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The Fundamentals

Damage Assessment

Workover & Completion Commonalities


is put into the wellbore and/or formation of some sort are run into


the well

Fundamental Acid Techniques

cleanclean-up (tubing/casing)  Matrix acidizing (sandstone or carbonates)  Acid fracturing (carbonates)

Types of Acid

Hydrochloric - HCl Hydrochloric/Hydrofluoric - HCl/HF

Organic (slower reacting less corrosive)

Acetic Formic

Powdered (acid sticks)

Sulfamic Chloroacetic

Dissolving Capability
HCL 1.84 ppg  28% HCL 3.68 ppg  9:1 mix 7.5% HCL : Acetic 1.64 ppg  9:1 mix 15% HCL : Acetic 2.48 ppg  9:1 mix 28% HCL : Acetic 3.72 ppg  10% Acetic 0.71 ppg

Acid Reaction Rate

Basic Equation
2HCl + CaCO3 p H2O + CO2 +CaCl2 o o o Water o Salt Gas
1000 1843 1040 6620 2050






Controlling Factors

Less than 500 psi


Add 20, double reaction rate 20 Subtract 20, half the reaction rate 20

Accelerate the mass transfer Flow patterns radial, linear, cylindrical

Controlling Factors

Stronger is faster (to a point)


area & volume ratio

limestone with 10 md

Matrix = large surface area (30000:1)

Natural fracture (3000:1)

Same limestone with a 0.001 natural fracture

Fracture = smaller surface area (32:1)

Same limestone with a 0.1 created fracture

Controlling Factors

composition  Surface wetting  Viscosity

Retarded Acids

acid  Mineral/organic mix  Common ion

Basic Equation
2HCl + CaCO3 p H2O + CO2 +CaCl2

Retarded Acids

acid  Mineral/organic mix  Common ion  Oil-wet barriers Oil Emulsions  High concentrations

Acid additives
Corrosion Inhibitors specify time and temperature  Surface Active Agents anionic, cationic, Surface Active gents nonionic, amphoteric

Anionic tend to water wet sand, emulsify oil in water, break water in oil emulsions, disperse clays Cationic tend to water wet carbonates, emulsify water in oil, break oil in water emulsions, flocculates clay Anionic and cationic surfactants mix like matter and anti-matter anti Nonionic tends to be the most popular surfactants

Acid Additives (cont)

NonNon-emulsifiers (acid and oil)  Chemical retarders (carbonates only)  Foamers

2 gpt < 75 F 75 3 gpt < 130 F 130 5 gpt < 200 F 200 7 gpt < 250 F 250 10 gpt < 300 F 300 13 gpt < 350 F 350

Acid Additives (cont)


(dry gas wells)

Methanol < 200 F 200 Ethanol < 300 F 300


solvents (need?)  Anti-sludge agents (asphaltic crudes Anti5-20 gpt)  Clay stabilizers

Acid Additives (cont)


sequestering agents

Iron in tubulars, scale and fomation minerals Most treatments minimum control of 1000 mpl requires 10-15 ppt sodium 10erythorbate Control severe iron concerns 5000 mpl
to 120 - 1% acetic + 50 ppt citric 120  120 to 180 - 2% acetic + 100 ppt citric or 120 180 5050-65 ppt sodium erythorbate  180 plus 50-65 ppt sodium erythorbate 180 50 60 60

Acid Additives (cont)


reducers  Gelling agents  Fluid loss additives  Diverting material

Rock salt Wax beads Oil soluble resins Benzoic acid flakes (story time)

Wellbore Clean-up Clean

Mill scale Corrosion scale Pipe dope

Pickled tubing

The Pickle Job

Minimum volume of aromatic solvent 250 gallons  Scale basis 0.1 lb/ft in 5 20# casing (or 0.003 of 5.0 sg magnetite mill scale)

400 gal/1000 5 100 gal/1000 2 7/8

The Pickle Job

15% HCl  Minimum CI  Aromatic solvent prepre-flush  No iron control

Catch return samples

Matrix Acidizing

fracture gradient  Wormholes

Size? Length? Number?


loss rate determines length, inches to feet long  Fluid loss additives  Viscosity  Not a function of reaction rate!


Sandstone Matrix Acidizing


for mud damage removal

Carbonate FLA Dehydrate bentonite clay


for stimulation (sandstone

Always at matrix rate Permeability dominates Shallow stimulation

HCl/HF Acidizing

need HCl pre-flush pre HF reacts more quickly with clays than silica  Dont use sodium, potassium or calcium salt waters for flush  Feldspar means use half strength (13.5%:1.5%)  Flush with ammonium chloride or HCl spacer

Acid Fracturing (Carbonates)


affecting penetration

Fluid loss Injection rate Fracture width


affecting conductivity

Heterogeneity Closure pressure Rock strength

Acid Fracturing Methods


controlled  Viscous fingering  Foamed acid  Overbalanced surge

Density Control

Density Control

Viscous Fingering Acid

Overbalanced Surging

Placement of unconventionally small volumes of acid in a fracture mode is not possible in a conventional mode.

k = 100 md

k = 10 md

k = 15 md

Overbalanced Surging

Placement of acid is possible with overbalanced surging even with large variances in permeability

k = 100 md

k = 10 md

k = 15 md

Carbonate Acidizing

Reasons for Carbonate Acidizing


permeability  Low permeability  Low perforation efficiency

Matrix Treatment Design

1. 2. 3. 4.



Determine fracture gradient Calculate maximum BHTP Calculate maximum allowable STP Estimate injection rate - Darcy radial Determine acid volume 50-200 50gal/ft Specify acid type, volume, rate and max pressure

Fracture Acidizing

of carbonate reservoir treatments are acid fracs  Good conductivity is the key to successful stimulation  Productivity increases of 2.5-13 fold 2.5-

Factors Affecting Fracture Geometry

Injection rate Fluid viscosity Fluid volume injected Fluid loss

Rock properties Formation fluids Formation stresses Reaction rates


Rule of Thumb for Acid Volume Fill the fracture with an acid volume of regular 15% HCl that is three times (3X) the fracture volume to be etched.

Treatment Design

the treatment  Fracturing calculations  Rock composition  Closed fracture acidizing (10-20%) (10 Treatment review

General volumes

wash/soak 10-25 gals/ft 10 Matrix acid 100-200 gals/ft 100 Acid Fracture 400-600 gals/ft 400-


Pat H. Sanderson 1-13 1#1

Stimulation Evaluation
A Look Back and Forward by Pat Handren

Prior Stimulation Model

Original perforations
16,760 16,830 85/15 split dolomite/limestone

No cooldown Reaction time ~2 min. Small radius of penetration (50(50100)

10,000 gals 15% HCl  BHT - 277F 277


Reservoir has potential!

Pat H. Sanderson 1-13 #1 1Condensate History Match

Pat Sanderson 1-13 #1
History Match on Condensate

50-60' acid frac Production Data

1000 0 0.5 1 1.5 Y ear 2 2.5 3 3.5

Relative Reaction Rates

80/20 Dolomite/ Limestone BHT - 277F 277

15% HCL

20% HCL

1 min

2 min

BHT - 177 F

32 min

40 min

Keys to Successful Acidizing


down the reservoir  Increase the fracture width  Rate dependent on pressure  Maximize penetration distance  Closed fracture acidizing  Overflush

Two Staged Acid Proposal

First stage
20,000 gals 30# gel 5,000 gals 30# borate x-linked x 20,000 gals 20% HCL

Divert with 500 bioballs  Second stage

Pump at 8-10 BPM, 8but use pressure to dictate maximum rate

15,000 gals 30# gel 5,000 gals 30# borate x-linked x 15,000 gals 20% HCL

Reduce rate & over flush

Fracture Proposal

tubing from well.  Fracture stimulate down casing @ 30 BPM using a 35# borate x-linked xsystem and 224,000# 20/40 bauxite in 2-5ppg stages. 2 Lubricate packer.  Rerun tubing.

Stimulation Comparison

No mechanical changes required. No potential for pressure related failures. Conductivity is not predictable. Lower cost.

Requires prep work Potential for early job termination (25%) Potential for pressure related failure (<5%?) Conductivity is predictable High cost/ scheduling

Cost Estimates

Book Price - $90,000 Discounted @ 40% - $54,000


Book Price - $375,000 Discounted @ 40% - $225,000 (4:1 cost ratio)

Production Results
Pat Sanderson 1-13 #1
History Match on Condensate

5 acid rac Production ata 4 8 acid rac 4 9 prop rac Results 2 acid 8 acid







Summary of Job Results


Initial acid treatment created 50-60 of half50halflength Second treatment created 200-220 of half-length 200half(~200 short of design length) and produced close to prediction for about 1.5 years. Over time the half-length has decreased due to halfclosure or recalcification to a length of 50-60 and 50is back on trend with production prior to second acid job. Conclusions: Second acid job was a huge success!

Well could benefit from a third acid job!!