Multiplexing is a set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link. There are three types of multiplexing: • Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) • Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) • Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

Categories of Multiplexing`

Circuit Switching: TDMA and TDMA FDMA frequency time TDMA Example: 4 users frequency time .

. The modulated carriers are combined to form a new signal that is then sent across the link. Guard bands keep the modulated signals from overlapping and interfering with one another.Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) In FDM each signal modulates a different carrier frequency. Multiplexers modulate and combine signals while demultiplexers decompose and demodulate.

each containing a narrow band of frequencies. except that the multiplexing and demultiplexing involve light signals transmitted through fiber-optic channels. A multiplexer can be made to combine several input beams of light. .Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the same as FDM. A demultiplexer can also be made to reverse the process.

DWDM principle .

) • for DWDM. Ethernet…) • known as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) when the wavelengths are close (a few nm. ATM.Wavelength Division Multiplexing • uses different wavelengths on the same fibre • is totally protocol independent (SDH. 40 or more wavelengths can be used on one fibre .

bytes.Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) In TDM. In asynchronous TDM. . or any other data unit). the time-slot order of a frame depends on which devices have to send at that time. its time slot is sent empty. If a device has no data to send. forming a frame of data (bits. digital signals from n devices are interleaved with one another. In synchronous TDM. each frame contains at least one time slot dedicated to each device. The order in which each device sends its data to the frame is unvarying. Asynchronous TDM adds device address to each time slot.

Multiplexing versus No Multiplexing .


FDM Multiplexing Process. Time Domain .

Synchronous TDM .

Framing Bits .

Asynchronous TDM .

Frequency Domain .Multiplexing.

Demultiplexing. Time Domain .

Frequency Domain .Demultiplexing.


Synchronous TDM .

Multiplexing .TDM.

TDM. Demultiplexing .

Framing Bits Interleaving In synchronous TDM. byte or any other unit) at a constant rate and in a fixed order. The switching process from device to device is known as interleaving. In a given system interleaved units will always be of the same size. each device has the opportunity to send a specified amount of data (by bit. .

Data Rate .

Asynchronous TDM .

Frames and Addresses a. Only three lines sending data .

Frames and Addresses b. Only four lines sending data .

All five lines sending data .Frames and Addresses c.

.Inverse Multiplexing Inverse multiplexing takes the data stream from one high-speed line and breaks it into portions that can be sent across several lowerspeed lines simultaneously. Inverse multiplexing splits a data stream from one high speed line onto multiple lower speed lines. with no loss in the collective data rate.

Multiplexing and Inverse Multiplexing .

Telephone Network .



Analog Switched Service .

Analog Leased Service .

Analog Hierarchy .


Switched/56 Service .

Digital Data Service (DDS)

DS Hierarchy

T Lines
T lines are standard digital telephone carriers originally designed to transmit multiplexed voice channels (after being digitized). Today, however, T lines are also used to carry data between a residence or an organization and the Internet. They provide a physical link between nodes in a switched wide area network. T lines are commercially available in two data rates: T-1 and T-3. Line Rate (Mbps) Voice Channels T-1 1.544 24 T-3 44.736 672

.T-1 Lines The data rate of a T-1 line is 1. When we use a T-1 line to connect to the Internet. Originally a T-1 line was used to multiplex 24 voice channels. This makes the frame 193 bits in length. we can use all or part of the capacity of the line to send digital data.544 Mbps. we get a data rate of 1. An extra bit added to provide synchronization.544 Mbps. Each voice channel is sampled and each sample digitized to 8 bits. By sending 8000 frames per second.

It is equivalent to 28 T-1 lines. . In other words. 28 T-1 lines can be multiplexed to obtain a T-3 line.T-3 Lines A T-3 line has a data rate of 44.736 Mbps.

The link between the user and the network is still an analog line. and multimedia. voice. Telephone companies have installed high speed wide area networks to handle communications between their central offices. DSL technology used for residential connection to Internet is asymmetric DSL (ADSL). .DSL Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a technology that uses existing telecommunication networks such as the local loop telephone lines to accomplish highspeed delivery of data. video.

ADSL divides the bandwidth of the twisted pair cable into three bands 0 to 25 kHz 25 to 200 kHz 250 kHz to 1 MHz . which means it provides higher bit rates in downstream and (from telephone central office to the user’s site) than the upstream direction.ADSL ADSL is asymmetric.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) Uses existing twisted pair lines to provide higher bit rates that are possible with unloaded twisted pairs (i.e.) . Loading coils were added within the subscriber loop to provide a flatter transfer function to further improve voice transmission within the 3kHZ band while increasing attenuation at the higher frequencies..Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Telephone companies originally transmitted within the 0 to 4kHZ range to reduce crosstalk. no loading coils on subscriber loop.

536 Mbps to 6.144Mbps asymmetric bidirectional digital transmissions [higher frequencies] users transmit upstream at speeds ranging from 64 kbps to 640 kbps 0 to 4kHZ used for conventional analog telephone signals .DSL the network transmits downstream at speeds ranging from 1.

• DMT adapts to line conditions by avoiding subchannels with poor SNR.1 ADSL standard uses Discrete Multitone (DMT) that divides the bandwidth into a large number of small subchannels. Each subchannel uses QAM.DSL • ITU-T G992. • The binary information is distributed among the subchannels. . • A splitter is required to separate voice signals from the data signal.

T-1 Line .

T-1 Frame .

Fractional T-1 Line .

Types of Multiplexing • Frequency Division • Time Division – PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) – SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) – ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) • Wavelength Division (for optical cables) .

and prone to transmission errors • every new data rate in the hierarchy needs a completely new multiplexing definition .PDH • the data sources are nominally synchronous (to within a few 10s of ppm of the nominal rate) • this makes the multiplexing process very complicated because of bit stuffing and stripping….

SDH • the data sources are precisely synchronous • the multiplexing process is relatively simple • lower data rate “tributaries” can be extracted from the data stream without total demultiplexing (and similarly for inserting a tributary) • can easily make “self-healing” rings • the specification is “future proof” .

) • for DWDM. ATM. 40 or more wavelengths can be used on one fibre . Ethernet…) • known as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) when the wavelengths are close (a few nm.Wavelength Division Multiplexing • uses different wavelengths on the same fibre • is totally protocol independent (SDH.

DWDM principle .

DWDM system .

DWDM components • • • • • • Tunable lasers Wavelength adaptors Diffraction gratings Thin film filters Bragg gratings Waveguide gratings .

SDH & DWDM combined • SDH and DWDM are complementary • SDH provides: – flexibility – resilience in case of failure • DWDM provides: – very high bandwidth CONCLUSION: BANDWIDTH IS NO LONGER A PROBLEM ON LONG-DISTANCE TRANSMISSION LINKS .

000. dual bi-directional ring with protection ring – 16 wavelengths of STM-64 per fibre pair – 2.4 Tbit/s total capacity if fully equipped • FA-1: Flag Atlantic 1 (transatlantic cable) – – – – six fibres 40 wavelengths per fibre 10 Gbit/s SDH per wavelength 2.4 Tbit/s can carry 10.4 Tbit/s total capacity if fully equipped (NB: 2.000 telephone circuits) .Examples of SDH/DWDM systems • TAT-14 (transatlantic cable) – 8 fibre.

Distribution technologies • CATV Community Access (or Cable) TV • ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network • ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line • Optical fibre .