# NAME : AHMAD FAREZ BIN AHMAD BAKTI MATRIX NO : AA110433 DEE 1212 : COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION 

A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic twocomponent that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. This constant of proportionality is called conductance, G. The reciprocal of the conductance is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law: law: 

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured magnitude. over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are sinking. physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. 

Practical resistors include a series inductance and a small capacitance; parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. In a low-noise highlowamplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics of a preresistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology.[1] A family of discrete resistors is technology.[1] also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

CONSTRUCTION OF RESISTOR 

Resistors are components having a stated value of RESISTANCE. Many types of resistors are used having different uses and construction. The most common types have a fixed value of resistance so are often called fixed resistors. They are shown on circuit schematic diagrams (theoretical diagrams that show how the circuit components are connected electrically, rather than what a circuit looks like physically) using one of the following symbols.  

The thin film of carbon is deposited onto a small ceramic rod.The resistive coating is spiralled away in a automatic machine until the resistance between 2 ends of the rod is as close as possible to the correct value.Metal leads and end caps are added ,the resistor is covered with an insulating coating and finally painted with coloured bands to indicate the resistor value.

COMMON TYPES OF RESISTOR
Carbon Composition Resistor 

Similar construction to Metal film resistors but generally with wider tolerance (typically +/- 5%) +/Shown here mounted on paper strips for machine insertion into printed circuit boards. Small resistors are extremely inexpensive components and are also often sold in batches of 10s or 100s in this form for easier handling.

Metal film resistors 

These resistors are made from small rods of ceramic coated with metal (such as a nickel alloy) or a metal oxide (such as tin oxide). The value of resistance is controlled firstly by the thickness of the coating layer (the thicker the layer, the lower the value of resistance). Also by a fine spiral groove cut along the rod using a laser or diamond cutter to cut the carbon or metal coating effectively into a long (spiral) strip, which forms the resistor. 

Metal film resistors can be obtained in a wide range of resistance values from a few Ohms to tens of millions of Ohms with a very small TOLERANCE. For example a typical value might be 100K ±1% or less i.e. for a stated value of 100K the actual value will be between 99K and 101K . Note that although the body colour (the colour of the laquer coating) on metal film resistors is often grey, this is not a reliable guide. Small carbon, metal and oxide resistors may be made in various body colours such as dark red, brown, blue, green, grey, cream or white.

The first band on a resistor is interpreted as the FIRST DIGIT of the resistor value.  The second band give the SECOND VALUE.  The third band is called the multiplier.  The remaining band is called the TOLERANCE band. 

QUESTION 
1.Explain

outline pane and note pane terms and the significant diffrence. : 