Inferno

:
The Eighth Circle
( The First Four Bolgias)

The Eighth Circle
‡ Dante and Virgil are carried to the 8th Circle by a beast named Geryon ‡ The 8th Circle consists of 10 bolgias (or evil pouches) ‡ Those who are punished here are guilty of the sin of ´ordinaryµ fraud

he helps him and Dante enter the eighth circle by carrying them on his back and gliding down the cliff. with two paws and a pointed tail. . with the face ´of just a manµ. At Virgil's bidding. He dwells at the cliff between the 7th and 8th circles of Hell (the circles of violence and fraud.Who is Geryon? Geryon? ‡ A monster of three natures: human. with the body of a serpent and bestial. reptilian. respectively).

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‡ Bolgia 1: Seducers & Panderers Bolgia 2: Flatterers Bolgia 3: Simoniacs Bolgia 4: Diviners Bolgia 5: Barrators Bolgia 6: Hypocrites Bolgia 7: Thieves Bolgia 8: False Counselors Bolgia 9: Schismatics Bolgia 10: Falsifiers .

they are themselves driven by demons to march for all eternity.The First Bolgia ‡ Punished here: Panderers (pimps) and Seducers ‡ Pander . . whipped by demons ‡ Symbolism: ± just as the panderers and seducers used the passions of others to drive them to do their bidding.arrange for sexual partners for others ‡ Seduction .enticing someone astray from right behavior or an act of winning the love or sexual favor of someone ‡ Punishment: The souls of the damned march in separate lines in opposite directions.

Jason also seduce. married and then abandoned Medea .‡ Famous Entities found here: ± Venedico Caccianemico ² A poet who sold his sister to Marquis of Este ± Jason ² leader of the Argonauts who seduced and abandoned Hypsipyle.

excessive or insincere praise ‡ Punishment: The souls found here are steeped in human excrement ‡ Symbolism: The excrement represents the words that they produced ‡ Notable people found here: ± Alessio Interminei of Lucca. who belonged to a prominent Guelph family of Lucca ± Thais. a woman who told her lover that she was enormously grateful of him.The Second Bolgia ‡ Punished here: Flatterers ‡ Flattery . when really she wasn·t .

The Third Bolgia ‡ In this bolgia.The buying or selling of spiritual things. Dante expresses his condemnation of those who committed simony ‡ Simony . particularly Church offices and benefices or the medieval practice of buying and selling church positions and title ‡ Punished: Simonists or people who are guilty of trading religious offices and trafficking in church promotion .

a man who tried to buy the power of conferring the Holy Spirit .‡ Punishment: The souls are placed head-first in holes in the rock with flames burning on the soles of their feet ‡ Symbolism: The punishment resemble baptismal fonts ‡ Notable people found here: ± Pope Nicholas III. a corrupt pope ± Simon Magus.

Astrologers and Sorcerers ‡ Punishment: The souls here have their heads twisted around on their bodies backward. because they could not see ahead of them . so that they "found it necessary to walk backward.The Fourth Bolgia ‡ The souls punished here are viewed by Dante as ´practicioners of impious and unlawful arts who attempt to avert God·s designs by their predictions ‡ Punished: Diviners.

scholar and magician ± Guido Bonatti. Italian astronomer and astrologer .‡ Symbolism: Refers primarily to attempts to see into the future by forbidden means. This also symbolizes the twisted nature of magic in general ‡ Famous people found here: ± Amphiaraus ± Tiresias. a blind prophet ± Michael Scot. a mathematician.

includes every breach of trust such as stealing or sinking or deserting the ship or embezzling the cargo -the offense of vexatiously persisting in inciting lawsuits and quarrels .The Fifth Bolgia ‡ Punished: Barrators and grafters ‡ Barratry -the crime of a judge whose judgment is influenced by bribery -(maritime law) a fraudulent breach of duty by the master of a ship that injures the owner of the ship or its cargo.

the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage ‡ Punishment: Corrupt politicians (barrators) are immersed in a lake of boiling pitch.‡ Graft . the demons· spears and hooks constant grabbing and stabbing of the grafters represent the greed of the grafters . Demons called the Malebranche guard this circle. They punish the grafters by poking and stabbing them with pitchforks and hooks ‡ Symbolism: The boiling pitch represents the sticky fingers and dark secrets of their corrupt deals ± Moreover.

Pigtusk and others ‡ Notable Person found: ± Ciampolo ² a grafter. to run as the demons pursue them ‡ Additional Info: The Malebranches possess names such as Malacoda (their leader). He eventually tricks the demons and makes his escape into the pitch. Cramper. Grizzly. . for fearing the demons· deceitfulness. Crazyred. a scuffle causes two demons to fall into the pitch. Dante and Virgil take this opportunity. Hellken. He is hooked by the demons and identifies some of the grafters found in the bolgia. Curlytusk. As the demons punish more grafters along the way.‡ The Malebranches guide Virgil and Dante over the bridges to the next bolgia.

They escape the Malebranche by going down into the ditch of hypocrites ‡ Symbolism: The decent to the sixth bolgia relates to us that in trying to be good. we must all face hypocrisy in our own lives .The Broken Bridges ‡ The fears of the poets proved right when they discover that all bridges over the sixth bolgia were broken (as a result of the Harrowing of hell).

they cannot show their true appearances.Hypocrites are force to wear heavy robes and walk in circles ‡ Symbolism: Since they hid their true nature from the world. The robes show that they·re ´good on the outside but evil on the insideµ . feelings. or standards that one does not actually hold ‡ Punishment: . virtues.The Sixth Circle ‡ Punished: Hypocrites ‡ Hypocrisy . qualities. opinions.the act of persistently pretending to hold beliefs.

an order which had acquired a reputation for not living up to its vows ± Loderingo ² nobleman from the Bolognese Ghibelline family ± Caiaphas.‡ Notable People: ± Catalano and Loderingo. is also seen here. the high priest responsible for ordering Jesus crucified. members of the Jovial Friars. crucified to the ground and trampled .

he undergoes transformations of bursts into flames. who has a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders ‡ Punished: Thieves ‡ Punishment: The thieves are pursued and bitten by snakes and lizards. Cacus. their very identity becomes subject to theft here and the snake bites make them undergo various transformations . only to be revived and punished again ‡ Symbolism: Just as they stole other people's substance in life. When the sinner is bitten.The Seventh Circle ‡ The sinners here are guarded by the centuar.

‡ Notable People here: ± Vanni Fucci .exchanges shapes with the four-legged Francesco .blended with the six-legged reptile that is Cianfa ± Buoso .turned to ashes and resurrected ± Agnello .

but people who used their position to advise others to engage in fraud. ‡ Punishment: Souls here are concealed in raging flames ‡ Symbolism: The evil counselors misused the gifts given to them by God for their own evil doings. Their acts were hidden from the world and so they are hidden from all sight in Hell as they are forever consumed by flames .The Eight Bolgia ‡ Punished: Deceivers and Fraudulent Counselors ± These are not people who gave false advice.

by offering the Colonna family inside it a false amnesty.condemned here for the deception of the Trojan Horse ± Guido da Montefeltro . ‡ NOTE: Although Boniface had absolved Guido in advance for his evil advice.‡ Notable People found: ± Ulysses & Diomedes . since absolution requires contrition.he advised Pope Boniface VIII to capture the fortress of Palestrina. and a man cannot be contrite for a sin at the same time that he is intending to commit it . and then razing it to the ground after they surrendered. Dante points out the invalidity of that.

After they are cut to pieces.The Ninth Bolgia ‡ Punished: Sowers of Discord ‡ Punishment: A sword-wielding demon hacks the souls to pieces. Just so. ‡ Symbolism: They separated what God had joined. they are compelled to walk around dragging whatever they have left of themselves. they heal so that they can be tortured again. As they walk. they are cut and hacked by a demon .

cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.‡ Notable People here: ± Muhammad. and is regarded by Muslims as messenger and prophet of Allah ± Ali. as a punishment for (Dante believes) fomenting the rebellion of Henry the Young King against his father Henry II .carries around his severed head like a lantern. the founder of the religion of Islam. He is condemed by Dante for schism between Sunni and Shiite (branches of Islam) ± Bertran de Born .

impersonators.The Tenth Bolgia ‡ Punished: Falsifiers (alchemists. (falsifier of persons) . counterfeiters and perjurers) ‡ Alchemy . that eventually developed into chemistry.criminal offense of making false statements under oath (falsifiers of words) ‡ Impersonation ² the act of imitating or copying the behavior or actions of another. and of the philosopher's stone. make a copy of with the intent to deceive (falsifiers of money) ‡ Perjury . The causing of any sort of mysterious sudden transmutation.The ancient search for a universal panacea. Any elaborate transformation process or algorithm (falsifiers of things) ‡ Counterfeiting ² to forge.

the stench of the air.‡ Punishment: The falsifiers are subject to the filth of the ground. the disease of their bodies and other torments. the darkness of the sky. Some are compelled to run crazy around the bolgia and viciously attack others. land on their victim and rip them apart. They dash up. ‡ Symbolism: They are tormented by disease and other punishments as they are the ´disease of societyµ .

because his advice was false as well as evil) . rather than in Bolgia 8. as is Sinon. the Greek spy who tricked the Trojans into taking the Trojan Horse into their city (Sinon is here.‡ Notable People here: ± Potiphar's wife ² who is briefly mentioned here for her false accusation of Joseph.