WATER STORAGE FOR FOOD SECURITY IN NEPAL

Presented By:Bishal Bhari(02) Sunil Bhattarai(03) Prakash DC(04)

Introduction
The need of water is universal Water is essentially used for drinking, irrigation, hydropower generation and for industrial use in Nepal In Nepal more than 80% of the population are involved in agriculture and 41% of GDP of nation comes from agriculture Nepal don·t receives rainfall through out the year and it receives its 80% of rainfall in monsoon(june ² september)

Out of total 14,27,000 hectares of irrigated area, 41% of irrigated land has ´year-round irrigationµ In such case water storage is the only method to intensify agricultural production Irrigation can only boost agriculture to provide food security to the nation

Need of water storage system Only 72% of population have access to basic drinking water services 225 billion cubic liters of water is available annually and only 15 billion cubic liters of water have been utilized so far An estimate suggest that by the year 2025/26 Nepal population will be 41 million and the grain requirement will be 11.45 million ton.14 million tons Expansion of land for agriculture is not the solution being a small nation with limited land . Present Nepal population is 28 million and current production in 7.

Intensifying the agriculture is the only solution which can only be achieved in present of efficient water storage system Climate change is projected to have adverse effects on water availability with overall change in precipitation pattern Monsoon in south-asia results for shorter time with increased intensity This has resulted in higher incidence with higher intensity of flood in the river basin and higher proportion of runoff .

It can further worse to reduction in groundwater recharge and then underground water storage Ground water is used for many purposes like for agriculture. drinking Absence of ground water can create water scarcity and then food scarcity in absence of water storage system .

3 crops in a year can be grown High value cash crop can also be cultivated in presence of irrigation system Thus water storage system is necessary to increase food production .Hydrograph for non-raining month is very low than raining month Nepal receives 80% of its precipitation within July to September and for the rest month water level is very low Thus farmer in the absence of irrigation system can only grow crop once a year While in present of irrigation system.

creating hydraulic head to generate power. improving river navigability and retaining sediment The storage system can include simple indigenous structure to large reservoirs with small and large dams . diverting water into a conduit or canal.Storage system Storage system are meant for impounding water and creating reservoir for several usage It can serve for raising water level.

Drip irrigartion system .

Ferro cement lined tank It can store harvested rainwater or water piped from other sources. depending on water availability and usage. It can be used for agricultural purpose. .

.Modified Thai Jar It provides water security to meet all household needs ² domestic and productive. It can also store rain water.

Irrigation in Nepal The total irrigable land of the country is estimated to be 2.000 ha receive irrigation water supply The year-round irrigation coverage is still only about 38% of the potential irrigable land About 75% of the total irrigated area is under these FMIS(Farmer Managed Irrigation System) Rest is AMIS(Agency Managed Irrigation System) .000 ha Only 1.091.178.

Deep Tubewells-AMIS The Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP) estimated the water use for irrigation with a total of 17.000 million cubic meters which is less than 8% of the country·s total water resource potential The irrigation efficiencies is around 30% in the absence of proper management . .about 200.000 ha of the irrigated area is under groundwater schemes. Shallow Tubewell(STWs)-FMIS .

.priority of the current Ninth Plan and the APP is to develop groundwater through low cost STWs and farmers· surface irrigation systems which will be managed by the users themselves.

. 1995.Irrigation status of Nepal(¶000 ha) Area and use Geographical area Cultivated area Irrigable area (including forest land) Irrigable area (exclusing forest land) Irrigable area (infrastructure developed) Year-round Monsoon Area under agency managed systems Area under agency assisted farmer managed systems Area under farmer development and farmer managed systems Mountain 5170 227 61 60 52 20 20 1 10 41 Hill 6140 1055 373 368 253 110 98 15 48 190 Terai 3410 1359 1744 1338 786 288 232 251 274 261 Total 14720 2641 2178 1766 1091 418 350 267 322 492 Source: Nepal Agriculture Perspective Plan. and Department of Irrigation Documents. 1997.

Plans. . strategy and policy by government In order to deal with the water resource government have taken the following steps Water Resource Strategy (WRS) National Water Plan (NWP) Integrated Water Resource Management 1. 2. 3.

recreational. . and eco-tourism activities amendment the existing water resource policy and legal framework water-related information systems development of regional and bi-lateral co-operation and revision and modification of exsisting institutional procedural mechanism.Water Resource Strategy (WRS) for Nepal WRS contains following 10 action programs: management water-Induced disaster management of watershed and aquatic ecosystem domestic water supply and sanitation Irrigation facilities for agriculture development of hydropower for electricity water-based cultural.

National Water Plan for Nepal (NWP) In order to operationalize WRS of Nepal.The following are the action programs contained in the NWP . a National Water Plan was developed and endorsed by the government (2005).

Management of major types of water induced disasters Improvement of water Quality and watersheds Provide safe drinking water to 100% people of Nepal Provide irrigation facilities to 100% arable land .National Water Plan (NWP) Contd.

National Water Plan (NWP) Contd. navigation and tourism Enhance inland fisheries and increase the production to 87000 MT per year Establish hydrometric stations to 370 at strategic places and disseminate the information . Develop 4000MW of hydropower Provide water to 100% industry.

guidelines. norms and standards. Restructure administrative institutions revise and improve administrative mechanism.National Water Plan (NWP) Contd Establish regional cooperation for water sharing fully Revise and refine the existing legal framework. . develop policies.

µ .IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management Nepal has adopted the system of IWRM for the efficient management of water resources It can be defined as ´a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water. land and related resources. in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

IWRM promotes participatory approach for development Sedimentation is a great challenge in water storage system Down stream users are affected by the activity of up stream users For such cases the approach of IWRM is necessary to solve the problem relating watershed .

agricultural.Thus integrated here means the integration of objectives that are not mutually exclusive water supply and water demand. environmental. and hydropower generation. industrial. water and land related issues. navigational. surface water and groundwater water quantity and water quality. different types of water uses: domestic. . recreational.

and disposal. estuaries. treatment. urban and rural water issues. meso and micro water projects and programs. macro.rivers. . and coastal waters. regional. aquifers. and ecosystems. water. municipal. and local levels. environment. water-related institutions at national. water supply and wastewater collection.

navigational. and hydropower generation needs. upstream and downstream issues and interests. environmental. all legal and regulatory frameworks relating to water. industrial. government and NGOs. not only directly from the water sector. interests of all different stakeholders. . but also from other sectors that have implications on the water sector.public and private sectors. timing of water release from the reservoirs to meet domestic. agricultural. all economic instruments that can be used for water management.

bottom-up and top-down approaches.). industry. intra-state. state. etc. and policies. energy. environment. health. national. transportation. . and international issues. both in terms of quantity and quality. and municipal water policies. interstate. regional. and international rivers. gender. water projects.national. programs. policies of all different sectors that have implications for water. centralization and decentralization. and also direct and indirect (sectors include agriculture. education.

present and future technologies. recreational. hydropower. all gender-related issues. physical. agricultural. and water development and regional development. and environmental impacts. and environmental water uses. timings of water release for municipal. climatic. navigational. beneficiaries of the projects and those who pay the costs. biological. all social groups. human. rich and poor.national and international water policies. present and future generations. .

Conclusion Water availability will never be a issue for development but its potential use will always be the limiting factor of growth Only 8% of potential water is used for the irrigation Water storage is the only method for food security in Nepal Potential use of water can bring food surplus to the nation .

Food surplus can raise the GDP of the nation Assured irrigation will tempt farmer to make maximum investment and harvest to the maximum yield Proper irrigation will raise the scope of farming and will increase the opportunity cost of farming against foreign employment .

Politician and planners should be more concerned about water services Multipurpose water project should be the national agenda Micro-irrigation system like drip irrigation system. sprinkle irrigation system should be promoted Incentives should be provided to support microirrigation system .

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Government of Nepal ´Integrated Management of Water. Ashok Singh. Forest and Land Resources in Nepal: Opportunities for Improved Livelihoodµ. 2002.R. July 2010.Refrence K. Kathmandu: Water Energy Commission Secretariat.Sharma. Hydro-Nepal. Water Resource Strategy.n35 WECS. Sabita Thapa. Dhruba Pant. Water storage for food security. 2002. Madhusudhan Bhattarai and David Molden .