Principles of Wound Healing and Treatment Options

By Jacquelyn M. Sullivan, MSN, GNP, RN

Principles of Wound Healing Inflammatory Stage    Characterized by redness. pain and swelling Last approximately 4 to 5 days Initiates the healing process by stabilizing the wound through platelet activity that stops bleeding & triggers the immune response . heat.

Principles of Wound Healing Inflammatory Stage   Within 24 hours of the initial injury. monocytes and macrophages are on the scene to control bacterial growth and remove dead tissue Characteristic red color and warmth is caused by the capillary blood system increasing circulation & laying foundation for epithelial growth . neutrophils.

Principles of Wound Healing Proliferation Stage   Begins within 24 hours of the initial injury and may continue for up to 21 days It is characterized by three events:    Epithelialization Granulation Collagen synthesis .

Principles of Wound Healing Granulation  Formation of new capillaries that generate and feed new tissue Granulation tissue is the beefy red tissue that bleeds easily  .

Principles of Wound Healing Epitheliazation    Formation of an epithelial layer that seals and protects the wound from bacteria and fluid loss It is essential to have a moist environment to foster growth of this layer It is a very fragile layer that can be easily destroyed with aggressive wound irrigation or cleansing of the involved area .

Principles of Wound Healing Collagen Synthesis    Creates a support matrix for the new tissue that provides it with its strength Oxygen. iron. magnesium & protein are vital for collagen synthesis This stage is the actual rebuilding and is influenced by the overall patient condition of the wound bed . zinc. vitamin C.

Principles of Wound Healing Differentiation or Maturation     Final stage of wound healing Begins around day 21 and may continue for up to 2 years Collagen synthesis continues with eventual closure of the wound and increase in tensile strength Tensile strength reaches only about 80% of pre-injury strength .

Principles of Wound Healing Normal Age Changes       Decreased epidermal cell turnover Increased capillary fragility and reduced vascularization Reduced oxygen flow to the area Altered nutrition and fluid intake Impaired immune response Reduced dermal and subcutaneous mass .

moist wound environment with adequate circulation and oxygenation .Pressure Ulcer Management    Eliminate or minimize intrinsic and extrinsic factors of pressure ulcer development Provide nutritional support and monitor nutritional status Create and maintain a clean.

Clean Moist Wound Environment   Soap and water Removal of dead tissue and eschar on open wounds       Sharp debridement Enzymatic debridement Chemical debridement Mechanical debridement Hydrotherapy Autolysis .

Clean Moist Wound Environment  Too much moisture     Desitin/zinc oxide Copolymer starch dressings Alginates Wound VAC therapy .

Clean Moist Wound Environment  Too little moisture    Hydrogel dressing Hydrocolloid dressing Semi permeable dressing .

Evaluation of Chronic Wounds   Nutrition Treatment  If no results after two weeks. change treatment All wounds are colonized with many bacteria after 24 hours  Infection  .

Additional Treatment Options     Electrical stimulation Whirlpool Ultrasound VAC wound therapy .

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