COMPUTERIZED PLANT LAYOUT (Group 8

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RUPESH SATISH NAPHADE (09mib034) R SANDEEP REDDY (09MIB046) SANKARANARAYANAN B (09MIB047) A.M.SARANYA (09MIB048) SHIVAM SETH (09MIB053)

‡ The basic objective of a plant layout is to ensure a smooth flow of work, material, and information through the system.

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Minimize material handling costs. Utilize space efficiently. Utilize labor efficiently. Eliminate bottlenecks. Facilitate communication and interaction between workers and their supervisors, or between workers and customers. Reduce manufacturing cycle time and customer service time Eliminate wasted or redundant movement. Facilitate the entry, exit, and placement of material, products, and people. Encourage proper maintenance activities. Provide a visual control of operations or activities. Provide flexibility to adapt to changing conditions.

There are 4 basic types of layouts: ‡ Process Layout ‡ Product Layout ‡ Fixed position Layout ‡ Group Technology Layout (Combination Layout) .

Institute of Machine Tools. Belgrade. V.‡ Definition of Group Technology Group technology is the technique of identifying and bringing together related or similar parts in a production process in order to utilize the inherent economy of flow production methods. B. Solaja. Yugoslavia .

Each family would possess similar design and manufacturing characteristics. ‡ Standard process plan. ‡ Example: ‡ A plant producing 10. ‡ Lower in-process inventories.Cntd . the processing of each member of a given family would be similar. ‡ Group Technology layout is also called manufacturing cell layout.000 part numbers may be able to group the parts into 50 or 60 families. and this results in manufacturing efficiencies in the form of: ‡ Reduced set-up. . ‡ Improved tool control. ‡ Better scheduling. ‡ Hence.

Concept ‡ Many problems are similar. ‡ A manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in design and manufacturing. . thus saving time and effort. by grouping similar problems. ‡ A technique for identifying and bringing together related or similar components in order to take advantage of their similarities in the production process. a single solution can be found to a set of problems.

Conc ep t De sig n Ma n y p ro b le m s a re Similar Shapes sim ila r Gro u p Sim ilar Pro b le m s Sin g le So lu tio n o f Pro b le m s Design Families Ma n ufa c turin g Similar Manufacturing Processes Production Family One standard design One standard plus minor process plan to a modification family and modification and extension .

‡ Advantages of flow-line layout ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduces materials handling. Reduces transit times. Simplifies tasks. . ‡ Arrange machines and/or workers in accordance with the sequence of operations for a given product or service. Accommodates small amounts of work in process. enabling unskilled workers to learn task quickly.‡ Applicable to both manufacturing and non manufacturing operations. Simplifies production planning and control systems.

‡ Dependence of the whole on each part: a breakdown of one machine or absence of enough operators to staff all work stations may stop the entire line. ‡ Worker fatigue: workers may become bored by the endless repetition of simple tasks. ‡ Large investments: special-purpose equipment and duplication is required to offset lack of flexibility in timing.Cntd ‡ Disadvantages of flow-line layout ‡ Lack of process flexibility. . ‡ Lack of flexibility in timing: the product cannot flow through the line faster than the slowest task can be accomplished unless that task is performed at several stations.

‡ Under this method.Improvement type Algorithms: Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique (CRAFT) .‡ Focus on how computers can aid the facility layout process.Competitive type algorithms: Automated Layout Design Program (ALDEP) Computerized Relationship Layout Planning (CORELAP) . the layout design procedures can be classified into constructive type and algorithms and improvement type algorithms. ‡ Designer must interact with multiple design databases and provide the integration between them to translate information and ensure consistency. .

activity relationship chart ‡ Graphical information ‡ Drawing of the block plan .. i. ‡ Information in layout planning ‡ Numeric information ‡ Space required for an activity ‡ Total flow between two activities ‡ Logic information ‡ Preferences of the designer.‡ Key element of computerized layout planning is the representation and manipulation of these three types of information.e.

CRAFT ‡ Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique ‡ Developed by Armour and Buffa ‡ Most widely used than ALDEP and CORELAP ‡ The result given is not optimum in terms of minimum cost .but close to optimum in majority of applications .

2. Initial layout Flow data Cost per unit distance Fixed depatrments Area of department . 3.CRAFT procedure 1. 5. 4.

Example Present layout of the departments .

STEP 1 Cost matrix -Cij The values in above matrix represents cost per unit distance from department to department .

Fij The values in above matrix flow of items in terms of number of trips in given time .Flow Matrix .

Aij .Area of department .

2 (X4.6 .y4) = 8.Y1) = 2.Y3) = 7. ‡Consider left side of layout as Y axis and bottom as X axis (X1.STEP 2 Centorid ‡Find The centroid of each department in the initial layout.2 (X3.Y5) = 5.6 (X2.6 (X5.Y2) = 2.

STEP 3 Distance -dij ‡Find Distance between the two departments by formula dij = |Xi-Xj|+|Yi-Yj| We get the distances as shown below .

TCij Total cost = ™™fij*dij*cij .STEP 4 Total Cost .

STEP 5 Departmental interchanges Consider various departmental interchanges for improvement Interchanges possible are given below ± ‡Departments having common border ‡Departments having equal area For each interchnage the associated total cost matrix is calculated .

y4) = 8.Y1) = 2.6 (X3.6 (X5.Consider interchange between 1 and 2 New centorid after interchange will be (X1.2 (X2.6 New Distance matrix is as shown below Total Cost = 205 .Y2) = 2.Y5) = 5.2 (X4.Y3) = 7.

Summary of total cost due to interchange .

Step 7 ± The cost is compared with the cost of present layout Here the handling cost is 163 which is less than present cost of 205 Hence it is accepted .Step 6 ± Interchange which gives lowest handling cost is selected for actual interchange in layout.

Step 8 Final layout .

This algorithm uses the basic data on facilities and build a design by successively placing the departments in the layout and scores is computed. .(Automated Layout Design Program) It is a construction type algorithm. This algorithm is repeated for a prespecified number of times and the best is selected out of it.

Basic data required for algorithm ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Number of departments in the layout Area of each department Length and width of layout Rel-chart Minimum department preference value(MDP) Sweep width Number of iterations to be carried .

m) 12000 8000 6000 12000 8000 12000 12000 70000 .PROBLEMS 1) Number of departments in the layout=7 2) Area of departments DEPARTMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TOTAL FUNCTIONS receiving milling press screw mc assembly painting shipping AREA(sq.

5) Sweep width=2. 6) Number of iterations to be performed=2. .3) Relationship chart FROM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TO NIL E O I O U U 1 NIL U E I I U 2 NIL U U O U 3 NIL I U U 4 NIL A I 5 NIL E 6 NIL 7 4) Minimum department preference value=I=4.

m 12m*15m=180sq.m.m . The total scaled area is 175sq.m) 12000 8000 6000 12000 8000 12000 12000 70000 NO OF SQUARES 30 20 15 30 20 30 30 175 Assume one square of department =400sq.SOLUTION Area of the department DEPARTMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TOTAL AREA(sq.5m=175sq.m Or we can choose approximately 180sq.units Length and width of proposed layout are exactly a) 10m*17.

6. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2) Now classify the unselected dept base on the Rel-chart in to List A & List B .1) Randomly select a department to entre in to layout first.7) List B (1. Here let us consider 4th dep which is 30 sq.7.2.5) . List A (3.2.3. unselected dept are 1.5.units.6. where A contains dept which have relation value less than I in relation to the last selected dept and B contains dept which have value greater than I with comparison with the last selected dept.

3. so we select 1st dept which has the area of 30 sq units.5. so dept 2 is seleced Area of dept 2 is 20 sq. now the unselected dept are 1.3) Select the dept from the list B with the max REL value in relation to 4th dept.7. find the REL value for unselected dept with the 2nd dept.6) Here 1st dept has the max REL value with 2nd dept .7) List B (1.6. List A (3. .units 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 4) Now the last selected dept is 2nd .5.

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5) Similllarly for all the other dept it needs to be filled in relation with the last selected dept. after selecting all the other dept the layout will be .

the score is the sum of the Rel values of various neighboring pairs of dept in the layout.4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 3 3 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Where in the above layout 0 denotes the empty space for further use. . 6) Finally the score of the layout is computed.

if I<=N .NEIGHBOURING PAIRS OF DEPT 4-2 4-1 2-1 2-6 1-6 1-5 6-7 5-6 5-7 5-3 7-3 REL GRADE E I E I U O E A I U U TOTAL REL VALUE 16 4 16 4 0 1 16 64 4 O O 125 The score based on 2 way relationship is 250 ie(2*125) Since this is the first layout treat this as the best layout and store the corresponding score. Increment the iteration number I=I+1=2. repeat the same process again. After doing it check whether the second iteration layout is lesser than the 250 then the 1st layout will be printed as the best one. .

Weighted ratings for REL chart entries .Lee based upon Muther s algorithm ‡ INPUT REQUIREMENTS: 1. Number of departments and their area 2.Computerized Relationship Layout Planning(CORELAP) ‡ Developed by R. Closeness relationship as given by REL chart 3.C.

CORELAP(contd. ‡ The final layout may not be in rectangular in shape and little modification is required to suit the situation ..) ‡ The most critical department is placed first at the center of the layout ‡ The highest closeness relationship with the department already placed are consecutively placed.

CORELAP(contd ) CORELAP Algorithm 1. Determination of placement order 3. Placement of departments in the layout 4. Defining basic data 2. finding the total score of the layout .

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