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CH.

4 Full-wave and Threephase rectifiers (Converting AC to DC)


4-1 Introduction


 

The average current in AC source is zero in the full-wave rectifier, thus avoiding problems associated with nonzero average source currents, particularly in transformers. The output of the full-wave rectifier has inherently less ripple than the half-wave rectifier. Uncontrolled and controlled single-phase and threephase full-wave converters used as rectifiers are analyzed.

4-2 Single-phase

full-wave rectifiers

Fig. 4-1 Bridge rectifier

The lower peak diode voltage for high-voltage applications.

make

it

more

suitable

Fig. 4-2 center-tapped transformer rectifier With electrical isolation, only one diode voltage drop between the source and load, suitable for low-voltage, high-current applications

Resistive

load

Vm sin wt ,0 e wt e T v 0 ( wt ) !  Vm sin wt , T e wt e 2T
1 Vo ! T

Vm sin( wt ) d ( wt ) ! 2 Vm

Io ! Vo

! 2 Vm

(TR)

Ir s ! Im

power absorbed by the load resistor

P ! I 2r s
power factor Pf=1

R-L load

Fig.4-3

g v ( t )! o n cos( n t  T ) 0 n!2,4,
Vo ! 2 Vm T

2Vm 1 1 Vn !  T n 1 n  1

Io ! Vo

In ! Vn

Zn

Vn  jn L |

If L is relatively large, the load current is dc. ( [L >> R )


Vo 2Vm i( t ) } Io ! ! TR R Irms } Io

essentially

for [L >> R

Source harmonics are rich in the odd-numbered harmonics. Filters reducing the harmonics.

R-L source load

Fig.4-5

For continuous current operation, the only modification to the analysis that was done for R-L load is in the dc term of the Fourier series .The dc component of current in this circuit is.

2Vm  Vdc Vo  Vdc Io ! ! T R R


The sinusoidal terms in the Fourier analysis are unchanged by the dc source, provided that the current is continuous. Discontinuous current is analyzed like section 3-5.

Capacitance

output

filter:

Fig.

4-6

Assuming ideal diodes

| Vm sin wt | , one diode pair on v 0 ( wt ) ! Vm sin U e ( wt  U ) /( wRc ) , diodes off

the angle where the diodes become reverse biased, which is the same as for the half-wave rectifier and is

U ! Tan 1 ( [RC ) ! Tan 1 ( [RC )  T

wt ! T  E

Vm sin U e ( T  E U ) /( [RC ) ! Vm sin( T  E )

(sin U )e ( T E  U ) /( [RC )  sin E ! 0


E
= solved numerically for

Peak-to-peak variation(ripple)

(Vo ! Vm  | Vm sin(T  E ) |! Vm (1  sin E )

In
,

practical circuits where


2 , E }T 2

RC

"" T
wt ! T  E

U }T

minimal output voltage occurs at

v0 ( T  E ) ! Vm e

T T ( T   ) /( [RC ) 2 2

! Vm e  T /( [RC )

Vo } Vm  Vm e  T /( [RC ) ! Vm 1  e  T /( [RC ) T ! Vm 1  1  [RC VmT Vm ! ! [RC 2 fRC

A
x x2 x3 ex ! 1    ... 1 2 3 w ! 2Tf

is

half that of the half-wave rectifier.

Fig. 4-7 (a) Voltage

doubler

Fig. 4-7 (b) Dual voltage rectifier =full-wave rectifier(sw. open)+ voltage doubler(sw. closed)

L-C filtered output

Fig.4-8

C holds the output voltage at a constant level, and the L smoothes the current from rectifier and reduces the peak current in diodes.

Continuous Current

Vx ! Vo ! 2 Vm


! 2Vm
(TR)

3 VL =0 , full-wave rectified

I ! I R ! Vo

, Ic ! 0

i can be estimate from the first The variation in Ac term (n=2) in the Fourier series. The amplitude of the inductor current for n=2 is
I2 ! V2 V 4Vm / 3T 2Vm ! ! 2 ! Z 2 2[L 2[L 3T[L

where

Vn !

2Vm 1 1  , n!2 T n 1 n 1 I2 IL

For

Continuous current,

2Vm 3T[L

2Vm TR

R L" 3[

3[L "1 R

Discontinuous current When

iL
1

, is positive (

Vm sin wt ! Vo

at

wt ! E

Vo E ! sin Vm

v ! Vm sin wt  Vo
1 wt iL ( wt ) ! E ?Vm sin wt  VoAd (wt ) [L 1 ! ?Vm(cos E  cos wt )  Vo wt  E A [L for E e wt e F , F T , iL ( F ) ! 0 , F ! ?

Procedure for determining Vo (1) Estimate a Value for Vo slightly below Vm, and solve (2) Solve (3) Solve

E !?

numerically,
F

i L ( F ) ! 0 ! Vm(cos E  cos F )  Vo(F  E )

1 I L ! i L ( wt )d ( wt ) TE 1 F 1 ?Vm(cos E  cos wt )  Vo( wt  E )Ad ( wt ) ! E [L T

(4) Slove Vo=

ILR

(5) Repeat step (1)~(4) until the computed Vo in step(4) equals the estimated Vo in step(1) Output Voltage for discontinuous current is larger than for continuous current.(see Fig4-8(d))

4-3 controlled Resistive load

full-wave rectifiers Fig.4-10

1 T Vo ! Vm sin( wt )d ( wt ) T E Vm ! ( 1  cos E ) T
Io ! Vo Vm ! (1  cos E ) R TR

E ! delay

angle

I rms ! !

1 T

Vm sin wt ) 2 d ( wt ) R

Vm 1 E sin( 2E )   4T R 2 2T

The power delivered

to the load

P ! I 2 rmsR

The rms current in source is the same as the rms current in the load.

R-L load : Fig.4-11

discontinuous current :

io ( wt ) !

Vm

?sin( [t  U )  sin( E  U )e
, X!L

( [t  E ) /( [X )

for

E e [t e F

Z ! R 2  ( [L ) 2 U ! tan 1 ( [L ) R R

For

discontinuous current

E T

Analysis of the controlled full-wave rectifier operating in the discontinuous current mode is identical to that of the controlled half-wave rectifier, except that the period for the output current is T .

continuous current
wt ! T  E , i (T  E ) u 0
u0 sin(T  E  U )  sin(E  U )e  (T E E ) /([X ) sin(U  E ) 1  e T /([X ) sin( U - E ) u 0 (U -E ) u 0 [L E e U ! an ( ) R for continuous current
-1

u0
v0 ( wt ) ! Vo  Vn cos( nwt  Un)
n !1
g

Vo !

1 T

T E

Vm sin wt d ( wt ) !

2Vm cos E T

Vn ! an  bn

an ! bn !

2Vm cos( n  1)E cos( n  1)E  n 1 T n 1 2Vm sin( n  1)E sin( n  1)E  n 1 T n 1

Un ! an -1 (

 bn ) an

n ! 2,4,6,....

Fig 4-12

In ! Vn

! Vn

| R  jnw |
g

Irms ! Io 
2

n ! 2 ,4...

In 2

)2

Io ! Vo

R-L Source load

Fig.4-14

The SCRS may be turned on at any time that they are forward biased, which is at an angle

E u sin 1 (Vdc

Vm

For

continuous current case, the average bridge output voltage is

2 Vm Vo ! cos E T
average load current is Io !

Vo  Vdc R

The ac voltage terms are unchanged from the controlled rectifier with an R-L load. The ac current terms are determined from circuit. Power absorbed by the dc voltage is

dc ! Io Vdc
Power absorbed by resistor in the load is

P ! I 2 rmsR } Io 2 R if

L is l arg e

Controlled Single-phase converter operating as an seeing Fig 4-14. 4-15 .

inverter

For inverter operation, power is supplied by the dc source, and power is absorbed by the bridge and is transferred to the ac system. Vdc and Vo must be negative

00

90 0

Vo " 0

rectifier operation

90 0

180 0

Vo 0

inverter operation

bridge

ac

!  IoVo

4-4 Three-phase rectifiers Resistive load : Fig 4-16

Diode

ON

Diode

ON

Diode ON A transition of the highest line-to-line every 360 0 / 6 ! 60 0


.

voltage must take place

Because of the six transitions that occur for each period of the source voltage, the circuit is called a six-pulse rectifier. vo(t) 3

Diode turn on in the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6,1,..

ia ! i D1  i D 4 i ! i  i b D3 D6 ic ! i D 5  i D 2

Each diode conducts one-third of the time, resulting in

I D , avg !
I D , rms !
I S ,rms !

1 I o , avg 3
1 3 I o , rms

2 I o , rms 3

Apparent power from the three-phase source is

S ! 3V

 ,rms S ,rms

v 0 ( t ) ! Vo 

n n ! 6 ,12 ,18..

cos( nw0 t  T )

3Vm ,L  L 1 2T / 3 V0 ! T / 3 Vm ,L L sin wtd ( wt ) ! T T/3 ! 0.95Vm ,L  L Vn ! 6 V m ,L  L T( n  1 )


2

, n ! 6 , 12 , 18, ...

Since the output voltage is periodic with period 1/6 of the ac supply voltage, the harmonics in the output are of order 6k , k=1,2,3, Adevantage output is inherently like a dc voltage, and the highfrequency low-amplitude harmonics enable filters to be effective.

For a dc load current (constant I0) --- Fig4.17

ia !

2 3 1 1 1 1 I o (cos w0 t  cos 5w0 t  cos 7 w0 t  cos 11w0 t  cos 13w0 t .... T 5 7 11 13

which consists of terms at fundamental frequency of the ac system and harmonics of order 6k s 1, k=1,2,3, Filters(Fig.4-18) are frequently necessary to prevent harmonic currents to enter the ac system. Resonant filters for 5th and 7th harmonics. High-pass filters for higher order harmonics.

4-5 Controlled three-phase rectifiers

1 23T E Vo ! T3 E Vm,L  L sin wtd (wt ) T 3 3Vm , L  L !( ) cos E T


Harmonics for output voltage remain functions of E . seeing Fig. 4-20 of order 6k, but amplitude are

Twelve-pulse rectifiers

using two

six-pulse bridges

The purpose phase 30 0 shift This results in apart. The two

of the 9  ( transformer connection is to introduce between the source and bridge. 30 0 inputs to two bridges which are bridge outputs are similar, but also shifted by

30 0
.

The delay angles for the bridge are typically

the same.

Vo ! Vo ,Y  Vo , ( !

3Vm , L  L T

cos E 

3Vm , L  L T

cos E !

6Vm , L  L T

cos E

The peak output of the twelve-pulse converter occurs midway between alternate peaks of the six-pulse converters. Adding the voltages at that point for E ! 0r gives

Vo , peak ! 2Vm , L  L cos(15r) ! 1.932 Vm , L  L

for E ! 0r

Since a transition between conducting SCRs every 30r , there are a total of 12 such transitions for each period of the ac source. The output has harmonic frequencies which are multiple of 12 times the source fre. (12k k=1,2,)
iY (t ) ! 2 3 1 1 1 1 I o (cos w0t  cos 5 w0t  cos 7 w0t  cos 11w0t  cos 13w0t  ....) T 5 7 11 13 2 3 1 1 1 1 i( (t ) ! I o (cos w0t  cos 5 w0t - cos 7 w0t  cos 11w0t  cos 13w0t  ....) T 5 7 11 13 1 1 4 3 iac (t ) ! iY (t )  i( (t ) ! I o (cos w0t - cos 11w0t  cos 13w0t  ...) T 11 13 iac , harmonic order ! 12k s 1 , k ! 1,2,...

Cancellation of harmonics 6(2n-1) s 1 , n=1, 2, has resulted from this transformer and converter configuration.

This principle can be expanded number by incorporating increased with transformers which have the The characteristic ac harmonics pk s 1 , k=1,2,3

to arrangements of higher pulse number of six-pulse converters appropriate phase shifts. of a p-pulse converter will be

More expense for producing high-voltage transformers with appropriate phase shifts.

the

Three-phase converter operating as a inverter seeing 4-22.

The bridge output voltage Vo must be negative.

0 E 90r E

90r

, Vo " 0 - - " Rectifier

operation

180r , Vo 0 - - " Inverter operation

4-6 DC power transmission By using controlled twelve-pulse converter (generally). Used for very long distances of transmission lines. Advantages (1) (2)

XL ! 0

) XC ! g (3) Two conductors required rather than three (4) Transmission towers are smaller. (5 ) Power flow in a dc transmission line is controllable by adjustment of delay angles at the terminals. (6) Power flow can be modulated during disturbances on one of the ac system. System stability increased. (7) The two ac systems that are connected by the dc line do not need to be in synchronization.

voltage drop in lines , line loss ( 3 line current q

Disadvantages

costly ac-dc converter, filter, and control system required at each end of the line to interface with the ac system.

Fig.4-23

using six-pulse converter

Vo1 ,Vo 2

rectifier  , 0 E 90r !  , 90r E 180r inverter

For current being ripple free

Vo1  Vo 2 R 3Vm1, L  L Vo1 ! cos E 1 T 3Vm 2, L  L Vo 2 ! cos E 2 T Io !


Power supplied by the converter at terminal 1 is Power supplied by the converter at terminal 2 is
1

! Vo1 I o

! Vo 2 I o

Fig.4-24

using twelve-pulse converter (a bipolar scheme)

One of the lines is energized at  Vdc and the other is energized at - Vdc . In emergency situations, one pole of the line can operate without the other pole, with current returning through the ground path.

4-7 commutation effect of source inductance ( Single-phase bridge rectifier: Fig.4-25

Xs)

Assume that the load current is constant Io. Commutation interval starts at t= T (3 Source polarity changed )

1 [t i s ( wt ) ! T Vm sin wtd ( wt )  I o [Ls Vm ! ( 1  cos wt )  I o [Ls


Commutation is completed at t=

T +u

 Vm i( T  u ) !  I 0 ! ?  cos( T  u )A I 0 1 [Ls


=>
1

Commutation angle

2 I o [Ls 2I o X S 1 u ! cos ( 1  ) ! cos ( 1  ) Vm Vm


X S ! [Ls

Average load voltage is


V 1 T Vo ! Vm sin wt d ( wt ) ! m ( 1  cos u ) T u T 2V I X ! m (1  o s ) T Vm

Source inductance lowers the average output voltage of fullwave rectifier.

Three-phase rectifier

Fig.4-26

During Commutation from is

D1 to D3

, The voltage across La

v La

v AB Vm ,L  L sin wt ! ! 2 2
in the

Current in La starts at I0 and decreases zero commutation interval

1 T u Vm ,L  L i La ( T  u ) ! 0 ! T 2 sin wt d ( wt )  I 0 [La 2[La I 0 2X s I0 1 1 u ! cos ( 1  ) ! cos ( 1  ) Vm ,L  L Vm ,L  L

During the commutation interval from output voltage is

D1 to D3

the converter

v BC  v AC vo ! 2

v AB  vBC  vCA ! 0 ,
. .

v AB ! v AC - vBC 2

vo ! v AC  vL a  vL c ! v AC  v AB

! v AC
Average output Voltage

v AC  vBC v AC  vBC  ! 2 2

Single-phase rectifier

Vo !

3Vm ,L  L

X s I0 (1  ) Vm ,L  L

Source inductance lowers the average output voltage of threephase rectifiers.