by environmental factors. Haemophilia is caused when certain genes fail to produce blood-clotting substances.
may affect inheritance patterns.autosomal recessive. . Other genetic disorders include autosomal dominant. however. Single gene disorders can be passed on to subsequent generations in several ways.` ` A single gene disorder is the result of a single mutated gene.X-linked dominant and ylinked dominant disorders. Genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy. There are estimated to be over 4000 human diseases caused by single gene defects.
semi-solid. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues. We are going to discuss this tool which is used so extensively in the nursery business and in plant biotechnology. ` . This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid. Basically the technique consists of taking a piece of a plant (such as a stem tip. Did you ever have a plant that was so unique or so beautiful that you wished you had hundreds or thousands of them to enjoy or to sell? Plant tissue culture (micropropagation) is a technique which will do just that for us. grow roots. such as broth or agar. meristem. multiply the number of plantlets. or even a seed) and placing it in a sterile. supplies and time. It is a fascinating and useful tool which allows the rapid production of many genetically identical plants using relatively small amounts of space. node. (usually gel-based) nutrient medium where it multiplies. or multiply embryos for "artificial seed". or solid growth medium. embryo. The formulation of the growth medium is changed depending upon whether you are trying to get the plant to produce undifferentiated callus tissue.` Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. while the more specific term plant tissue culture is being named for the plants.
C. In 1913. In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph. E. Israeli. . A. establishing the basic principle of tissue culture. Steinhardt. and R. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue.` ` ` ` Historical usage In 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a section of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days.
These cells may be cells isolated from a donor organism. It provides an in vitro model of the tissue in a well defined environment which can be easily manipulated and analysed. The term tissue culture is often used interchangeably with cell culture The literal meaning of tissue culture refers to the culturing of tissue pieces. . tissue culture generally refers to the growth of cells from a tissue from a multicellular organism in vitro. i. Tissue culture is an important tool for the study of the biology of cells from multicellular organisms. explant culture. primary cells. or an immortalised cell line.` ` ` In modern usage.e.
Some species. some do not respond at all. (b) Choosing a growth medium (price.` The guidelines for preparation and the laboratory protocol provided here are given as a place to begin. concerns or related experiences to share. media ingredients are available at the grocery and health food stores.) How important are the kinds of hormones used? On limited scale. or even clones are easier to grow in culture than others. Some respond reluctantly to culture. Included with is a limited discussion of some of the many options you have as you explore micropropagation. We can discuss these in more depth if you have questions. I would be particularly interested in success and challenges you may have had or are currently having in your classroom. and many plants have never been tried. . (c) Suggestions for media preparation and sterilization. Some suggestions are given for the following (a) Selecting plant sources. There are alternatives to sterilization in a pressure cooker or an autoclave. (d) Methods for cleaning. convenience. storing and manipulating explants (plant pieces to be cultured). type of plant and purpose of the micropropagation all enter into this decision.
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