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Acidizing

The Fundamentals

Damage Assessment

Workover & Completion Commonalities


 Fluid

is put into the wellbore and/or formation of some sort are run into

 Tubulars

the well

Fundamental Acid Techniques


cleanclean-up (tubing/casing)  Matrix acidizing (sandstone or carbonates)  Acid fracturing (carbonates)
 Wellbore

Types of Acid


Mineral
Hydrochloric - HCl Hydrochloric/Hydrofluoric - HCl/HF

Organic (slower reacting less corrosive)


Acetic Formic

Powdered (acid sticks)


Sulfamic Chloroacetic

Dissolving Capability
HCL 1.84 ppg  28% HCL 3.68 ppg  9:1 mix 7.5% HCL : Acetic 1.64 ppg  9:1 mix 15% HCL : Acetic 2.48 ppg  9:1 mix 28% HCL : Acetic 3.72 ppg  10% Acetic 0.71 ppg
 15%

Acid Reaction Rate

Basic Equation
2HCl + CaCO3 p H2O + CO2 +CaCl2 o o o Water o Salt Gas
1000 1843 1040 6620 2050

Gals

lbs

gals

ft3

lbs

Controlling Factors
 Pressure

Less than 500 psi


 Temperature

Add 20, double reaction rate 20 Subtract 20, half the reaction rate 20
 Velocity

Accelerate the mass transfer Flow patterns radial, linear, cylindrical

Controlling Factors
 Concentration

Stronger is faster (to a point)


 Contact
20%

area & volume ratio


limestone with 10 md

Matrix = large surface area (30000:1)




Natural fracture (3000:1)




Same limestone with a 0.001 natural fracture

Fracture = smaller surface area (32:1)




Same limestone with a 0.1 created fracture

Controlling Factors
 Formation

composition  Surface wetting  Viscosity

Retarded Acids
 Gelled

acid  Mineral/organic mix  Common ion

Basic Equation
2HCl + CaCO3 p H2O + CO2 +CaCl2

Retarded Acids
 Gelled

acid  Mineral/organic mix  Common ion  Oil-wet barriers Oil Emulsions  High concentrations

Acid additives
Corrosion Inhibitors specify time and temperature  Surface Active Agents anionic, cationic, Surface Active gents nonionic, amphoteric


Anionic tend to water wet sand, emulsify oil in water, break water in oil emulsions, disperse clays Cationic tend to water wet carbonates, emulsify water in oil, break oil in water emulsions, flocculates clay Anionic and cationic surfactants mix like matter and anti-matter anti Nonionic tends to be the most popular surfactants

Acid Additives (cont)


NonNon-emulsifiers (acid and oil)  Chemical retarders (carbonates only)  Foamers


2 gpt < 75 F 75 3 gpt < 130 F 130 5 gpt < 200 F 200 7 gpt < 250 F 250 10 gpt < 300 F 300 13 gpt < 350 F 350

Acid Additives (cont)


 Alcohol

(dry gas wells)

Methanol < 200 F 200 Ethanol < 300 F 300


 Mutual

solvents (need?)  Anti-sludge agents (asphaltic crudes Anti5-20 gpt)  Clay stabilizers

Acid Additives (cont)


 Iron

sequestering agents

Iron in tubulars, scale and fomation minerals Most treatments minimum control of 1000 mpl requires 10-15 ppt sodium 10erythorbate Control severe iron concerns 5000 mpl
to 120 - 1% acetic + 50 ppt citric 120  120 to 180 - 2% acetic + 100 ppt citric or 120 180 5050-65 ppt sodium erythorbate  180 plus 50-65 ppt sodium erythorbate 180 50 60 60

Acid Additives (cont)


 Friction

reducers  Gelling agents  Fluid loss additives  Diverting material


Rock salt Wax beads Oil soluble resins Benzoic acid flakes (story time)

Wellbore Clean-up Clean

CleanClean-up
Mill scale Corrosion scale Pipe dope

Pickled tubing

The Pickle Job


Minimum volume of aromatic solvent 250 gallons  Scale basis 0.1 lb/ft in 5 20# casing (or 0.003 of 5.0 sg magnetite mill scale)


400 gal/1000 5 100 gal/1000 2 7/8

The Pickle Job


15% HCl  Minimum CI  Aromatic solvent prepre-flush  No iron control
 

Catch return samples

Matrix Acidizing
 Below

fracture gradient  Wormholes


Size? Length? Number?

Wormholes
 Fluid

loss rate determines length, inches to feet long  Fluid loss additives  Viscosity  Not a function of reaction rate!
 28%

HCl

Sandstone Matrix Acidizing


 HCl

for mud damage removal

Carbonate FLA Dehydrate bentonite clay


 HCl/HF

for stimulation (sandstone

only!)
Always at matrix rate Permeability dominates Shallow stimulation

HCl/HF Acidizing
 Always

need HCl pre-flush pre HF reacts more quickly with clays than silica  Dont use sodium, potassium or calcium salt waters for flush  Feldspar means use half strength (13.5%:1.5%)  Flush with ammonium chloride or HCl spacer

Acid Fracturing (Carbonates)


 Factors

affecting penetration

Fluid loss Injection rate Fracture width


 Factors

affecting conductivity

Heterogeneity Closure pressure Rock strength

Acid Fracturing Methods


 Density

controlled  Viscous fingering  Foamed acid  Overbalanced surge

Density Control

Density Control

Viscous Fingering Acid

Overbalanced Surging


Placement of unconventionally small volumes of acid in a fracture mode is not possible in a conventional mode.

k = 100 md

k = 10 md

k = 15 md

Overbalanced Surging


Placement of acid is possible with overbalanced surging even with large variances in permeability

k = 100 md

k = 10 md

k = 15 md

Carbonate Acidizing

Reasons for Carbonate Acidizing


 Damaged

permeability  Low permeability  Low perforation efficiency

Matrix Treatment Design


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

Determine fracture gradient Calculate maximum BHTP Calculate maximum allowable STP Estimate injection rate - Darcy radial Determine acid volume 50-200 50gal/ft Specify acid type, volume, rate and max pressure

Fracture Acidizing
 Majority

of carbonate reservoir treatments are acid fracs  Good conductivity is the key to successful stimulation  Productivity increases of 2.5-13 fold 2.5-

Factors Affecting Fracture Geometry




Injection rate Fluid viscosity Fluid volume injected Fluid loss

Rock properties Formation fluids Formation stresses Reaction rates

 

Rule of Thumb for Acid Volume Fill the fracture with an acid volume of regular 15% HCl that is three times (3X) the fracture volume to be etched.

Treatment Design
 Optimize

the treatment  Fracturing calculations  Rock composition  Closed fracture acidizing (10-20%) (10 Treatment review

General volumes
 Acid

wash/soak 10-25 gals/ft 10 Matrix acid 100-200 gals/ft 100 Acid Fracture 400-600 gals/ft 400-

Questions???

Pat H. Sanderson 1-13 1#1


Stimulation Evaluation
A Look Back and Forward by Pat Handren

Prior Stimulation Model




Original perforations
16,760 16,830 85/15 split dolomite/limestone

Problems
No cooldown Reaction time ~2 min. Small radius of penetration (50(50100)

10,000 gals 15% HCl  BHT - 277F 277


 

Positives
Reservoir has potential!

Pat H. Sanderson 1-13 #1 1Condensate History Match


Pat Sanderson 1-13 #1
History Match on Condensate
10000

50-60' acid frac Production Data

1000 0 0.5 1 1.5 Y ear 2 2.5 3 3.5

Relative Reaction Rates


80/20 Dolomite/ Limestone BHT - 277F 277

15% HCL

20% HCL

1 min

2 min

BHT - 177 F

32 min

40 min

Keys to Successful Acidizing


 Cool

down the reservoir  Increase the fracture width  Rate dependent on pressure  Maximize penetration distance  Closed fracture acidizing  Overflush

Two Staged Acid Proposal




First stage
20,000 gals 30# gel 5,000 gals 30# borate x-linked x 20,000 gals 20% HCL

Divert with 500 bioballs  Second stage




Pump at 8-10 BPM, 8but use pressure to dictate maximum rate

15,000 gals 30# gel 5,000 gals 30# borate x-linked x 15,000 gals 20% HCL


Reduce rate & over flush

Fracture Proposal
 Remove

tubing from well.  Fracture stimulate down casing @ 30 BPM using a 35# borate x-linked xsystem and 224,000# 20/40 bauxite in 2-5ppg stages. 2 Lubricate packer.  Rerun tubing.

Stimulation Comparison


Acidizing.
No mechanical changes required. No potential for pressure related failures. Conductivity is not predictable. Lower cost.

Fracturing
Requires prep work Potential for early job termination (25%) Potential for pressure related failure (<5%?) Conductivity is predictable High cost/ scheduling

Cost Estimates
 Acidizing

Book Price - $90,000 Discounted @ 40% - $54,000


 Fracturing

Book Price - $375,000 Discounted @ 40% - $225,000 (4:1 cost ratio)

Production Results
Pat Sanderson 1-13 #1
History Match on Condensate

5 acid rac Production ata 4 8 acid rac 4 9 prop rac Results 2 acid 8 acid

BOPM

Year

.5

.5

2.5


.5

Summary of Job Results


 

Initial acid treatment created 50-60 of half50halflength Second treatment created 200-220 of half-length 200half(~200 short of design length) and produced close to prediction for about 1.5 years. Over time the half-length has decreased due to halfclosure or recalcification to a length of 50-60 and 50is back on trend with production prior to second acid job. Conclusions: Second acid job was a huge success!

Well could benefit from a third acid job!!