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SSUD 11-101 UNDERSTANDING BUILDINGS

Lecturer: Harry Delinicolis Email: hdelinic@bond.edu.au

SSUD11-101 TRUSS SETOUT


WEEK 7

UNDERSTANDING BUILDINGS
Roof Shapes Truss set out begins by breaking the roof shape up into individual truss blocks. Roof lines read from the drawing assist this process:
Use ridge lines to help identify individual blocks Identify spans for each block using ridge lines and support wall locations Define block lengths using ridge lengths plus roof ends e.g. gables, hips, Dutch gables

The steps are repeated over and over until each block is defined
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Identifying Individual Blocks Ridge lines determine the span and the direction of the trusses The number of ridges usually determines the number of different truss blocks in the overall roof area (i.e. 2 ridges = 2 blocks) Start by selecting the most central ridge in the plan and/or the highest ridge when viewed in perspective or elevation. This usually identifies the block with the widest span
A

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BLOCK SPAN Once the span has been determined, translate it to lines on either side of the block (in this case, on either side of ridge line A). These lines are referred to as Pitching lines

BLOCK SPAN

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Between Blocks To make up for the missing wall, a standard girder truss must be placed across the missing link to support trusses spanning Block A

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Locating Key Trusses For Different End Types Having located standard girder trusses necessary to close of truss blocks, the next step is to locate key trusses associated with each end type, including:
Gable ends Hip ends Dutch gable ends

Each type has a key truss with a fixed location that determines the setout of other trusses in and around the end
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Setting Out Gable Ends Gable end trusses are positioned either above or immediately next to the inside of end walls Surrounding trusses are setout relative to the chosen point

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Setting Out Hip Ends The hip end is built around the Truncated Girder truss which transfers the weight of the hipped roof section to the side walls.

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HIP TRUSSES After locating the Truncated Girder, HIP TRUSSES are placed along the hip lines The top chords of these trusses pass over the Truncated Girder finishing at the apex.

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Jack trusses Are added across the mid section of the hip end Again, the top chord of these trusses passes over the Truncated Girder

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Creeper trusses spaced between the Jack, Hip and Truncated Girder trusses These trusses butt into the Hip truss and graduate in size as they progress up the hip

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STANDARD TRUNCATED TRUSS The Standard Truncated truss occurs higher up the hip -between the Truncated Girder and the first Standard Truss

Truss plan for Hip end

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Dutch Hips/Gables Dutch Hips are also called Dutch gables and are built around a special truss called a Dutch Hip Girder

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SADDLE TRUSS Join the roof planes of the two blocks thus forming a ridge line and valley lines.

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FASCIA AND GUTTERING

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Roofing Types and Profiles

Cement Roof tiles Custom Orb Roofing Steel Deck Profile Concrete Roofing Roof Gardens Other Roofing
Slate Fibre cement Aluminium Tiles Timber shingles
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Cement Roof Tiles Installation

Battens Valley Boards Fascias Gutters Barge Boards Ridge and End Capping Sarking Fixing clips and screws Lead Flashing

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Roof Lights, Skylights

Skylights add additional light to internal areas of houses. The most common varieties are dome lights and skylights.

Skylights can be added during construction or after a building is completed depending on light requirements.

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Dormer Windows These windows are used where traditional roof space is required for additional accommodation or for storage. The additional ventilation properties allow heat from the roof area to be vented.

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Windows -Glazing There are a variety of glass types available for domestic construction including: 3mm to 10mm Single glazed windows Double Glazed windows Laminated Glass Toughened Glass Smart Glass Coloured Glass Glass bricks
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Windows

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Windows

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Termite Barriers What types of termite protection are available when building your home? The three main ways are:
Use a physical termite barrier built into your home Use a chemical termite barrier Use termite resistant roof or wall frames

Physical Termite Barriers are either:


Stainless steel mesh Granulated rock

Chemical Termite Barriers are:


Spraying liquid termiticides under the concrete slab and in trenches around external perimeter of your home Reticulation of liquid termiticides through a piped system under and around your home

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Termite Barriers Physical Termite Barriers Stainless steel mesh is used to block off hidden entry by using the mesh as a flange around the pipes coming through the concrete slab and fitting mesh into the wall cavity of the perimeter of the home. Granulated stone is based on the principle that the granules are too heavy for the termites to move and thus to get through..

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The Kordon termite barrier system is one of the leading termite barrier systems within Australia today. Kordon complies with all the local council legislation requirements for termite protection. The installer will apply the kordon system after the slab has finished providing a barrier against termites.
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Chemical Termite Barriers These chemical barriers have varied degrees of toxicity that claim to either repel or kill termites and are applied in different ways: hand sprays reticulation systems, and Chemical termite barriers begin to lose their effectiveness the moment they are installed due to climatic, environmental conditions and disturbance You must re-treat your home from time to time. This means respraying, or filling up the reticulation system

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Termite Protection Systems Mesh barriers are placed between the outside wall and the internal slab and timber frame
Collars are placed around pipes which penetrate the flooring.

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External Wall Types
Masonry Walls Rendered Walls Timber Walls Stone Walls Blue / Green Board Straw Bale

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Brick Construction Brick walls can be constructed as either full brick (solid Masonry), cavity brick (as shown) or brick veneer. Face brick refers to the outer surface of the brick being exposed and presented without an surface treatment or cover with render. Bricks can be laid in a number of patterns (bonds) which offer a variety of finishes. Bricks can also be laid into arches and corbels where the brick protrudes out from the face wall to form feature effects

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Mortar Joints Most common mortar joints are: Flush Smooth finish Raked emphasises brick profiles Rolled or Struck. Flush joint is most commonly used for rendered walls where the brick bond is not visual.
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Rendered Walls Render is usually applied to brick, concrete, cement, stone or foam board surfaces but it can also be applied to earth (mud brick walls). Render can be applied as solid plaster, brushed or bagged. Surfaces need to be free of paint, dirt and organic matter (mould) as the render wont stick. In certain applications chicken wire is required to provide strength and rigidity to surfaces (straw and foam board)
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Blueboard / Foam Board Blueboard

Exterior cladding Infill s above openings General infill Lightweight Can be rendered /painted Lightweight Partial or full exterior cladding Used instead of brick/blocks Can be rendered Good insulative properties Easily cut and screwed into place Great for home handypersons
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Foam Board

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Block Walls Masonry block walls are used for a variety of construction purposes. They can be used to create retaining walls, reinforced concrete walls, infill concrete walls, fire rated walls and numerous other uses. A variety of different block profiles have been developed to assist with complex laying applications.
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Common Stone Walls

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Autoclave Aerated Concrete (AAC) AAC is a revolutionary building product which is both lightweight and easy to use. blocks and panels are accurately dimensioned Blocks are laid using adhesive to bond together AAC is water resistant but not waterproof AAC requires specific render due to porous nature of blocks AAC has excellent noise and fire resistance. However has moderate to low thermal mass
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Straw Bales are utilised in their natural state being blocks around 900L X 450W X 400H. They are placed on similar foundation material to block walls.
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Bales can be load bearing, however the best usage is as an infill product, providing excellent sound and heat insulation.
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Reconstituted weatherboards e.g. Weathertex
Made from timber fibres glued together Boards available in packs of set lengths Delivered pre-primed to improve board stability and minimise site painting Utilise clips and jointing moulds to create hidden fixings and allow board movement

Sawn weatherboards
Weatherboards are typically ship lapped or splayed overlap to keep weather out Hidden nailing possible Paint or stain finish needed for appearance/durability
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Common Sheet Claddings Plywood
Made from external grade treated plywood Grooved externally to appear like vertical weatherboards May be primer coated to improve board stability and reduce site painting Sheets lapped at joints to maintain visual consistency and provide weatherproofing

Pre-painted sheet metal


Sheets are similar in profile to roofing sheets Available in standard widths but can be ordered to specific lengths High quality factory applied paint finish

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Electrical Wiring Electrical services are placed in the frame before covering with plasterboard. Services include:

Power Lighting Sensors (lighting) Sensors (alarm) Data Communications TV / cable Home Theatre / speakers Fan and exhaust systems

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Electrical Rough-in

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Electrical Wiring Plan

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Plumbing Fit-off Taps Shower Fittings Toilets Sink connections Hot Water Service External pipe work to water tanks Test all connections an turn on water.

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Plumbing Rough-in
Various other attachments include couplings, tees, elbows, brazing tails, threaded BSP adaptors, shower sets, sink sets, crimping tools, copper rings and gauges. Polyethylene pipe designed for supplying hot and cold water. Pipes are black or green with green warning labels on rainwater fittings. Recycled water pipes are colour coded purple and should have permanent ID.

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Plumbing Approval from GCCC prior to enclosure of walls

Dual reticulation / rainwater installation

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Plasterboard

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