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SHARIQUE ALI ASGHAR
AL-FALAH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, HARYANA.
sanctioning of important projects of high value and for deciding all related issues. The coal reserves of India up to the depth of 1200m have been estimated by the Geological Survey of India at 247. namely.85 billion tonnes as on 1. These key functions are exercised through its public sector undertakings. lignite reserves in the country have been estimated at around 36009 million tonnes. which is a joint sector undertaking of Government of Andhra Pradesh and Government of India with equity capital in the ratio of 51:49 respectively.INTRODUCTION OF ORGANIZATION The Ministry of Coal has the overall responsibility of determining policies and strategies in respect of exploration and development of coal and lignite reserves. Coal India Limited (CIL) and Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) Limited and Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL). . most of which occur in Tamil Nadu. Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Pondicherry.2005. Gujarat. Currently. Other states where lignite deposits have been located are Rajasthan. Kerala.1.
The Railway collieries were transferred to the Coal Board in the year 1944. transportation. CCL was again re-organized in the year 1986 and two separate companies known as Northern Coalfields Limited and Mahanadi Coalfields Limited came into existence.10. At present CCL has 11 Areas. The company is also providing in direct employment to over two lakhs people in a year in loading. It has virtually brought out development in many backward areas through its mining activities. Power.f. 1 Central Workshop & 5 Regional Workshops and 2 Central Hospitals spread over in 2600 sq. 63 Mines. 01. The first coal washery in the nation was established by NCDC at Kargali in 1959.1956 with the establishment of National Coal Development Corporation with 11 State Railway Collieries with annual production of 3. civil. The Railway Board Nationalized the coal mining in 1925. Chatra and Palamu districts of Jharkhand State having Coal reserves of 33. CCL has played a major role in socio-economic growth of Jharkhand region. Fertilizer in the national and state sectors and also several private industries. (26 UG & 37 O/C). small industries. Cement. Again in the year 1975 with the re-organization of CMAL as Coal India Ltd.CCL is one of the major employers in the Nation having manpower of 70651 (35%belonging to SC/ST).539 billion tones). 7 washeries (4 Medium Coking Coal & 3 Non-coking coal). manufacturing agencies & ancillaries. The private Railway Companies started mining activities in the year 1850. construction. employment opportunities and reaching basic infrastructure to several remote and inaccessible areas. central division of CMAL was known as Central Coalfields Limited (CCL).11 MT.HISTORY Coal mining first started in India in the year 1815.023 billion tones and non-coking coal 19. NCDC become the Central Division of Coal Mines Authority Ltd. coke ovens. After nationalization of Non-Coking Coal sector in 1973. of Ranchi. Giridih. Hazaribagh.kms. .562 billion tones (Medium Coking coal 14. Coal mining through national sector first started w. Bokaro. The major consumers of CCL are Steel.e.
North Karanpura . Non-Coking Coal 19.539 B. South Karanpura. Ramgarh & Giridih) y y y y y Coal Reserves (up to 600 meters) :Medium Coking Coal 14.PRESENTLY CCL HAS y y y Number of Mines :63 Mines (26 Underground & 37 Opencast mines) y y Washeries :7 Washeries 4 Medium Coking Coal Washeries 3 Non-Coking Coal Washeries y y Workshop :1 Central Workshop 5 Regional Workshop (The Central W/S & 3 Regional W/S are ISO 9001) Operating Coalfields 6 (East Bokaro.023 B. Total Reserve 33.T. Proved y y y y y y y .West Bokaro.562 B.T.T.
Loud Hailer. message/data communication needs. message/data communication with all mines.VHF and Cables. CCL COMMUNICATION NET: y y y y y y y y y Links HQ.VHF. . The telecommunication network provides for voice. Project to Area Head Quarter through EPABX. STD/ISD/Cellular facilities are available at most of the coalfields. data and video conferencing and all coalfields and mines for speech and data. CDS. Hazaribag.ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION IN CCL: COAL NET: CCL has established excellent and highly reliable telecommunication facilities for communication with all remotely located mines. B&K. VHF radio link between Ranchi-Piparwar ² as stand by. Voice. Barka-Sayal. CIL·s proprietary communication network for inter connecting CIL with subsidiaries for speech. Kuju. Internet connectivity/e-mail established under CCL Information System. Central Workshop. various other production and support service units of CCL command area. In-mine communication of OC mines ² DTMF type W/T. Kathara. Central Stores. In-mine communication of Underground mines ² Auto-cum-manual system. Dhori. with all area offices and large mines. TDMA Communication System ² Rajrappa. Argada.
co. non-magnetic alloys are tin extensive use on coal dispatch conveyors. The following facilities are available: y Internet facility to CCL HQ and all areas.CCL INFORMATION SYSTEM: y CCL has established an information system by utilizing the service available with CMPDIL HQ. CHP and Feeder Breakers are centrally controlled by electronic circuits.inµ. Block Chute Sensors. MINING ELECTRONICS: y Activities in most of the Washeries. LAN at CCL HQ provides this facility to CCL HQ subscribers and it is extended to all areas over DMART/Leased line/ BSNL line through an RAS established at CCL HQ. non-ferrous metals. y Coal Level Indicators for monitoring bunker storage and prevention of overflow y Metal detectors for detection of ferrous.cmpdi. y In-pit crushers equipped with modern state-of-art PLC/electronic Controls. y Daily production reports from various areas are received over internet and consolidated daily production report is generated to the authorized viewers of Internet on the address ´cclprod. Belt Drift Switches extensively being used for protection .The same site also provides information regarding the status of major inventory at Central Stores and the repair status of HEMM at Central Workshop. By utilizing CMPDIL server and interconnecting CCL HQ with CMPDIL over a 2 mbps leased line CCL is getting internet and intranet facility. y Major HEMMS are controlled electronically y Electronic Ash Analyzers are being deployed for coal quality verification. y Vibration Monitors.
PBX y RABAN (Rural Automotive Business Management Network) y SCTR (Single Channel Trans Receiver) y H. .COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN EARLIER USED: CCL: SAX. For communication between area headquarters and project office MART and VSAT system is used.Talkie sets y Radio link/ Repeater y Internet y DMART (Digital Radio Access Radio Telephone) y CCL takes leased line from BSNL for communication among head office and regional offices. RAX.F (High Frequency) y AMART (Analog Multi Access Radio Telephone) CURRENTLY IN USE: y EPABX y Mini EPABX y FAX y VHF y UHF y Walkie.
CENTRAL DISPATCHER SYSTEM: y This system consists of a main line from the exchange connected with the base station fixed underground from which all telephones are connected with a two wire y connection.There is a three wire connection made underground for communication purpose. . therefore. Since all telephones are connected in series. All the telephones are connected in series with the help of two wires. The base station is the centre from where all the telephone connections are distributed to the users.UNDERGROUND COMMUNICATION: LOUD HAILING SYSTEM: y This communication system was used earlier and is not in much use now. there is no privacy in any of the calls made.
This is shown in the block diagram on next page: .AUTO CUM MANUAL SYSTEM: y This system has same features as that of Central Dispatcher System but the base station consists of interface cards as well.
channeling voice signals between the users) Disconnecting those connections as per the user's requirement Providing information for accounting purposes (e. with different manufacturers providing different features in an effort to differentiate their products. the EPABX performs four main call processing duties: Establishing connections (circuits) between the telephone sets of two users (e. metering calls) In addition to these basic functions. mapping a dialed number to a physical phone. ensuring the phone isn't already busy) Maintaining such connections as long as the users require them (i.g.e. Common capabilities include (manufacturers may have a different name for each capability): . EPABXs offer many other calling features and capabilities.g.EPABX FUNCTIONS y y y y y y Functionally.
It controls the whole exchange. . 2 MMC are required. PBC is used. It supports maximum 1536 ports. In a 1500 line system. For an exchange having more than 1000 lines. ring back tone. only one PBC is required.MAIN CONTROLLER CARD (MCC): y y y y y y y This card is the main control card of the system. there are 3 shelves. In 1024 system. busy tone etc) PERIPHRAL BOARD CONTROLLER CARD (PBC): y This card is used for communication between main shelf and peripheral shelves. DSP card performs the following functions: 16 minutes music recording External music facility 3 VSN ports for voice guidance DTMF generators and receivers MFC tone generation and decoding All tones ( dial tone. In the main shelf. MMC is inserted where as in other two shelves. One DSP card is inbuilt in this card.
FEATURE TRUNK CARD (FTC): y This card is used to terminate the analog trunk lines. Hardware for this card is same as that of FLC card. Therefore. Features provided by this card are: y DTMF receiver and dialer y Polarity reversal y FSKCLI y DTMFCLI y 16 KHz/ 12 KHz pulse generation y Integrated test and diagnostic features (ITDF) y Message waiting facility DIRECT INWARD DIALING CARD (DID): y This card is used to terminate the level of DID trunks. . The operating voltage is 48 volts. an FLC can also work as a DID card by changing its software using micro controller. It is a 24 port trunk card supporting the following features: y Polarity reversal detection y 16 KHz pulse detection y DTMF CLI detection DIGITAL COMMUNICATION CARD (DCC): y This card has 16 ports.PERIPHERAL CARDS: FEATURE LINE CARD (FLC): y It is used to provide analog lines. hence it supports 16 key phones. It is a 32 port card.
It provides 4 line FLC and trunk line facility. It has a capacity of 2 MB. It consists of 30 channels. Using this card. BOTH WAYS TRUNK CARD (BWT): y This card has 16 ports hence it supports 16 BWT lines. PRIMARY RATE INTERFACE CARD (PRI): y This card has 2 receiving and 2 transmitting ports. It has 2 transmission and 2 receiving ports.E&M CARD: y This card supports 8 E & M ports. This card supports 30 digital trunks. It consists of 30 channels. two exchanges can be tied up. . Radio link is used for this purpose. RACK PERIPHERAL BUFFER CARD (RPBC): y This card controls every rack just like MCC. This card cannot be programmed in a particular rack. DIGITAL TRUNK CARD (DTF): y This card is used to extend the lines. It is cost efficient. E1 CARD: y It is known as interface card. This card is used to generate the level DID trunks as well as to terminate them.
63mm. This transformer provides power to a full wave bridge rectifier made of 4 diodes D1. An RF cable is frequently used to connect a computer to a broadband Internet connection via cable. RF CABLE: y An RF cable is another term for coaxial cable. The output from this rectifier is smooth to 12 volts DC and 6A by the capacitor.9mm y Group twinner y Drum twister y Sheathing line y Armoring line y Jacketing line y Final testing of the wire . Manufacturing of the cable is done by: y Machine name: RBD y Input: 8mm copper rod y Output: minimum 2.4mm. RF cables can transmit more data at a faster rate than phone lines. D3 and D4. data signals and video signals.3mm. 0.POWER SUPPLY: y The power supply of this circuit consists of a transformer.5mm y Tandem line ( wire drawing insulation) y 0. 0. maximum 2. D2.This is surrounded by both an insulating layer and a conducting shield. measurement signals. These protect the cables from the elements and interference but also erode the strength and clarity of the signal. which is an electrical cable that can transmit radio frequency (RF) signals. RF cables have a wide variety of uses and can transmit radio signals. Inside an RF cable is an electrical cable that has an inner conductor.
The remote stations have corresponding subscriber line terminals in the switching system and are accessible to one of the two-way radio channels selected by a concentrator. For efficient channel utilization.MART (MULTIPLE ACCESS RADIO TELEPHONE): y y y y y A multiple access radio telephone system is connected to a telecommunication switching system and serves a group of N remote stations through M two-way radio channels (where M is smaller than N). the concentrator establishes a full-duplex mode connection between one of the corresponding subscriber line terminals of the switching system and the selected two-way radio channel in response to a request for an extra group call and establishes a half-duplex mode connection between two of the remote stations through the selected two-way radio channel in response to a request for an intragroup call. The block diagram consists of three main equipments: Subscriber Radio Equipment (SRE) Radio Base Station (RBS) Exchange Terminal Equipment (ETE) .
Radio Base Station SRE.Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange MDF. It is a combination of different equipments as shown in the diagram and defined below. The various equipments are: EPABX.y The MART system is classified into two types: y y AMART DMART AMART (ANALOG MULTIPLE ACCESS RADIO TELEPHONE) This system permits to integrate subscriber that are dispersed on wide areas or located on places with difficult access in an urban telephone network.Main Distribution Frame ETE.Subscriber Radio Equipmen UHFRADIO EPABX y y y y y y y y y y y .Ultra High Frequency RBS.Multiplexing Unit UHF.Exchange Terminal Equipment MUX.
In this system. large numbers of remote stations are connected to a central station using a single pair of Radio Frequency (RF) carriers for transmission and reception of voice and data on the time division basis.y y y y y y y y y DMART (DIGITAL MULTIPLE ACCESS RADIO TELEPHONE): It is a communication system based on TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). The system operates by using a large number of voice trunks and assigning them to various subscribers on demand. This system forms part of the telephone distribution network. it connects subscribers scattered over a large area but within a limited distance with the nearby exchange. The TDMA system provides telephone (voice) and data communication services to regions with low subscriber densities where the cost of providing cable or landline becomes high. Thus. The main components of the system are: Base Station (BS) Remote Station (RS) Repeater Station (RRS) Dropping (DI) Non Dropping (Non DI) .
The advent of communication and technology as a highly leveraged enabling tool for delivery of services in government. cooperative and private sector has now been universally recognized. corporate. It has opened up opportunities to enhance and improve on the day-to-day working processes to strengthen the monitoring of vital functional areas and decision making process.EE/07/51 AL-FALAH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY HARYANA . NAJEESH MUSTAFA ROLL NO.CONCLUSION: Communication & information technology (IT) are sweeping the globe.
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