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# Science Fair Project

## he effect of salt and suga the freezing point of wat

Question:

How the freezing point of water is affected by the presence of sugar or salt?

Hypothesis :
The freezing point of water will be lowered when sugar or salt is added .

Materials:

- 1 packet of sugar - 1 packet of salt - 800ml of distilled water - 8 test tubes - 8 beakers - 1 basin - Tap water - 1 freezer - Ice cube trays - 8 thermometers - 1 digital weighing scale - 1 black marker

Procedure :
Mix 200g of salt into in 1

liter of water and pour the solution into ice cube trays. Place the trays in a freezer, and leave overnight. The ice will be used to form an ice bath in the basin.

Frozen solution

The next day, label the 8

beakers and test tubes as Salt 0.5M, Salt 1.0M, Salt 1.5M, Salt 2.0M, Sugar 0.5M, Sugar 1.0M, Sugar 1.5M and Sugar 2.0M.

Label beakers

Continued:
Prepare 8 varieties of solution in each beaker as

described below:
a. Salt 0.5M Mix 100ml of water with 2.9g of salt : NOTE b. Salt 1.0M Mix 100ml of water with 5.8g ofSalt has a salt molar c. Salt 1.5M Mix 100ml of water with 8.7g of salt mass of . 8g per d. Salt 2.0M Mix 100ml of water with 11.6g5of salt mol . Sugar has 34g e. Sugar 0.5M Mix 100ml of water with 17g of sugar . per mol f. Sugar 1.0M Mix 100ml of water with 34g of sugar g. Sugar 1.5M Mix 100ml of water with 51g of sugar h. Sugar 2.0M Mix 100ml of water with 68g of sugar
Weigh salt Mixing

Continued:
Fill a basin with the ice cubes prepared earlier, to

## Pour the solution in each beaker

into its respective test tube to the halfway mark, or about a height of 5 cm. Place a thermometer into Fill basin with prepared each test tube. Then, place the 8 test tubes into the ice bath.

ice

Observe when the first ice crystals start to form, and record the temperature.
Test tubes in ice bath

VARIABLES :
Independent variable: the amount of salt

## Control variables: the temperature of the

environment (room temperature), the amount of solution in each test tube, and the temperature of the ice in the basin.

EXPERIMENT RESULTS
Data table: Solute used Freezing point of solution (C) L 0.5 mol 1.0 mol 1.5 mol Salt -1.9 -3.8 -5.8 Sugar -0.9 -2.0 -3.3 Graph: Freezing point for salt and sugar solution
Molar mass of salt and sugar added

2.0 mol

-7.7 -4.5

Temperature (C)

## Data Analysis/ Discussion

Solute used L Salt Sugar Freezing point of solution (C) 0.5 mol 1.0 mol 1.5 mol 2.0 mol

-1.9 -0.9

-3.8 -2.0

-5.8 -3.3

-7.7 -4.5

A t th e fre e zi g p o i t o f a p a rti l r so l ti n , th e n n cu a u o ch e m i data showslo f th e so l add more salt sta te a n d a o i d Theca l p o te n ti that as weu ti n a t l q u i and so l d sugar, w i l b e e q u a l S o l of water will a re lower to i sta te the freezing point te p a rti e s be a b l l . u cl e Fre e zi g p o i t d e p re ssi n i a co n d i o n n n o s ti d i than o n l normal freezing point o n ve rse l , w h e n sso l the i a l q u i so l n t. C (OC). y ve y n i d ve w e lve n t i in e sonid p o i o l te i u i cle n q d s th e hso re th es frea zilg sta te ,tsofua lp a rti i s l w o t e d that ve d re seo w the tha nsa m d l ve . o ti ca n ne resee y thle p .makesce g freezing e io g idrop Also we bd b i sso salt Fo l n i o f e a d point c , l n lower a so u te to th e so ve a d d i g thanlsugar does. l n t w i lre d u ce th e n l ch e m i l p o te n ti lo f th e so l ti n a n d co n se q u e n tl , ca a u o y

CONCLUSION:
The hypothesis that a higher salt or sugar content

in water will lower its freezing point has been proven to be true.
Water will normally freeze at 0 C. However,

seawater does not freeze at 0 C, as the presence of salt lowers its freezing temperature to below 0 C. The concept of freezing point depression is useful in applications where water needs to be kept liquid, especially in the use of antifreeze in combustion engines operating at freezing temperatures.

THE END
Thank you everyone

DUC