Comparing RNA to DNA



single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA molecule and carry the "message" containing instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.Types of RNA  Messenger RNA (mRNA) . cloverleaf-shaped molecules that transfer amino acid molecules to the mRNA. nucleotides. between 70 and 80  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) combines with proteins to make up the ribosome structure.small. they are the site of polypeptide synthesis. .  Transfer RNA (tRNA) .long.

mRNA .

Alanine tRNA .

Ribosome .rRNA .

Overview of protein synthesis 5¶-ATGCCTAGGTACCTATGA-3¶ 3¶-TACGGATCCATGGATACT-5¶ Transcription DNA 5¶-AUGCCUAGGUACCUAUGA-3¶ decoded as mRNA 5¶-AUG CCU AGG UAC CUA UGA-3¶ Translation N-MET-PRO-ARG-TYR-LEU-C Protein .

or triplets. but the information is the same.Protein synthesis involves two major phases: Transcription . Three-base sequences. The form is different. Translation The mRNA is "decoded" to assemble proteins in a ribosome using tRNA. on the DNA specify a particular amino acid. The language of nucleic acids (base sequence) is "translated" into the language of proteins (amino acid sequence) . The corresponding three-base sequences on mRNA are called codons.complementary mRNA is made at the DNA gene.

because it carries a genetic message from the DNA to the site of polypeptide production NOTE: DNA is also transcribed into transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).Transcription  Transcription involves synthesizing a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA  RNA is single-stranded. so only one strand of DNA is transcribed for a particular gene  The RNA produced is messenger RNA (mRNA). which have different roles in the production of polypeptides .

Transcription  Transcription occurs in 3 main steps:  initiation  elongation  termination .

the gene(s) to be transcribed. RNA polymerase. and upstream from. binds DNA at a promoter site promoter is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that RNA polymerase recognizes and binds to  Promoter is near to.Transcription: Initiation  Transcription begins when an enzyme. and orients RNA polymerase in the proper direction RNA polymerase will move along DNA in the 3 5 direction .

Transcription: Elongation  RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA ~20 base pairs at a time. RNA polymerase synthesizes a single strand of RNA complementary to the strand of DNA  Nucleotides are added to the growing strand of RNA in the 5 3 direction . moving along the transcribed strand of DNA in the 3 5 direction  At same time.

Transcription: Elongation  Sequences in the DNA at the end of genes signal RNA polymerase to stop transcription mRNA transcript either falls away or is taken away by enzymes RNA polymerase unbinds  mRNA may be immediately translated (prokaryotes) or may be processed before translation (eukaryotes) .


RNA Processing .


Translation  Translation involves the transfer of the genetic code in an mRNA molecule into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide      This involves four components: mRNA ribosomes (with large and small subunits) tRNA amino acids .

codon AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU mRNA molecule . It was made in the nucleus by transcription from a DNA molecule.Translation This is a molecule of messenger RNA.

A ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum attaches to the mRNA molecule. ribosome AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .

Amino acid tRNA molecule A transfer RNA molecule arrives. UAC AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU . anticodon The three unpaired bases (anticodon) on the tRNA link up with the codon. It brings an amino acid to the first three bases (codon) on the mRNA.

Another tRNA molecule comes into place. bringing a second amino acid. Its anticodon links up with the second codon on the mRNA. UAC AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .

Peptide bond A peptide bond forms between the two amino acids. AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .

AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .The first tRNA molecule releases its amino acid and moves off into the cytoplasm.

AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon.

Another tRNA molecule brings the next amino acid into place. AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .

AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU .A peptide bond joins the second and third amino acids to form a polypeptide chain.

The polypeptide is then complete. AUGGGCUUAAAG CAGUGCACGUU . The polypeptide chain gets longer. This continues until a termination (stop) codon is reached.The process continues.

swf  http://highered.stolaf.swf  Translation http://www.html .Protein Synthesis  Transcription at/molgenetics/ at/molgenetics/ r15/animations.

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