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A Global Perspective

6
Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior

Philip Kotler Gary Armstrong Swee Hoon Ang Siew Meng Leong Chin Tiong Tan Oliver Yau Hon-Ming HonPowerPoint slides adapted by Peggy Su

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define the business market and explain how business markets differ from consumer markets 2. Identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior 3. List and define the steps in the business buyingdecision process 4. Compare the institutional and government markets and explain how institutional and government buyers make their buying decisions

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Chapter Outline
1. Business Markets 2. Business Buyer Behavior 3. Institutional and Government Markets

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Business Markets
Business buying process is the process where business buyers determine which products and services are needed to purchase and then find, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands.

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Business Markets
Business markets differ from consumer markets in: Market structure and demand Nature of the buying unit Types of decisions and the decision-making process

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Business Markets
Market Structure and Demand Fewer and larger buyers Geographic concentration Derived demand
Inelastic demand Fluctuating demand

Buyer and seller dependency

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Business Markets
Market Structure and Demand Supplier development is the systematic development of networks of supplier-partners to ensure an appropriate and dependable supply of products and materials that they will use in making their own products or resell.

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Business Buyer Behavior


A Model of Business Buyer Behavior

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Business Buyer Behavior


Marketing Stimuli Similar to consumer buying, business buying consists of the four Ps:
Product Price Place Promotion

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Business Buyer Behavior


Business buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of the organizations that buy goods and services for use in production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others. Also included are retailing and wholesaling firms that acquire goods to resell or rent to others for profit.

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Business Buyer Behavior


Marketing Stimuli Additional stimuli include major economic forces: Political Economic Technological Cultural Competitive

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Business Buyer Behavior


Buyer Responses to Marketing Stimuli Product or service choice Supplier choice Order quantities Delivery Service Payment terms

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Business Buyer Behavior


Buyer Responses to Marketing Stimuli Marketers must understand what happens within the organization and turn stimuli into purchase responses.

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Types of Buying Situations Straight rebuy Modified rebuy New task

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Types of Buying Situations
Straight rebuy is a routine purchase decision such as a reorder without any modification. Modified rebuy is a purchase decision that requires some research where the buyer wants to modify the product specification, price, terms, or suppliers. New task is a purchase decision that requires thorough research such as a new product.

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Types of Buying Situations Systems selling involves the purchase of a packaged solution from a single seller. Two-step process of selling:
Interlocking products System of production, inventory control, distribution, and other services to meet the buyers need for a smooth-running operation

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Business Buyer Behavior


Participants in the Business Buying Process The buying center is all of the individuals and units that play a role in the purchase decisionmaking process:
Users Influencers Buyers Deciders Gatekeepers
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Business Buyer Behavior


Participants in the Business Buying Process
Users are those that will use the product or service. Influencers help define specifications and provide information for evaluating alternatives. Buyers have formal authority to select the supplier and arrange terms of purchase. Deciders have formal or informal power to select and approve final suppliers. Gatekeepers control the flow of information.
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Business Buyer Behavior


Participants in the Business Buying Process The buying center provides a major challenge: Who participates in the process Their relative authority What evaluation criteria each participant uses Informal participants

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Business Buyer Behavior


Participants in the Business Buying Process Economic factors Personal factors Environmental factors Organizational factors Interpersonal factors

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Influences on Business Buyers
Economic factors: Price Service Personal factors: Emotion

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Influences on Business Buyers
Environmental factors: Demand for product Economic outlook Cost of money Resource availability Technology Culture Politics Competition

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Influences on Business Buyers
Organizational factors: Objectives Policies Procedures Structure Systems

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Business Buyer Behavior


Major Influences on Business Buyers
Interpersonal factors: Motives Perceptions Preferences Age Income Education Attitude toward risk
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Business Buyer Behavior


The Buying Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Problem recognition General need description Product specification Value analysis Supplier search Proposal solicitation Supplier selection Order-routine specifications Performance review
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Business Buyer Behavior


Problem recognition occurs when someone in the company recognizes a problem or need. Internal stimuli
Need for new product or production equipment

External stimuli
Idea from a trade show or advertising

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Business Buyer Behavior


The Buying Process
General need description describes the characteristics and quantity of the needed item. Product specification describes the technical criteria. Value analysis is an approach to cost reduction where components are studied to determined if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made with less costly methods of production.

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Business Buyer Behavior


The Buying Process Supplier search involves compiling a list of qualified suppliers. Proposal solicitation is the process of requesting proposals from qualified suppliers.

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Business Buyer Behavior


The Buying Process Supplier selection is the process when the buying center creates a list of desired supplier attributes and negotiates with preferred suppliers for favorable terms and conditions. Order-routine specifications is the final order with the chosen supplier and lists all of the specifications and terms of the purchase.

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Business Buyer Behavior


The Buying Process Performance review involves a critique of supplier performance to the purchase terms.

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Business Buyer Behavior


E-Procurement and Buying on the Internet Online purchasing Company buying sites Extranets

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Business Buyer Behavior


E-Procurement and Buying on the Internet Advantages Access to new suppliers Lowers costs Speed in order processing and delivery Share information Sales Service and support
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Business Buyer Behavior


E-Procurement and Buying on the Internet Disadvantages Can erode relationships as buyers search for new suppliers Lack of security

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Institutional and Government Markets


E-Procurement and Buying on the Internet Institutional markets consist of hospitals, nursing homes, and prisons that provide goods and services to people in their care. Characteristics
Low budgets Captive audience

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Institutional and Government Markets


Government markets tend to favor domestic suppliers and require suppliers to submit bids and normally award to the lowest bidder
Carefully monitored Affected by similar environmental factors Good credit Non-economic factors Minority suppliers Depressed suppliers Small businesses
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